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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Apostolepis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Apostolepis

Black-tailed Blackheads, South American Wormsnakes

Schwarzschwänzige Schwarzkopfnattern

Sorthalede Sorthovedsnoge

1862 Apostolepis Cope (type species: Elapomorphus flavotorquatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854)
1862 Elapomojus Jan (type species: Elapomorphus dimidiatus Jan 1862; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1869 Rhynchonyx Peters (type species: Rhynchonyx ambiniger Peters 1869)
1930 Parapostolepis Amaral (type species: Apostolepis polylepis Amaral 1922; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
Contents: 38 species, of which 23 (60.5%) are endemic.
Remarks: Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) regarded Parapostolepis as a valid genus, referring to pers. comm. with T. de Lema.
Distribution: South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam.

Apostolepis adhara

São Salvador Blackhead, São Salvador Burrow-snake

São Salvador-Schwarzkopfnatter

São Salvador-sorthovedsnog

2018 Apostolepis adhara França, Barbo, Silva-Júnior, Silva & Zaher

Distribution: Brazil (Tocantins).





Apostolepis albicollaris

White-collared Blackhead

Weißhals-Schwarzkopfnatter

Hvidhalset Sorthovedsnog

2002 Apostolepis albicollaris Lema

Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Minas Gerais).


Apostolepis ambiniger

Paraguayan Blackhead, Southern South American Blackhead

Paraguayische Schwarzkopfnatter

Paraguayisk Sorthovedsnog

1869 Rhynchonyx ambiniger Peters
Apostolepis ambinigra Boulenger 1896

Remarks: Previously included tenuis and vittatus.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.


Apostolepis ammodites

Tocantins Blackhead

Tocantins-Schwarzkopfnatter

Tocantins-sorthovedsnog

2005 Apostolepis ammodites Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque

Remarks: Records from Mato Grosso do Sul are considered erroneous (Costa & Bérnils 2018).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Tocantins).


Apostolepis arenaria

Bahia Blackhead, (Sand Dunes Blackhead)

Bahia-Schwarzkopfnatter

Bahia-sorthovedsnog

1993 Apostolepis arenarius Rodrigues [1992]

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).


Apostolepis assimilis

Common Red Blackhead

Gewöhnliche Rote Schwarzkopfnatter

Almindelig Rød Sorthovedsnog

1861 Elapomorphus assimilis Reinhardt
Elapomorphus affinis [lapsus] Cope
Apostolepis assimilis Boulenger 1896

Remarks: Previously included tertulianobeui. Records from Santa Catarina are considered erroneous (Costa & Bérnils 2018).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Apostolepis borellii

Urucum Blackhead

Urucum-Schwarzkopfnatter

Urucum-sorthovedsnog

1904 Apostolepis borellii Peracca

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nigroterminata (e.g., Harvey 1999; Lema 2001), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Ferrarezzi 1993; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014, referring to pers. comm. with T. de Lema). Validity confirmed by Martins & Lema (2015). Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul).


Apostolepis breviceps

Chacoan Blackhead, Short-headed Blackhead

Chaco-Schwarzkopfnatter

Chaco-sorthovedsnog

2001 Apostolepis breviceps Harvey, Gonzales & Schrocchi

Distribution: Bolivia.


Apostolepis cearensis

Caatinga Blackhead

Caatinga-Schwarzkopfnatter

Caatinga-sorthovedsnog

1915 Apostolepis cearensis Gomes
1924 Apostolepis sanctae-ritae Werner (syn. Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque 2005)
1925 Apostolepis amarali Werner (syn. Lema 2001)
2004 Apostolepis freitasi De Lema (syn. Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque 2005)

Other common names:
sanctaeritae: Santa Rita Blackhead
Remarks: The taxon sanctaeritae was previously regarded as a synonym of flavotorquata (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970), later revalidated (Lema & Fernandes 1997; Lema 2001), but most recently synonymized with cearensis by Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque (2005). Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) treated freitasi as a valid species.
Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, Tocantins).


Apostolepis cerradoensis

Cerrado Blackhead

Cerrado-Schwarzkopfnatter

Cerrado-sorthovedsnog

2003 Apostolepis cerradoensis Lema

Distribution: Brazil (Goias).


