Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates

© Rune Midtgaard

Taxonomy of the family Dactyloidae
Bibliography of the genus Anolis
Biodiversity of the family Dactyloidae


Typical Anoles

Typische Anolis, Typische Saumfinger

Egentlige Anoler

1802 Anolis Daudin (type species: Anolius carolinensis Voigt 1832; see ICZN (1986): Opinion 1385)
1817 Anolius Cuvier [emendation]
1836 Acantholis Cocteau (type species: Anolis loysiana Dumeril & Bibron 1837; syn. Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012)
1843 Heteroderma Fitzinger (type species: Anolis loysiana Dumeril & Bibron 1837; syn. Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012)
1975 Macroleptura Garrido (type species: Anolis cyanopleurus Cope 1861; syn. Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012)
1985 Brevicaudata Varona (type species: Anolis angusticeps Hallowell 1856; syn. Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012)
1985 Gekkoanolis Varona (type species: Anolis lucius Dumeril & Bibron 1837; syn. Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012)
1985 Pseudoequestris Varona (type species: Anolis isolepis Cope 1861; syn. Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012)
Contents: 44 species, of which 43 (97.7%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included all other genera of the family: Audantia, Chamaelinorops, Ctenonotus, Dactyloa, Deiroptyx, Norops, and Xiphosurus. Several attempts to divide the genus Anolis have been made. Guyer & Savage (1986) and Savage & Guyer (1989) proposed a partition of Anolis into five genera (Anolis, Ctenonotus, Dactyloa, Norops, Semiurus), but this arrangement has been critisized (e.g., Cannatella & Queiroz 1989, Frost & Etheridge 1989, Williams 1989; Frost, Etheridge, Janies & Titus 2001; Poe 2004; Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012), although many authors accepted at least Norops as a valid genus. A couple of decades later, a new arrangement was proposed (Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012), which is followed herein, although this work has also been criticized (e.g., Poe 2013). Several authors prefer to retain all anoles in the genus Anolis, until the evolutionary history of these lizards has been fully clarified (e.g., Castañeda & Queiroz 2013).
Distribution: Bahamas (incl. East Plana Cay), Belize, Cayman Islands (Little Cayman), Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud), Dominican Republic, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Isla Morat, Roatan, Utila]), Mexico (Quintana Roo), Navassa, USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas).

Anolis alayoni

Guantanamo Twig Anole



1995 Anolis alayoni Estrada & Hedges

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis alfaroi

Small-fanned Bush Anole

Kleinkehliger Buschanolis

Småfanet Buskanole

1992 Anolis alfaroi Garrido & Hedges

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis allisoni

Giant Caye Anole, Cuban Blue Anole, (Allison's Anole)

Kubanischer Blauer Anolis

Cubansk Blå Anole

1928 Anolis allisoni Barbour

Distribution: Belize, Cuba, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Isla Morat, Roatan, Utila]), Mexico (Quintana Roo).

Anolis altitudinalis

Turquino Green-mottled Anole

Grünfleckiger Turquino-Anolis

Grønbroget Turquino-anole

1985 Anolis isolepis altitudinalis Garrido
Anolis altitudinalis Garrido & Hedges 2001

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis alutaceus

Blue-eyed Twig Anole, (Cuban Grass Anole)

Blauaugiger Zweiganolis

Blåøjet Kvistanole

1862 Anolis alutaceus Cope
1970 Anolis alutaceus saltatus Peters (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Anolis anfiloquioi

Brown-eyed Bush Anole

Braunaugiger Buschanolis

Brunøjet Buskanole

1980 Anolis anfiloquioi Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis angusticeps

Cuban Twig Anole

Kubanischer Zweiganolis

Cubansk Kvistanole

1856 Anolis angusticeps Hallowell
1948 Anolis angusticeps chickcharneyi Oliver (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)

Remarks: Previously included oligaspis. Records from the Bahamas refer to oligaspis.
Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Anolis argenteolus

Cuban Trunk Anole

Kubanischer Baumanolis

Cubansk Træanole

1861 Anolis argenteolus Cope

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis argillaceus

Cuban Dark-bark Anole

Kubanische Rindenanolis

Cubansk Barkanole

1862 Anolis argillaceus Cope

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis brunneus

Crooked-Acklins Green Anole



1895 Anolis principalis brunneus Cope
Anolis brunneus Barbour 1910
Anolis porcatus brunneus Barbour 1937

Distribution: Bahamas (incl. East Plana Cay).

Anolis carolinensis

Common Green Anole, Red-throated Anole, Carolina Anole


Almindelig Grøn Anole

1832 Anolius carolinensis Voigt
1873 Anolis baccatus Bocourt (Köhler 2011)
Norops (?) baccatus Savage & Guyer 1989
1991 Anolis carolinensis seminolus Vance

Other common names:
baccatus: Bocourt's Anole
carolinensis: Northern Green Anole
seminolus: Southern Green Anole
Introduced to: Anguilla (Anguilla Island), Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Brazil (Bahia), Cayman Islands (Grand Cayman), Guam, Japan (Bonin Islands, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands]), Mexico (Tamaulipas), Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Spain (Canary Islands), Taiwan, USA (California, Hawaii, Maryland, West Virginia).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas).

Anolis centralis

Central Pallid Anole

Zentralkubanischer Bleichanolis

Centralcubansk Bleganole

1970 Anolis agrillaceus centralis Peters
Anolis centralis Garrido 1975

Remarks: Previously included litoralis (e.g., Schwartz & Henderson 1988).
Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis clivicola

Turquino Fern Anole



1935 Anolis clivicolus Barbour & Shreve
Anolis alutaceus clivicolus Barbour 1937
Anolis clivicola Schwartz & Garrido 1971

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis cupeyalensis

Striped-bellied Grass Anole


Bugstribet Græsanole

1970 Anolis cyanopleurus cupeyalensis Peters
Anolis cupeyalensis Garrido 1975

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis cyanopleurus

Green Fern Anole

Grüner Farnanolis

Grøn Bregneanole

1861 Anolis cyanopleurus Cope
1975 Anolis cyanopleurus orientalis Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis fairchildi

Cay Sal Anole


Cay Sal-anole

1935 Anolis fairchildi Barbour & Shreve
Anolis porcatus fairchildi Barbour 1937

Distribution: Bahamas.

Anolis fugitivus

Green-headed Grass Anole

Grünköpfiger Grasanolis

Grønhovedet Græsanole

1975 Anolis fugitivus Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis garridoi

Escambray Twig Anole



1996 Anolis garridoi Diaz, Estrada & Moreno

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis guazuma

Turquino Twig Anole



1983 Anolis guazuma Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis incredulus

Turquino Emerald Anole



1998 Anolis incredulus Garrido & Moreno

Remarks: Not mentioned by Poe, Nieto-Montes de Oca, Torres-Carvajal, Queiroz, Velasco, Truett, Gray, Ryan, Köhler, Ayala-Varela & Latella (2017).
Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis inexpectatus

Pineland Bush Anole

Kubanischer Kieferanolis

Cubansk Fyrreanole

1989 Anolis inexpectatus Garrido & Estrada

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis isolepis

Dwarf Green Anole

Grüner Zwerganolis

Grøn Dværganole

1861 Anolis isolepis Cope

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis juangundlachi

Yellow-lipped Grass Anole


Gullæbet Græsanole

1975 Anolis juangundlachi Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis litoralis

Oriente Pallid Anole



1975 Anolis centralis litoralis Garrido
Anolis litoralis Navarro-P., Fernández-V. & Garrido 2001

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis longiceps

Navassa Anole



1919 Anolis longiceps Schmidt
Anolis porcatus longiceps Barbour 1937

Distribution: Navassa.

Anolis loysianus

Spiny Anole

Dorniger Anolis

Tornet Anole

1837 Anolis loysiana Dumeril & Bibron

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Anolis lucius

Slender Cliff Anole, Cave Anole

Graziler Höhlenanolis

Slank Huleanole

1837 Anolis lucius Dumeril & Bibron
1925 Anolis mertensi Ahl (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis macilentus

Black-cheeked Bush Anole


Sortkindet Buskanole

1992 Anolis macilentus Garrido & Hedges

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis maynardi

Little Cayman Green Anole, Cayman Green Anole

Grüner Cayman-Anolis

Caymansk Grøn Anole

1888 Anolis maynardi Garman
Anolis porcatus maynardi Barbour 1937

Introduced to: Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Grand Cayman).
Distribution: Cayman Islands (Little Cayman).

Anolis oligaspis

Bahama Twig Anole



1894 Anolis oligaspis Cope
Anolis angusticeps oligaspis Barbour 1937

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of angusticeps (e.g., Schwartz & Henderson 1988). Listed as a separate species by Poe, Nieto-Montes-de-Oca, Torres-Carvajal, Queiroz, Velasco, Truett, Gray, Ryan, Köhler, Ayala-Varela & Latella (2017).
Distribution: Bahamas.

Anolis oporinus

Pimienta Green Anole

Grüner Pimienta-Anolis

Grøn Pimienta-anole

2001 Anolis oporinus Garrido & Hedges

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis paternus

Ashy Bush Anole

Aschgrauer Buschanolis

Askegrå Buskanole

1967 Anolis angusticeps paternus Hardy
Anolis paternus Garrido 1975
1975 Anolis paternus pinarensis Garrido

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Anolis placidus

Neiba Twig Anole



1989 Anolis placidus Hedges & Thomas

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Anolis porcatus

Cuban Green Anole

Kubanischer Grüner Anolis

Cubansk Grøn Anole

1840 Anolis porcatus Gray
Anolis principalis porcatus Cope 1888
Anolis carolinensis porcatus Oliver 1948

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of carolinensis. Records of this species from Pacific islands (e.g., Hawaii: Oliver & Shaw 1953) refer to carolinensis (Powell 1992). Records from Florida (e.g., Allen & Slatten 1945; Smith & Kohler 1977) are probably erroneous (Powell 1992).
Introduced to: Aruba, Dominican Republic, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, USA (Florida).
Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Anolis pumilus

Cuban Spiny-plant Anole

Kubanischer Zwerganolis

Cubansk Dværganole

1988 Anolis pumilus Garrido
Anolis pumilis [lapsus] Nicholson, Crother, Guyer & Savage 2012

Distribution: Cuba (incl. Isla de la Juventud).

Anolis rejectus

Santiago Grass Anole



1972 Anolis vanidicus rejectus Garrido & Schwartz
Anolis rejectus Garrido & Hedges 2000
1975 Anolis cupeyalensis montanus Garrido [not Anolis oculatus montanus Lazell 1962]
Anolis montanus Garrido 1975
1975 Anolis mimus Schwartz & Thomas [substitute name for Anolis cupeyalensis montanus Garrido 1975] (Garrido & Hedges 2000)

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis ruibali

Cabo Cruz Pallid Anole


Cabo Cruz-bleganole

2004 Anolis ruibali Navarro-Pacheco & Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis sheplani

Bahoruco Twig Anole



1974 Anolis sheplani Schwartz

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Anolis smaragdinus

Bahamas Green Anole

Grüner Bahamas-Anolis

Bahamansk Grøn Anole

1935 Anolis smaragdinus Barbour & Shreve
Anolis porcatus smaragdinus Barbour 1937
Anolis carolinensis smaragdinus Etheridge 1959 [1960]
1948 Anolis carolinensis lerneri Oliver (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Anolis lerneri Williams 1969
Anolis smaragdinus lerneri Schwartz & Thomas 1975

Other common names:
lerneri: Bimini Green Anole
Distribution: Bahamas.

Anolis spectrum

Black-shouldered Ground Anole


Sortskuldret Jordanole

1863 Anolis spectrum Peters
1970 Anolis spectrum sumiderensis Peters (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis terueli

Yellow-fanned Pallid Anole

Gelbfahniger Bleichanolis

Gulfanet Bleganole

2001 Anolis terueli Navarro P., Fernández V. & Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis toldo

Grey-banded Green Anole

Graubändiger Grüner Anolis

Gråbåndet Grøn Anole

2000 Anolis toldo Fong G. & Garrido

Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis vanidicus

Escambray Grass Anole



1972 Anolis vanidicus Garrido & Schwartz

Remarks: Previously included rejectus.
Distribution: Cuba.

Anolis vescus

Purial Bush Anole

Graziler Buschanolis

Slank Buskanole

1992 Anolis vescus Garrido & Hedges

Distribution: Cuba.