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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Scincidae
Bibliography of the genus Oligosoma
Biodiversity of the family Scincidae








Genus
Oligosoma

New Zealand Lesser Skinks

Neuseeländische Zwergskinke

Newzealandske Dværgskinker

1857 Oligosoma Girard (type species: Tiliqua zelandica Gray 1843; see remarks)
1857 Cyclodina Girard (type species: Cyclodina aenea Girard 1857; syn. Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
1857 Hombronia Girard [not Hombronia Jacquinot & Lucas 1853 (Decapoda)] (type species: Hombronia fasciolaris Girard 1857; syn. Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
1857 Lygosomella Girard (type species: Lygosomella aestuosa Girard 1857; syn. Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
1984 Vaderscincus Wells & Wellington (type species: Mocoa lichenigera O'Shaughnessy 1874; syn. Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
1985 Girardiscincus Wells & Wellington (type species: Leiolopisma grande otagense McCann 1955, syn. Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
1985 Hardyscincus Wells & Wellington [substitute name for Hombronia Girard 1857]
1985 Robbisaurus Wells & Wellington (type species: Lygosoma suteri Boulenger 1906, syn. Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
Contents: 51 species, all of which are endemic.
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of Leiolopisma (e.g., Hardy 1977). Revalidated by Patterson & Daugherty (1995), who also designated Lygosoma moco Dumeril & Bibron 1839 as type species of the genus. This was later considered an invalid action by Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty (2009), who regarded Tiliqua zelandica Gray 1843 as the type species. Previously, Wells & Wellington (1985) had revalidated Oligosoma, but only for some species of the genus, while the remaining species were placed in another revalidated genus, Lygosomella, and in two new genera, Girardiscincus and Robbisaurus. The latter three generic names are not currently considered valid (Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009). Until recently, Cyclodina was considered a valid genus.
Distribution: Australia (Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island), New Zealand (Chatham Islands, Cook Strait Islands, North Island [incl. outlying islands (incl. Barrier Islands, Three Kings Islands, Poor Knights Islands)], South Island [incl. Barn Islands, Chalky Island, Open Bay Islands], Stewart Island).

Oligosoma acrinasum

Fiordland Skink, Littoral Skink

Fiordland-Zwergskink

Fiordland-dværgskink

1977 Leiolopisma acrinasum Hardy
Girardiscincus acrinasum Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma acrinasum Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma aeneum

New Zealand Copper Skink

Kupfer-Zwergskink

Kobber-dværgskink

1857 Cyclodina aenea Girard
Liolepisma aeneum Lucas & Frost 1897
Lygosoma aeneum Smith 1937
Leiolopisma aenea Mittleman 1952
Oligosoma aenea Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009
1857 Hombronia undosa Girard (Chapple, Patterson, Bell & Daugherty 2008)
1895 Lygosoma micans Werner (Chapple, Patterson, Bell & Daugherty 2008)
Liolepisma micans Lucas & Frost 1897
1955 Sphenomorphus pseudornatus McCann (Chapple, Patterson, Bell & Daugherty 2008)
Leiolopisma pseudornata Greer 1974
Cyclodina pseudornata Robb 1986

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of ornata (e.g., Robb 1977, 1986).
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands]).


Oligosoma alani

New Zealand Robust Skink

Robuster Zwergskink

Robust Dværgskink

1970 Leiolopisma alani Robb
Cyclodina alani Hardy 1977
Oligosoma alani Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island: outlying islands).


Oligosoma albornense

Alborn Skink

Alborn-Zwergskink

Alborn-dværgskink

2019 Oligosoma albornense Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of infrapunctatum.
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).





Oligosoma auroraensis

Eastern Speckled Skink, Hawke’s Bay Skink

Östlicher Gesprenkelter Zwergskink

Østlig Spættet Dværgskink

2019 Oligosoma auroraensis Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of infrapunctatum.
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island).