Apostolepis christineae

Sierra das Araras Blackhead

Araras-Schwarzkopfnatter

Araras-sorthovedsnog

2002 Apostolepis christineae Lema

Remarks: Presence in Mato Grosso do Sul is considered doubtful (Costa & Bérnils 2018).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso).


Apostolepis dimidiata

Common Bilineate Blackhead

Gewöhnliche Zweistreifige Schwarzkopfnatter

Almindelig Tostribet Sorthovedsnog

1862 Elapomorphus dimidiatus Jan
Elapomoius dimidiatus Boulenger 1896
Apostolepis dimidiata Lema 1984
1880 Elapomorphus erythronotus Peters (syn. Lema 1986)
Apostolepis erythronotus Cope 1887
1897 Apostolepis nigriceps Werner (syn. Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)
1978 Apostolepis barrioi Lema (syn. Entiauspe-Neto, Sena, Tiutenko & Loebmann 2019)
1978 Apostolepis ventrimaculata Lema (syn. Lema 1986)
1978 Apostolepis villaricae Lema (syn. Lema 1993)

Remarks: Previously included lineata. A number of previous records lie outside the range shown by Cabral, Lema & Renner (2017) and are therefore disregarded herein. These records include Bolivia (e.g., Lema 2001), Distrito Federal (e.g., Harvey 1999; Lema & Renner 2012 [as "cf. dimidiata"], and Goias (e.g., Lema 1993; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Records from Rio de Janeiro are erroneous and refer to Elapomorphus quinquelineata (Costa & Bérnils 2018). A. barrioi was previously regarded as a synonym of dimidiata (e.g., Lema 1993), then revalidated (Cabral, Lema & Renner 2017), and subsequently synonymized again with dimidiata (Entiauspe-Neto, Sena, Tiutenko & Loebmann 2019).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.


Apostolepis dorbignyi

Western Blackhead, (D'Orbigny's Blackhead)

Westliche Schwarzkopfnatter

Vestlig Sorthovedsnog

1837 Calamaria d'orbignyi Schlegel
Elapomorphus orbignyi Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Apostolepis orbignyi Cope 1861
Elapomorphus d'orbignyi Jan 1862
Apostolepis dorbignyi Boulenger 1896

Remarks: The type locality ("Chile") is apparently in error. Presence in Brazil needs confirmation (Lema 2001), although listed for the country by some authors (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Costa & Bernils 2014).
Distribution: Bolivia.


Apostolepis flavotorquata

Yellow-collared Blackhead, Central Blackhead, (Cerrado Blackhead)

Gelbhals-Schwarzkopfnatter

Gulhalset Sorthovedsnog

1854 Elapomorphus flavotorquatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Apostolepis flavotorquata Cope 1962

Remarks: Previously included nigrolineata. Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Rondonia, Sao Paulo, Tocantins).


Apostolepis gaboi

Oueimadas Blackhead, São Francisco Blackhead, (Sand Dunes Blackhead)

Oueimadas-Schwarzkopfnatter

Oueimadas-sorthovedsnog

1993 Apostolepis gaboi Rodrigues [1992]

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).


Apostolepis goiasensis

Goias Blackhead, (Prado's Blackhead)

Goias-Schwarzkopfnatter

Goias-sorthovedsnog

1942 Apostolepis goiasensis Prado

Remarks: Presence in Sao Paulo (e.g., Zaher, Barbo, Martínez, Nogueira, Rodrigues & Sawaya 2011) is considered doubtful (Costa & Bérnils 2018).
Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Rondonia).


Apostolepis intermedia

Mato Grosso Blackhead, (Koslowsky's Blackhead)

Mato-Grosso-Schwarzkopfnatter

Mato Grosso-sorthovedsnog

1898 Apostolepis intermedia Koslowsky

Remarks: A report from Bolivia (Harvey 1998), as well as its probable repetition by Tipton 2005), refer to phillipsii (Harvey 1999; Albuquerque & Lema 2012).
Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.


Apostolepis kikoi

Guimarães Highland Blackhead, Chapada dos Guimarães Blackhead

Guimarães-Schwarzkopfnatter

Guimarães-sorthovedsnog

2018 Apostolepis kikoi Santos, Entiauspe-Neto, Silva Araújo, Souza, Lema, Strüssmann & Albuquerque

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso).





Apostolepis lineata

Hognosed Lined Blackhead

Hakennasen-Schwarzkopfnatter

Tryne-sorthovedsnog

1887 Apostolepis erythronotus lineatus Cope
Apostolepis lineata Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1972

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of erythronota (currently a synonym of dimidiata) (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Later regarded as a synonym of dimidiata by Lema (1986), then as a valid species by same author (Lema 2001), along with Peters & Orejas-Miranda (1972), although Harvey (1999) retained it as a synonym of dimidiata.
Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso).


Apostolepis longicaudata

Piaui Blackhead, Santa Philomena Blackhead

Piaui-Schwarzkopfnatter

Piaui-sorthovedsnog

1921 Apostolepis longicaudata Gomes

Remarks: Status of records from Alagoas, Espirito Santo, and Paraiba is uncertain (Costa & Bérnils 2018).
Distribution: Brazil (Piaui, Tocantins).


Apostolepis multicincta

Many-banded Blackhead, Pampa Grande Blackhead, (Harvey's Blackhead)

Vielbändige Schwarzkopfnatter

Mangebåndet Sorthovedsnog

1999 Apostolepis multicincta Harvey

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia.


Apostolepis nelsonjorgei

Minacu Blackhead

Minacu-Schwarzkopfnatter

Minacu-sorthovedsnog

2004 Apostolepis nelsonjorgei Lema & Renner

Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso, Tocantins).


Apostolepis niceforoi

Colombian Blackhead, Amazon Blackhead, (Amazon Burrowing Snake)

Kolumbianische Schwarzkopfnatter

Colombiansk Sorthovedsnog

1935 Apostolepis niceforoi Amaral

Remarks: The type locality of this species is in Colombia (Vanzolini 1986), not Brazil as stated by some authors (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970).
Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador.


Apostolepis nigrolineata

Para Blackhead, Rainforest Blackhead

Para-Schwarzkopfnatter

Para-sorthovedsnog

1869 Elapomorphus nigrolineatus Peters
Apostolepis nigrolineata Boulenger 1896
1903 Apostolepis pymi Boulenger (syn. Curcio, Nunes, Harvey & Rodrigues 2011)

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of flavotorquata by Peters & Orejas-Miranda (1970), but as a valid species in most recent works (e.g., Lema 2001; Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque 2005; Avila-Pires, Hoogmoed & Rocha 2010; Lema & Albuquerque 2010). Status of pymi has been disputed. It has been regarded as a synonym of nigrolineatus (e.g., Lema 2001), or considered a valid species (Vanzolini 1986; Lema & Renner 1998: Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque 2005; Lema & Albuquerque 2010; Nogueira, Barbo & Ferrarezzi 2012; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). However, Curcio, Nunes, Harvey & Rodrigues (2011) retained it as a synonym of nigrolineata, pending further studies. Lema & Albuquerque (2010) regarded quinquelineata as a synonym of nigrolineata, which was followed by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014).
Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia), Guyana, Surinam.


Apostolepis nigroterminata

Peruvian Blackhead

Peruvianische Schwarzkopfnatter

Peruviansk Sorthovedsnog

1896 Apostolepis nigroterminata Boulenger

Remarks: Previously included borellii.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Para), Peru.


Apostolepis phillipsae

Velasco Blackhead, (Phillips' Blackhead)

Velasco-Schwarzkopfnatter

Velasco-sorthovedsnog

1999 Apostolepis phillipsi Harvey
Apostolepis phillipsae Michels & Bauer 2004 [justified emendation]

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso).


Apostolepis polylepis

Hawkbeak Blackhead, (Piaui Blackhead)

Kleinschuppige Schwarzkopfnatter

Mangeskællet Sorthovedsnog

1922 Apostolepis polylepis Amaral
Parapostolepis polylepis Amaral 1930

Remarks: Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) regarded Parapostolepis as a valid genus, referring to pers. comm. with T. de Lema. Correct publication year of the original description is 1922, not 1921 (Vanzolini 1977; Costa & Bérnils 2015).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Piaui, Tocantins).


Apostolepis quinquelineata

Five-lined Blackhead, Guyana Blackhead, Western Amazonian Blackhead

Fünfstreifige Schwarzkopfnatter

Femstribet Sorthovedsnog

1896 Apostolepis quinquelineata Boulenger

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of nigrolineata by Lema & Albuquerque (2010), followed by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014), but as a valid species by Curcio, Nunes, Harvey & Rodrigues (2011), pending further studies. Previously included rondoni.
Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Ceara, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima), French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam.


Apostolepis quirogai

Missiones Blackhead

Missiones-Schwarzkopfnatter

Missiones-sorthovedsnog

1998 Apostolepis quirogai Giraudo & Scrocchi

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul).


Apostolepis roncadori

Roncador Mountains Blackhead, Serra do Roncador Blackhead

Roncador-Schwarzkopfnatter

Roncador-sorthovedsnog

2016 Apostolepis roncadori Lema

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso).





Apostolepis rondoni

Rondon Blackhead

Rondon-Schwarzkopfnatter

Rondon-sorthovedsnog

1925 Apostolepis rondoni Amaral

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of quinquelineata (e.g., Lema & Renner 1998; Lema 2001). Considered a valid species herein, following Martins & Lema (2015). Not mentioned by Entiauspe-Neto, Sena, Tiutenko & Loebmann (2019).
Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Rondonia).


Apostolepis serrana

Pimentel Barbosa Blackhead

Pimentel-Barbosa-Schwarzkopfnatter

Pimentel Barbosa-sorthovedsnog

2006 Apostolepis serrana Lema & Renner

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso).


Apostolepis striata

Rondonia Blackhead

Rondonia-Schwarzkopfnatter

Rondonia-sorthovedsnog

2004 Apostolepis striata Lema

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Rondonia).


Apostolepis tenuis

Bolivian Blackhead

Bolivianische Schwarzkopfnatter

Boliviansk Sorthovedsnog

1927 Apostolepis tenuis Ruthven

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of ambiniger (e.g., Amaral 1930), but without discussion. The species was revalidated by Hartweg (1932) and Peters & Orejas-Miranda (1972). The latter authors had earlier (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970) overlooked Hartweg's paper, though, and kept tenuis in the synonymy of ambiniger.
Distribution: Bolivia.


Apostolepis tertulianobeui

Uberlândia Blackhead

Uberlândia-Schwarzkopfnatter

Uberlândia-sorthovedsnog

2004 Apostolepis tertulianobeui Lema
2011 Apostolepis parassimilis Lema & Renner (syn. Costa & Bérnils 2015)

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of assimilis by Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque (2005), but resurrected as a separate species by Lema & Renner (2007).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Goias, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo).


Apostolepis thalesdelemai

Ubajara Blackhead

Ubajara-Schwarzkopfnatter

Ubajara-sorthovedsnog

2016 Apostolepis thalesdelemai Borges-Nojosa, Lima, Bezerra & Harris
2016 Apostolepis mariae Borges-Nojosa, Lima, Bezerra & Harris (syn. Entiauspe-Neto, Guedes, Loebmann & Lema 2020)

Distribution: Brazil (Ceara).


Apostolepis underwoodi

Santa Cruz Blackhead

Santa-Cruz-Schwarzkopfnatter

Santa Cruz-sorthovedsnog

2017 Apostolepis underwoodi Lema & Campbell

Distribution: Bolivia.





Apostolepis vittata

Beaked Blackhead

Schnabel-Schwarzkopfnatter

Næbbet Sorthovedsnog

1887 Rhynchonyx ambiniger vittatus Cope
Apostolepis ambinigra vittata Boulenger 1896
Apostolepis vittata Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1972

Remarks: Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) included Paraguay in the distribution of this species, but no other sources seem to support this. It was not included by Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016) in their checklist for the country.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso).