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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Gymnophthalmidae
Bibliography of the genus Bachia
Biodiversity of the family Gymnophthalmidae








Genus
Bachia

Earless Tejus, Earless Worm Lizards, (Worm Lizards)

Wühltejus

Muldvarpetejuer

1790 Chalcides Bonaterre [not Chalcides Laurenti 1768 (Reptilia: Scincidae)] (type species: Chalcides flavescens Bonnaterre 1789; syn. Dixon 1973)
1820 Chalcis Merrem [not Chalcis Fabricius 1787] (type species: Chalcides tridactylus Daudin 1802; syn. Dixon 1973)
1820 Colobus Merrem [not Colobus Illiger 1811] (type species: Chalcides monodactylus Daudin 1802; syn. Dixon 1973)
1826 Brachypus Fitzinger [not Brachypus Meyer 1814 (Aves); not Swainson 1824] (type species: Brachypus cuvieri Fitzinger 1826; syn. Dixon 1973)
1843 Cophias Fitzinger [not Cophias Merrem 1820] (type species: Chalcides Dorbignyi Dumeril & Bibron 1839; syn. Dixon 1973)
1844 Microdactylus (Tschudi MS) Agassiz [not Microdactylus Fitzinger 1843 (Reptilia: Gekkonidae); not Microdactylus Geoffroy 1809 (Aves)] (Dixon 1973)
1845 Bachia Gray (type species: Chalcides Dorbignyi Dumeril & Bibron 1839)
1868 Ophiognomon Cope (type species: Ophiognomon trisanale Cope 1868; syn. Dixon 1973)
1871 Hapalolepis Peters (type species: Chalcides Abendrothii Peters 1871; syn. Dixon 1973)
1874 Propus Cope [not Propus Oken 1816 (nomen rejectum)] (type species: Propus vermiformis Cope 1874; syn. Dixon 1973)
1883 Herpetochalcis Boettger (type species: Herpetochalcis heteropus Boettger 1883; syn. Dixon 1973)
1885 Scolecosaurus Boulenger (type species: Brachypus cuvieri Fitzinger 1826; syn. Dixon 1973)
1896 Heteroclonium Cope (type species: Heteroclonium bicolor Cope 1896; syn. Dixon 1973)
1896 Sesquipes Cope (type species: Chalcides heteropus Lichtenstein 1856; syn. Dixon 1973)
1900 Anisoclonium Cope (type species: none designated; syn. Dixon 1973)
1935 Apatelus Amaral [not Apatelus Mulsant & Rey 1860] (type species: Apatelus bresslaui Amaral 1935; syn. Dixon 1973)
Contents: 34 species, of which 19 (55.9%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Ophiognomon: Snake Tejus
Distribution: S. Central America, South America, West Indies (Lesser Antilles).
Reported from: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Grenada, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (incl. Union Island), Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela (incl. Margarita).

Bachia alleni

Grenada Earless Teju

Grenada-Wühlteju

Grenada-graveteju

1914 Scolecosaurus alleni Barbour
Bachia alleni Vanzolini 1961
Bachia heteropa alleni Dixon 1973
1933 Scolecosaurus alleni parviceps Barbour (syn. Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers 2019)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of heteropa (e.g., Dixon 1973; Midtgaard 2019). Kohlsdorf & Wagner (2006) and Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016) suggested that alleni might deserve status as a separate species. Validity as a separate species confirmed by Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers (2019).
Distribution: Grenada, Saint Vincent & the Grenadines (incl. Union Island).





Bachia barbouri

Perico Earless Teju

Perico-Wühlteju

Perico-graveteju

1931 Bachia barbouri Burt & Burt

Distribution: Peru.


Bachia beebei

Caripito Earless Teju

Caripito-Wühlteju

Caripito-graveteju

2019 Bachia beebei Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers

Distribution: Venezuela.





Bachia bicolor

Two-coloured Earless Teju

Zweifarbige Wühlteju

Tofarvet Graveteju

1896 Heteroclonium bicolor Cope
Bachia bicolor Ruthven 1922
1869 Chirotes diglossis Saenz [nomen rejectum] (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1988): Opinion 1482)

Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.


Bachia blairi

Chiriqui Earless Teju

Chiriqui-Wühlteju

Chiriqui-graveteju

1940 Scolecosaurus blairi Dunn
Bachia blairi Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of pallidiceps by Dixon (1973). Revalidated by McDiarmid & DeWeese (1977). Not listed by Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016).
Distribution: Costa Rica, Panama.


Bachia bresslaui

São Paulo Earless Teju

Sao-Paulo-Wühlteju

São Paulo-graveteju

1935 Apatelus bresslaui Amaral
Bachia bresslaui Vanzolini 1961

Remarks: Presence in Sao Paulo, where it is known from a single specimen, needs confirmation (Rodrigues, Camacho, Nunes, Recoder, Teixeira, Valdujo, Ghellere, Mott & Nogueira 2008).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Bachia cacerensis

Cáceres Earless Teju

Cáceres-Wühlteju

Cáceres-graveteju

1998 Bachia cacerensis Castrillon & Strussmann

Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso, Rondonia).