Oligosoma awakopaka

Awakopaka Skink

Awakopaka-Zwergskink

Awakopaka-dværgskink

2017 Oligosoma awakopaka Jewell

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma burganae

Burgan Skink

Burgan-Zwergskink

Burgan-dværgskink

2011 Oligosoma burganae Chapple, Bell, Chapple, Miller, Daugherty & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma chloronoton

New Zealand Green Skink

Neuseeländischer Grüner Zwergskink

Newzealandsk Grøn Dværgskink

1977 Leiolopisma chloronoton Hardy
Girardiscincus chloronoton Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma chloronoton Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island, Stewart Island).


Oligosoma elium

Marlborough Spotted Skink

Marlborough-Zwergskink

Marlborough-dværgskink

2017 Oligosoma elium Melzer, Bell & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma fallai

Three Kings Islands Skink, (Falla's Skink)

Three-Kings-Zwergskink

Three Kings-dværgskink

1955 Leiolopisma fallai McCann
Lygosomella fallai Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma fallai Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (Three Kings Islands).


Oligosoma grande

Grand Skink

Großer Zwergskink

Stor Dværgskink

1845 Mocoa grandis Gray
Lampropholis grandis Hochstetter 1863
Lygosoma grande Peters 1873
Liolepisma grande Lucas & Frost 1897
Leiolopisma grande Mittleman 1952
Girardiscincus grande Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma grande Patterson & Daugherty 1995
1872 Mocoa laxa Hutton (Hardy 1977)

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma hardyi

Poor Knights Skink, (Hardy's Skink)

Poor-Knights-Zwergskink

Poor Knights-dværgskink

2008 Cyclodina hardyi Chapple, Patterson, Bell & Daugherty
Oligosoma hardyi Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island: outlying islands: Poor Knights Islands).


Oligosoma homalonotum

Chevron Skink

Sparren-Zwergskink

Sparre-dværgskink

1906 Lygosoma homalonotum Boulenger
Leiolopisma homalonotum McCann 1955
Lygosomella homalonotum Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma homalonotum Patterson & Daugherty 1995
1977 Leiolopisma gracilicorpus Hardy (Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009)
Lygosomella gracilicorpus Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma gracilicorpus Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Other common names:
gracilicorpus: Narrow-bodied Skink
Remarks: Leiolopisma gracilicorpus is known from only a single specimen, considered to represent an extinct mainland population of homalonotum (Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009).
Distribution: New Zealand (Great Barrier Island).


Oligosoma hoparatea

Pukuma Skink, White-bellied Skink

Pukuma-Zwergskink

Pukuma-dværgskink

2018 Oligosoma hoparatea Whitaker, Chapple, Hitchmough, Lettink & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).





Oligosoma inconspicuum

Cryptic Skink

Kastanienbrauner Zwergskink

Kastaniebrun Dværgskink

1990 Leiolopisma inconspicuum Patterson & Daugherty
Oligosoma inconspicuum Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma infrapunctatum

Boulenger's Speckled Skink, (Speckled Skink, Spotted Skink)

Boulengers Gesprenkelter Zwergskink

Boulengers Spættede Dværgskink

1887 Lygosoma infrapunctatum Boulenger
Leiolopisma infrapunctata Mittleman 1952
Oligosoma infrapunctatum Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to albornense, auroraensis, newmani, robinsoni, and salmo. The species has not been seen in the wild for 130 years, it may be extinct (Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson 2019).
Distribution: # New Zealand (Cook Strait Islands, North Island, South Island).


Oligosoma judgeorum

Barrier Skink

Barrier-Zwergskink

Barrier-dværgskink

2009 Oligosoma judgei Patterson & Bell
Oligosoma judgeorum [justified emendation] Midtgaard 2019

Remarks: The original specific epithet, judgei, was corrected from singular to plural, judgeorum, to comply with Latin grammar, since the name is honouring two people, Murray and Bronwyn Judge (Midtgaard 2019).
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma kokowai

Northern Spotted Skink

Nördlicher Gefleckter Zwergskink

Nordlig Plettet Dværgskink

2017 Oligosoma kokowai Melzer, Bell & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (Cook Strait Islands [incl. North Brother Island, Stephens Island], North Island, South Island).


Oligosoma levidensum

Slight Skink

Te-Paki-Zwergskink

Te Paki-dværgskink

2008 Cyclodina levidensa Chapple, Patterson, Bell & Daugherty
Oligosoma levidensum Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island).


Oligosoma lichenigerum

Lord Howe Island Skink, Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands Skink

Lord-Howe-Zwergskink

Lord Howe-dværgskink

1874 Mocoa lichenigera O'Shaughnessy
Lygosoma lichenigerum Smith 1937
Leiolopisma lichenigera Mittleman 1952
Vaderscincus lichenigerum Wells & Wellington 1984
Pseudemoia lichenigera Cogger 1992
Oligosoma lichenigera Shea & Sadlier 1999
Cyclodina lichenigera Cogger 2000
Oligosoma lichenigerum Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009
1985 Vaderscincus coynei Wells & Wellington (Shea & Sadlier 1999)

Distribution: Australia (Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island).


Oligosoma lineoocellatum

Canterbury Spotted Skink, (New Zealand Spotted Skink)

Canterbury-Zwergskink

Canterbury-dværgskink

1851 Lygosoma lineo-ocellatum Dumeril in Dumeril & Dumeril
Liolepisma lineo-ocellatum Lucas & Frost 1897
Leiolopisma lineo-ocellatus Mittleman 1952
Oligosoma lineoocellatum Wells & Wellington 1985
1955 Leiolopisma festivum McCann (Hardy 1977)

Remarks: Now restricted to the South Island. Previously included the populations now assigned to ellum, kokowai, and prasinum (Melzer, Bell & Patterson 2017).
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma longipes

Northern Long-toed Skink, Long-toed Skink

Langzehiger Zwergskink

Langtået Dværgskink

1997 Oligosoma longipes Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma maccanni

Ranfurly Skink, (McCann's Skink)

Ranfurly-Zwergskink

Ranfurly-dværgskink

1977 Leiolopisma nigriplantare maccanni Hardy
Leiolopisma maccanni Patterson & Daugherty 1990
Oligosoma maccanni Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma macgregori

Hauraki Gulf Skink, (McGregor's Skink)

Hauraki-Zwergskink

Hauraki-dværgskink

1975 Leiolopisma macgregori Robb
Cyclodina macgregori Hardy 1977
Oligosoma macgregori Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Distribution: New Zealand (Cook Strait Islands, North Island outlying islands).


Oligosoma microlepis

Small-scaled Skink

Kleinschupfiger Zwergskink

Småskællet Dværgskink

1990 Leiolopisma microlepis Patterson & Daugherty
Oligosoma microlepis Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island).


Oligosoma moco

Moko Skink

Moko-Zwergskink

Moko-dværgskink

1839 Lygosoma moco Dumeril & Bibron
Lampropholis moco Duméril & Bibron 1861
Euprepes moco Steindachner 1869
Liolepisma moco Lucas & Frost 1897
Leiolopisma moco Mittleman 1952
Lygosomella moco Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma moco Patterson & Daugherty 1995
1845 Mocoa owenii Gray (Hardy 1977)

Remarks: Taxonomy of the species moco and zelandica has been confused (see Robb 1977).
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands]).


Oligosoma newmani

Southern Speckled Skink, (Newman’s Speckled Skink)

Südlicher Gesprenkelter Zwergskink

Sydlig Spættet Dværgskink

1985 Oligosoma newmani Wells & Wellington

Remarks: Previously regarded as a tentative synonym of infrapunctatum (e.g., Midtgaard 2019). Revalidated as a separate species by Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson (2019).
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island, Stephens Island).





Oligosoma nigriplantare

Chatham Islands Skink, Chathams Skink

Chatham-Zwergskink

Chatham-dværgskink

1873 Lygosoma nigriplantare Peters
Mocoa nigroplantaris Günther 1875
Leiolopisma nigriplantare Hardy 1977
Oligosoma nigriplantare Wells & Wellington 1985
1902 Lygosoma dendyi Boulenger (Hardy 1977)
1955 Leiolopisma turbotti McCann (Hardy 1977)

Remarks: Previously included maccanni and polychroma.
Distribution: New Zealand (Chatham Islands).


Oligosoma notosaurus

Southern Skink

Südlicher Zwergskink

Sydlig Dværgskink

1990 Leiolopisma notosaurus Patterson & Daugherty
Oligosoma notosaurus Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (Stewart Island).


Oligosoma oliveri

Marbled Skink

Marmor-Zwergskink

Marmor-dværgskink

1955 Leiolopisma oliveri McCann
Cyclodina oliveri Hardy 1977
Oligosoma oliveri Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Remarks: Previously included pachysomaticum.
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island outlying islands [incl. Poor Knights Islands]).


Oligosoma ornatum

New Zealand Ornate Skink

Pracht-Zwergskink

Pragt-dværgskink

1843 Tiliqua ornata Gray
Hinulia ornata Gray 1845
Euprepes ornatus Steindachner 1867
Lygosoma ornatum Boulenger 1887
Homolepida ornatum Lucas & Frost 1897
Sphenomorphus ornatus Mittleman 1952
Leiolopisma ornata McCann 1955
Cyclodina ornata Robb 1986
Oligosoma ornata Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Remarks: Previously included aeneum.
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands (incl. Three Kings Islands)]).


Oligosoma otagense

Giant Otago Skink, Otago Skink

Otago-Zwergskink

Otago-dværgskink

1955 Leiolopisma grande otagense McCann
Leiolopisma otagense Hardy 1977
Girardiscincus otagense Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma otagense Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Remarks: Previously included waimatense. Formerly treated as a subspecies or a synonym of grande (e.g., McCann 1955). Revalidated by Patterson (1997), although several authors (e.g., Hardy 1977; Wells & Wellington 1985; Gill 1986; Gill & Whitaker 1996) had already regarded both otagense and waimatense as separate species.
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma pachysomaticum

Coromandel Skink

Coromandel-Zwergskink

Coromandel-dværgskink

1975 Leiolopisma pachysomaticum Robb
Cyclodina pachysomaticum Robb 1986
Oligosoma pachysomaticum Jewell 2019

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of oliveri (e.g., Chapple, Patterson, Gleeson, Daugherty & Ritchie 2008). Jewell (2008) resurrected pachysomaticum as a valid species, however, this was rejected by Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty (2009). Validity supported by Jewell (2019).
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island).





Oligosoma pikitanga

Sinbad Skink

Sinbad-Zwergskink

Sinbad-dværgskink

2008 Oligosoma pikitanga Bell & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma polychroma

Northern Grass Skink, New Zealand Common Skink

Nördlicher Grasskink

Nordlig Græsskink

1990 Leiolopisma nigriplantare polychroma Patterson & Daugherty
Leiolopisma polychroma Jewell 2008

Remarks: Raised to species status by Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty (2009), although Jewell (2008) had already treated it as such.
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island, South Island, Stewart Island).


Oligosoma prasinum

Mackenzie Skink

Mackenzie-Zwergskink

Mackenzie-dværgskink

2017 Oligosoma prasinum Melzer, Bell & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma repens

Eyres Skink

Eyres-Zwergskink

Eyres-dværgskink

2011 Oligosoma repens Chapple, Bell, Chapple, Miller, Daugherty & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma robinsoni

Crenulate Skink

Nördlicher Gesprenkelter Zwergskink

Nordlig Spættet Dværgskink

1985 Oligosoma robinsoni Wells & Wellington

Remarks: Previously regarded as a tentative synonym of infrapunctatum (e.g., Midtgaard 2019). Revalidated as a separate species by Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson (2019).
Distribution: New Zealand (North Island).





Oligosoma roimata

Aorangi Skink, Poor Knights Ornate Skink

Aorangi-Zwergskink

Aorangi-dværgskink

2013 Oligosoma roimata Patterson, Hitchmough & Chapple

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island outlying islands: Poor Knights Islands).


Oligosoma salmo

Chesterfield Skink

Chesterfield-Zwergskink

Chesterfield-dværgskink

2019 Oligosoma salmo Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of infrapunctatum.
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).





Oligosoma smithii

Shore Skink, Short-tailed Skink

Küsten-Zwergskink

Kyst-dværgskink

1845 Mocoa smithii Gray
Lampropholis smithii Fitzinger 1861
Euprepes smithii Steindachner 1869
Lygosoma smithii Boulenger 1887
Liolepisma smithii Lucas & Frost 1897
Leiolopisma smithii Mittleman 1952
Lygosomella smithi Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma smithi Patterson & Daugherty 1995
1857 Lygosomella aestuosa Girard (Hardy 1977)
1872 Norbea isolata Hutton (Hardy 1977)
1955 Leiolopisma smithi numerale McCann (Hardy 1977)

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands (incl. Three Kings Islands)]).


Oligosoma stenotis

Small-eared Skink

Kleinohriger Zwergskink

Småøret Dværgskink

1994 Leiolopisma stenotis Patterson & Daugherty
Oligosoma stenotis Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (Stewart Island).


Oligosoma striatum

New Zealand Striped Skink

Gestreifter Zwergskink

Stribet Dværgskink

1871 Mocoa striata Buller
Leiolopisma striatum Hardy 1977
Oligosoma striatum Wells & Wellington 1985
1955 Leiolopisma latilinearum McCann (Hardy 1977)

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands]).


Oligosoma suteri

New Zealand Egg-laying Skink, (Diving Skink, Suter's Skink)

Eierlegender Zwergskink

Æglæggende Dværgskink

1906 Lygosoma suteri Boulenger
Leiolopisma suteri Mittleman 1952
Robbisaurus suteri Wells & Wellington 1985
Oligosoma suteri Patterson & Daugherty 1995

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands (incl. Three Kings Islands)]).


Oligosoma taumakae

Taumaka Skink, Open Bay Islands Skink

Taumaka-Zwergskink

Taumaka-dværgskink

2007 Oligosoma taumakae Chapple & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (Barn Islands, Open Bay Islands).


Oligosoma tekakahu

Te Kakahu Skink

Te-Kakahu-Zwergskink

Te Kakahu-dværgskink

2011 Oligosoma tekakahu Chapple, Bell, Chapple, Miller, Daugherty & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (Chalky Island).


Oligosoma toka

Nevis Skink

Nevis-Zwergskink

Nevis-dværgskink

2011 Oligosoma toka Chapple, Bell, Chapple, Miller, Daugherty & Patterson

Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma townsi

Hauraki Skink, Mokohinau Skink, (Towns' Skink)

Hauraki-Zwergskink

Hauraki-dværgskink

2008 Cyclodina townsi Chapple, Patterson, Gleeson, Daugherty & Ritchie
Oligosoma townsi Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island: outlying islands).


Oligosoma waimatense

Barred Scree Skink, (Scree Skink)

Gebänderter Talus-Zwergskink

Båndet Talus-dværgskink

1955 Leiolopisma grande waimatense McCann
Girardiscincus waimatense Wells & Wellington 1985
Leiolopisma waimatense Gill 1986
Oligosoma waimatense Gill & Whitaker 1996

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of otagense (e.g., Hardy 1977). Revalidated by Patterson (1997), although already Wells & Wellington (1985), Gill (1986), and Gill & Whitaker (1996) regarded otagense and waimatense as separate species, but without providing a full diagnosis.
Distribution: New Zealand (South Island).


Oligosoma whitakeri

Mercury Islands Skink, (Whitaker's Skink)

Mercury-Zwergskink

Mercury-dværgskink

1977 Cyclodina whitakeri Hardy
Oligosoma whitakeri Chapple, Ritchie & Daugherty 2009

Distribution: New Zealand (North Island [incl. outlying islands]).


Oligosoma zelandicum

Glossy Brown Skink, Brown Skink, (New Zealand Common Skink)

Glanz-Zwergskink

Glans-dværgskink

1843 Tiliqua zelandica Gray
Mocoa zelandica Gray 1845
Oligosoma zelandicum Girard 1858
Leiolopisma zelandicum Greer 1974
Oligosoma zelandica Wells & Wellington 1985

Remarks: This species was for many years referred to as Leiolopisma ornatum. In turn, the name zelandicum has been used for many years for the species now known as maccanni.
Distribution: New Zealand (Cook Strait Islands, North Island, South Island).