Taxonomy: families
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Snakes (Serpentes)

   Genera


Adelophis
Mountain Meadow Snakes


Adelphicos
Central American Burrowing Snakes


Aeluroglena
Somali Hooded Snake


Afronatrix
West African Brown Water Snake


Ahaetulla
Oriental Whip Snakes


Alsophis
Eastern Caribbean Racers


Amastridium
Rusty-headed Snakes


Amnesteophis
Bahia Black-naped Snake


Amphiesma
Buff-striped Keelback


Amphiesmoides
White-eyed Keelback


Anoplohydrus
Sumatran Keelback


Antillophis
Hispaniolan Lesser Racer


Apostolepis
Black-tailed Blackheads


Aprosdoketophis
Addur Woodland Snake


Arcanumophis
Puno Smooth Snake


Archelaphe
Venus Rat Snake


Argyrogena
South Asian Whip Snakes


Arizona
Glossy Snakes


Arrhyton
Cuban Ground Snakes


Aspidura
Roughsides


Atractus
Spindle Snakes


Atretium
Olive Keelbacks


Balanophis
Sri Lanka Keelback


Baliodryas
Santa Cruz Smooth Snake


Bamanophis
West African Whip Snake


Blythia
Asian Iridescent Snakes


Bogertophis
Desert Rat Snakes


Boiga
Australasian Cat Snakes


Boiruna
Southern Snake Eaters


Borikenophis
Puerto Rican Bank Racers


Caaeteboia
East Brazilian Ground Snakes


Calamaria
Oriental Reed Snakes


Calamodontophis
Southeastern Neotropical Forest Snakes


Calamorhabdium
Indonesian Iridescent Snakes


Caraiba
Cuban Lesser Racer


Carphophis
North American Worm Snakes


Cemophora
North American Scarlet Snakes


Cenaspis
La Loma Snake


Ceratophallus
Indonesian Striped Keelback


Cercophis
Atlantic Forest Liana Snake


Chapinophis
Guatemalan Yellow-lipped Snake


Chersodromus
Earth Runners


Chironius
Sipos


Chrysopelea
Flying Tree Snakes


Clelia
Northern Snake Eaters


Clonophis
Ohio Valley Water Snake


Coelognathus
Oriental Rat Snakes


Collorhabdium
Mountain Dwarf Snake


Coluber
North American Racer


Colubroelaps
Lam Dong Snake


Coniophanes
Black-striped Snakes


Conophis
Road Guarders


Conopsis
Mexican Earth Snakes


Contia
Sharp-tailed Snakes


Coronelaps
Minas Gerais Lizard Eater


Coronella
Palearctic Smooth Snakes


Crisantophis
Costa Rican Road Guarder


Crotaphopeltis
Herald Snakes


Cryophis
Cloud Forest Snake


Cubophis
Western Caribbean Racers


Darlingtonia
Hispaniolan Montane Ground Snake


Dasypeltis
African Egg Eaters


Dendrelaphis
Bronzebacks


Dendrophidion
Forest Racers


Diadophis
Ring-necked Snake


Diaphorolepis
Frog Eaters


Dipsadoboa
Nocturnal Tree Snakes


Dipsas
Neotropical Snail Eaters


Dispholidus
Boomslang


Ditaxodon
Striped Cerrado Snake


Dolichophis
Greater Whip Snakes


Drepanoides
Amazon Egg Eater


Drymarchon
Indigo Snakes & Cribos


Drymobius
Central American Racers


Drymoluber
Glossy Racers


Dryophiops
Malayan Vine Snakes


Echinanthera
Neotropical Leaf-litter Snakes


Eirenis
Middle Eastern Dwarf Snakes


Elaphe
Palearctic-Oriental Rat Snakes


Elapoidis
Sunda Mountain Snakes


Elapomorphus
Brazilian Lizard Eaters


Emmochliophis
Pichincha Snake & Paramba Fishing Snake


Enuliophis
White-headed Snake


Enulius
Middle American Long-tailed Snakes


Erythrolamprus
Neotropical Smooth Snakes


Etheridgeum
Sumatran Burrowing Snake


Euprepiophis
East Asian Rat Snakes


Eutrachelophis
Beautiful-necked Smooth Snakes


Farancia
American Mud and Rainbow Snakes


Ficimia
Eastern Hook-nosed Snakes


Fowlea
Fishing Keelbacks


Geagras
Tehuantepec Striped Snake


Geophis
Central American Earth Snakes


Gomesophis
Brazilian Burrowing Snake


Gongylosoma
Southeast Asian Ground Snakes


Gonyosoma
Oriental Green Rat Snakes, etc.


Grayia
Equatorial African Water Snakes


Gyalopion
Western Hook-nosed Snakes


Haitiophis
Hispaniolan Brown Racer


Haldea
Rough Earth Snake


Hapsidophrys
Emerald Snakes


Hebius
Oriental Equatorial Keelbacks


Helicops
South American Keelbacks


Helophis
Congolese Sun Snake


Hemerophis
Socotra Whip Snake


Hemorrhois
Palearctic Whip Snakes


Herpetoreas
Himalayan Mountain Keelbacks


Heterodon
North American Hognose Snakes


Hierophis
Eurasian Whip Snakes


Hydrablabes
Bornean Water Snakes


Hydraethiops
Central African Water Snakes


Hydrodynastes
False Water Cobras


Hydromorphus
Central American Water Snakes


Hydrops
South American Mud Snakes


Hypsiglena
North American Night Snakes


Hypsirhynchus
Hog-nosed Racers


Ialtris
Hispaniolan Racers


Iguanognathus
Iguana-jawed Snake


Imantodes
American Blunt-headed Tree Snakes


Isanophis
Isan Keeled Stream Snake


Lampropeltis
King Snakes & Milk Snakes


Leptodeira
Typical Cat-eyed Snakes


Leptodrymus
Green-headed Lowland Racer


Leptophis
Neotropical Parrot Snakes


Limnophis
Striped Swamp Snakes


Liodytes
North American Swamp Snakes


Lioheterophis
Paraiba Black-naped Snake


Liopeltis
Stripe-necked Snakes


Lycodon
Oriental Wolf Snakes


Lycognathophis
Seychelles Cliff Snake


Lygophis
South American Striped Ground Snakes


Lytorhynchus
Awl-headed Snakes


Macrocalamus
Peninsular Mountain Reed Snakes


Macropisthodon
Hooded Keelbacks


Macroprotodon
False Smooth Snakes


Magliophis
Puerto Rican Bank Ground Snakes


Manolepis
Thin-scaled Snake


Masticophis
North American Whip Snakes & Coachwhips


Mastigodryas
Neotropical Lizard Eaters


Meizodon
African Smooth Snakes


Mopanveldophis
Cunene Whip Snake


Muhtarophis
Turkish Black-headed Snake


Mussurana
Brazilian Snake Eaters


Natriciteres
African Marsh Snakes


Natrix
Eurasian Keelbacks


Nerodia
North American Water Snakes


Ninia
Coffee Snakes


Nothopsis
Rugose Litter Snake


Ocyophis [extinct]
Caribbean Green Racers


Oligodon
Kukri Snakes


Omoadiphas
Honduran Mountain Forest Snakes


Oocatochus
Red-backed Rat Snake


Opheodrys
North American Green Snakes


Opisthotropis
Mountain Stream Keelbacks


Oreocalamus
Malaysian Mountain Reed Snake


Oreocryptophis
Red Mountain Rat Snake


Orientocoluber
North Asian Whip Snake


Oxybelis
Neotropical Vine Snakes


Oxyrhopus
Calico Snakes


Palusophis
Eastern Lizard Eater


Pantherophis
North American Rat Snakes


Paraphimophis
Rusty Snake Eater


Paratapinophis
Brown Stream Snake


Persiophis
Kerman Whip Snake


Phalotris
South American Collared Snakes


Philodryas
South American Bush Racers


Philothamnus
African Green Snakes


Phimophis
South American Shovel-nosed Snakes


Phrynonax
Neotropical Bird Snakes


Phyllorhynchus
American Leaf-nosed Snakes


Pituophis
Bullsnakes, Pine Snakes & Gopher Snakes


Plagiopholis
Blotch-necked Snakes


Platyceps
Flat-headed Whip Snakes


Plesiodipsas
Sierra de PerijŠ Snail Eater


Pliocercus
Big-scaled False Coral Snakes


Poecilopholis
Efulen Burrowing Snake


Proahaetulla
Agasthyamalai Whip Snake


Pseudalsophis
Neotropical Elegant Racers


Pseudelaphe
Mexican Rat Snakes


Pseudoboa
Neotropical Scarlet Snakes


Pseudoeryx
Dusky Mud Snakes


Pseudoficimia
False Hook-nosed Snake


Pseudoleptodeira
Broad-banded Cat-eyed Snake


Pseudorabdion
Dwarf Reed Snakes


Pseudotomodon
Argentine Mock Lancehead


Pseudoxenodon
Mock Cobras


Psomophis
Smooth Ground Snakes


Ptyas
Giant Rat Snakes & Oriental Green Snakes


Ptychophis
Brazilian Yellow-striped Water Snake


Rabdion
Sulawesi Pointed Snakes


Regina
Queen Snakes


Rhabdophis
Asian Keelbacks


Rhabdops
South Asian Forest Snakes


Rhachidelus
Brazilian Bird Snake


Rhadinaea
Graceful Brown Snakes


Rhadinella
Dwarf Brown Snakes


Rhadinophanes
Graceful Mountain Snake


Rhamnophis
Dagger-tooth Tree Snakes


Rhinobothryum
Ringed Snakes


Rhinocheilus
Long-nosed Snakes


Rhynchocalamus
Middle East Black-headed Snakes


Rodriguesophis
Collared Sharp-nosed Snakes


Salvadora
Patch-nosed Snakes


Saphenophis
Andean Smooth Ground Snakes


Scaphiodontophis
Neck-banded Snakes


Scaphiophis
African Hook-nosed Snakes


Schwartzophis
Jamaican Ground Snakes


Scolecophis
Central American Harlequin Snake


Senticolis
American Green Rat Snake


Sibon
Neotropical Snail Eaters


Sibynophis
Oriental Black-headed Snakes


Simophis
South American False Coral Snake


Siphlophis
Liana Snakes


Smithophis
Northeast Indian Forest Snakes


Sonora
North American Ground Snakes, etc.


Sordellina
Brazilian Yellow-lipped Snake


Spalerosophis
Diadem Snakes


Spilotes
Chicken Snakes


Stegonotus
Indo-Australian Ground Snakes


Stenorrhina
Scorpion Eaters


Stichophanes
Ningshaan Lined Snake


Storeria
North American Brown Snakes


Symphimus
Mexican White-lipped Snakes


Sympholis
Mexican Short-tailed Snake


Synophis
Andean Shadow Snakes


Tachymenis
South American Scrub Snakes


Taeniophallus
Lowland Dwarf Leaf-litter Snakes


Tantalophis
Oaxacan Cat-eyed Snake


Tantilla
American Centipede Snakes


Tantillita
Dwarf Short-tailed Snakes


Telescopus
Cat Snakes & Tiger Snakes


Tetralepis
Javanese Mountain Snake


Thalesius
Guiana Green Snake


Thamnodynastes
South American Mock Vipers


Thamnophis
North American Garter & Ribbon Snakes


Thelotornis
African Vine Snakes


Thermophis
Hot-spring Snakes


Thrasops
Black Tree Snakes


Tomodon
Pampas Snakes


Toxicodryas
African Tree Cat Snakes


Trachischium
Oriental Slender Snakes


Tretanorhinus
Neotropical Swamp Snakes


Trimerodytes
Asian Water Snakes


Trimetopon
Central American Dwarf Snakes


Trimorphodon
Lyre Snakes


Tropidoclonion
Lined Snake


Tropidodipsas
Northern Snail Eaters


Tropidodryas
Atlantic Forest Tree Snakes


Tropidonophis
Indo-Australian Keelbacks


Uromacer
Hispaniolan Vine Snakes


Urotheca
Glass-tailed Snakes


Virginia
Smooth Earth Snake


Wallaceophis
Gujarat Striped Whip Snake


Wallophis
Indian Smooth Snake


Xenelaphis
Asian Brown Snakes


Xenochrophis
Oriental Painted Keelbacks


Xenodon
Northern Mock Lanceheads, etc.


Xenopholis
South American Flat-headed Snakes


Xyelodontophis
Dagger-tooth Vine Snake


Zamenis
Western Palearctic Rat Snakes



Biodiversity of the family Colubridae Bibliography of the family Colubridae

Colubridae
Typical Snakes or Colubrids
Eigentliche Nattern     Egentlige Snoge




Contents:
  1973 species of which 1012 (51.3%) are endemic - 254 genera of which 65 (25.6%) are endemic (as of December 31st, 2018).

Remarks: This is by far the largest snake family, and it is, expectedly, a highly heterogenous group. Previously included the families Homalopsidae, Lamprophiidae, Pareidae, Xenodermidae, and Xenophidiidae. Some authors (e.g., Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009; Zug, Vitt & Caldwell 2001) recognize a further division of the family with as many as six additional families proposed: Calamariidae, Dipsadidae, Grayiidae, Natricidae, Pseudoxenodontidae, Sibynophiidae. Whether all or some of these proposed families will eventually become generally accepted or not remains to be seen. For conservative reasons, these groups are provisionally retained herein as part of a wider defined family Colubridae. Moreover, still 22 species are currently unassigned to subfamily (Figueroa, KcKelvy, Grismer, Bell & Lailvaux 2016).

Distribution:  North America, Central America, South America, West Indies, Europe, Africa, Middle East, Asia, Malay Archipelago, Australia. Absent from most oceanic islands.

Reported from:
Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Angola, Anguilla, Antigua & Barbuda, Argentina, Armenia, Aruba, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Curacao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, East Timor, Ecuador (incl. Galapagos Islands), Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Finland, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Latvia, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Montserrat, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Korea, North Macedonia, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, Saba, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines, San Marino, Sao Tome & Principe, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Eustatius, Slovakia, Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Korea, South Sudan, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Sweden, Switzerland, Syria, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad & Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, U.S. Virgin Islands, Uganda, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, Uruguay, USA, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.