Bachia didactyla

Two-toed Earless Teju

Zweizehen-Wühlteju

Totået Graveteju

2011 Bachia didactyla de Freitas, Strüssmann, de Carvalho, Kawashita-Ribeiro & Mott

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Rondonia).


Bachia dorbignyi

Bolivian Earless Teju

Bolivianische Wühlteju

Boliviansk Graveteju

1839 Chalcides Dorbignyi Dumeril & Bibron
Bachia dorbignyi Gray 1845
Cophias dorbignyi Boulenger 1885

Remarks: Reported to occur in Paraguay by some authors (e.g., Dixon 1973; Avila-Pires 1995), but Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016) did not include the species in their checklist of the reptiles of the country.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondonia), Peru.


Bachia flavescens

Guiana Earless Teju

Guiana-Wühlteju

Guiana-graveteju

1789 Chalcides flavescens Bonnaterre
Cophias flavescens Boulenger 1885
Bachia flavescens Ruthven 1922
1801 Chamaesaura cophias Schneider (syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970; Dixon 1973; Avila-Pires 1995)
1802 Chamaesaura tridactylus Daudin (syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970; Dixon 1973; Avila-Pires 1995)
1839 Chalcides schlegeli Duméril & Bibron (syn. Dixon 1973; Avila-Pires 1995)
Bachia schlegeli Brongersma 1946
1887 Cophias boettgeri Boulenger (syn. Dixon 1973; Avila-Pires 1995)

Remarks: Previously included monodactylus and parkeri. Hoogmoed (1973) regarded cophias as a separate species and monodactylus as its synonym. Avila-Pires (1995) placed both forms in the synonymy of flavescens. Peters & Donoso-Barros (1970) and Marca (1997) listed schlegeli as a valid species. Kizirian & McDiarmid (1998) regarded flavescens as a species complex. Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016) revalidated monodactylus and parkeri, but did not mention cophias.
Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela.


Bachia geralista

Minas Gerais Earless Teju

Minas Gerais-Wühlteju

Minas Gerais-graveteju

2013 Bachia geralista Teixeira, Recoder, Camacho, Sena, Navas & Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais).


Bachia guianensis

Bolivar Earless Teju

Bolivar-Wühlteju

Bolivar-graveteju

1977 Bachia guianensis Hoogmoed & Dixon

Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.


Bachia heteropa

Laguaira Earless Teju, Common Ground Puppy

Laguaira-Wühlteju

Laguaira-graveteju

1856 Chalcides heteropus Lichtenstein
Bachia heteropus Garman 1892

Remarks: Previously included alleni, lineata, marcelae, and trinitatis.
Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.


Bachia huallagana

San Martin Earless Teju

San Martin-Wühlteju

San Martin-graveteju

1973 Bachia huallagana Dixon

Distribution: Peru.


Bachia intermedia

Cajamarca Earless Teju

Cajamarca-Wühlteju

Cajamarca-graveteju

1921 Bachia intermedia Noble

Distribution: Peru.


Bachia lineata

Duaca Earless Teju

Duaca-Wühlteju

Duaca-graveteju

1903 Bachia lineata Boulenger
Bachia heteropa lineata Dixon 1973
1929 Bachia anomala Roux (syn. Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers 2019)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of heteropa (e.g., Dixon 1973). Revalidated as a separate species by Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers (2019).
Distribution: Venezuela.





Bachia marcelae

La Luz Earless Teju

La-Luz-Wühlteju

La Luz-graveteju

1964 Bachia marcelae Donoso-Barros & Garrido
Bachia lineata marcelae Donoso-Barros 1969
Bachia heteropa marcelae Dixon 1973

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies or synonym of lineata (e.g., Donoso-Barros 1969) or heteropa (e.g., Dixon 1973). Revalidated as a separate species by Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers (2019).
Distribution: Venezuela.





Bachia micromela

Guaraí Earless Teju

Guarai-Wühlteju

Guarai-graveteju

2007 Bachia micromela Rodrigues, Pavan & Curcio

Distribution: Brazil (Tocantins).


Bachia monodactyla

One-toed Earless Teju

Einzehige Wühlteju

Entået Graveteju

1802 Chalcides monodactylus Daudin
1802 Chamaesaura tridactylus Daudin (syn. Dixon 1973; Avila-Pires 1995)
1820 Colobus daudini Merrem [substitute name for Chalcides monodactylus Daudin 1802]
1872 Chalcides trilineatus Peters (syn. Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)

Remarks: Previously included parkeri. Hoogmoed (1973) regarded cophias (see flavescens) as a separate species and monodactylus as its synonym. Avila-Pires (1995) placed both forms in the synonymy of flavescens. Kizirian & McDiarmid (1998) regarded flavescens as a species complex. Revalidated by Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016), but without comments regarding the taxon cophias.
Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Para [incl. Marajo Island]), French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela.


Bachia oxyrhina

Mateiros Earless Teju

Mateiros-Wühlteju

Mateiros-graveteju

2008 Bachia oxyrhina Rodrigues, Camacho, Nunes, Recoder, Teixeira, Valdujo, Ghellere, Mott & Nogueira

Distribution: Brazil (Tocantins).


Bachia pallidiceps

Rio Truando Earless Teju

Rio Truando-Wühlteju

Rio Truando-graveteju

1862 Brachypus pallidiceps Cope
Bachia pallidiceps Vanzolini 1961

Distribution: Colombia, Panama.


Bachia panoplia

Manaus Earless Teju

Manaus-Wühlteju

Manaus-graveteju

1965 Bachia panoplia Thomas

Remarks: Records from Colombia (e.g., Dixon 1973; Ayala 1986; Avila-Pires 1995) are based on pyburni (Kizirian & McDiarmid 1998).
Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Para).


Bachia parkeri

Chenapowu River Earless Teju

Chenapowu-Wühlteju

Chenapowu-graveteju

1925 Bachia parkeri Ruthven
Bachia monodactylus parkeri Kohlsdorf & Wagner 2006

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of flavescens (e.g., Avila-Pires 1995). Kizirian & McDiarmid (1998) regarded flavescens as a species complex. Kohlsdorf & Wagner (2006) suggested that parkeri might deserve revalidation as a separate species, which was confirmed by Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016).
Distribution: Colombia, Guyana, Venezuela.


Bachia peruana

Peruvian Earless Teju

Peruvianische Wühlteju

Peruviansk Graveteju

1900 Cophias peruanus Werner
Bachia peruana Ruthven 1925

Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amazonas), Peru.


Bachia psamophila

Porto Nacional Earless Teju

Porto Nacional-Wühlteju

Porto Nacional-graveteju

2007 Bachia psamophila Rodrigues, Pavan & Curcio

Distribution: Brazil (Tocantins).


Bachia pyburni

Yapima Earless Teju

Yapima-Wühlteju

Yapima-graveteju

1998 Bachia pyburni Kizirian & McDiarmid

Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas), Colombia, Venezuela.


Bachia remota

Tumucumaque Earless Teju

Tumucumaque-Wühlteju

Tumucumaque-graveteju

2016 Bachia remota Ribeiro-Júnior, Silva & Lima

Distribution: Brazil (Amapa).


Bachia scaea

Rondonian Earless Teju

Rondonia-Wühlteju

Rondonia-graveteju

2013 Bachia scaea Teixeira, Vechio, Nunes, Neto, Lobo, Storti, Gaiga, Dias & Rodrigues

Distribution: Brazil (Rondonia).


Bachia scolecoides

Mato Grosso Earless Teju

Mato-Grosso-Wühlteju

Mato Grosso-graveteju

1961 Bachia scolecoides Vanzolini

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Para).


Bachia talpa

Santa Marta Earless Teju

Santa Marta-Wühlteju

Santa Marta-graveteju

1925 Bachia talpa Ruthven

Distribution: Colombia.


Bachia trinitatis

Trinidad Earless Teju

Trinidad-Wühlteju

Trinidad-graveteju

1914 Scolecosaurus trinitatis Barbour
Bachia trinitatis Vanzolini 1961
Bachia alleni trinitatis Thomas 1965
Bachia heteropa trinitatis Dixon 1973

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of alleni (e.g., Thomas 1965) or of heteropa (e.g., Dixon 1973). Kohlsdorf & Wagner (2006) and Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016) suggested that trinitatis might deserve status as a separate species. Validity as a separate species confirmed by Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers (2019).
Distribution: Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad, Bocas Islands, Tobago, Little Tobago Island).





Bachia trisanale

Striped Earless Teju

Gestreifte Wühlteju

Stribet Graveteju

1868 Ophiognomon trisanale Cope
Bachia trisanale Dixon 1973
1871 Chalcides abendrothii Peters (syn. Dixon 1973)
Ophiognomon abendrothii Boulenger 1885
Bachia trisanale abendrothii Dixon 1973

Remarks: Includes two subspecies (trisanale, abendrothii), previously regarded as separate species and placed in a separate genus, Ophiognomon, along with vermiforme.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre), Ecuador, Peru.


Bachia vermiforme

Brown Earless Teju

Braune Wühlteju

Brun Graveteju

1874 Propus vermiformis Cope
Ophiognomon vermiforme Boulenger 1885
Bachia trisanale vermiformis Dixon 1973
Bachia vermiforme Dixon & Soini 1975

Remarks: Not listed by Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016).
Distribution: Peru.


Bachia whitei

Tobago Earless Teju

Tobago-Wühlteju

Tobago-graveteju

2019 Bachia whitei Murphy, Salvi, Santos, Braswell, Charles, Borzée & Jowers

Distribution: Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago).