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Taxonomy of the family Scincidae
Bibliography of the genus Carlia
Biodiversity of the family Scincidae








Genus
Carlia

Australian-Pacific Rainbow Skinks, Four-fingered Skinks

Australisch-Pazifische Regenbogenskinke*

Australsk-Pacifiske Regnbueskinker*

1839 Heteropus Dumeril & Bibron [not Heteropus Beauvois 1805 not Heteropus Fitzinger 1826] (type species: Heteropus fuscus Dumeril & Bibron 1839; syn. Greer 1974)
1845 Carlia Gray (type species: Mocoa melanopogon Gray 1845)
1884 Myophila De Vis (type species: Myophila vivax De Vis 1884; syn. Greer 1974)
Contents: 47 species, of which 44 (93.6%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Liburnascincus and Lygisaurus.
Distribution: E. Malay Archipelago, SW. Pacific, Australia.
Reported from: Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands, Whitsunday Islands], South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia), East Timor, Indonesia (Alor, Ambon, Aru Islands, Babar Islands, Banda Islands, Buru, Damar, Gorong Archipelago, Halmahera, Haruku, Kai Islands, Kelang, Laut (off Seram), Misool, Morotai, Rote, Salawati, Saparua, Semau, Seram, Sukur, Tanimbar Islands, Ternate, Tinjil, Waigeo, West Timor, Western New Guinea, Wetar, Yapen), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus, Rambutyo), Duke of York, New Britain, New Ireland], d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson, Goodenough, Normanby], Eastern New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago [Misima, Rossel, Sudest], Woodlark, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville], Trobriand Islands), Solomon Islands.

Carlia aenigma

Enigmatic Rainbow Skink

Emeti-Regenbogenskink*

Emeti-regnbueskink*

2004 Carlia aenigma Zug

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Carlia ailanpalai

Admiralty Islands Rainbow Skink*, Admiralty Islands Brown Skink

Admiralty-Regenbogenskink*

Admiralty-regnbueskink*

2004 Carlia ailanpalai Zug

Remarks: Presumably introduced to Guam, Saipan, and Palau with war material during or just after World War II and from there to other islands (Marianas, Micronesia) (Zug 2013). It is uncertain whether all introductions have resulted in established populations (Zug 2013).
Introduced to: Guam, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau.
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Admiralty Islands [Manus, Rambutyo]).


Carlia amax

Bauxite Rainbow Skink, Two-spined Rainbow Skink, Amax Rainbow Skink

Bauxit-Regenbogenskink*

Bauxit-regnbueskink*

1974 Carlia amax Storr
1974 Carlia johnstonei grandensis Storr (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)
Carlia grandensis Wells & Wellington 1984
1985 Carlia instantanea Wells & Wellington (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Carlia aramia

Aramia River Rainbow Skink

Aramia-Regenbogenskink*

Aramia-regnbueskink*

2004 Carlia aramia Zug

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Carlia babarensis

Babar Islands Rainbow Skink*

Babar-Regenbogenskink*

Babar-regnbueskink*

1926 Lygosoma fuscum babarense Kopstein
Carlia babarensis Zug 2004

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of fusca (e.g., Kopstein 1926). Revalidated by Zug (2004).
Distribution: Indonesia (Babar Islands, Tanimbar Islands).


Carlia beccarii

Kai Islands Rainbow Skink*

Kai-Regenbogenskink*

Kai-regnbueskink*

1878 Heteropus beccarii Peters & Doria
Lygosoma fuscum beccarii Loveridge 1948
Carlia beccarii Zug 2004

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or a subspecies of fusca (e.g., de Rooij 1915). Revalidated by Zug (2004).
Distribution: Indonesia (Kai Islands).


Carlia bicarinata

Papuan Bicarinate Rainbow Skink, Bicarinate Four-fingered Skink

Papuanischer Zweikiel-Regenbogenskink*

Papuansk Tokølet Regnbueskink*

1877 Heteropus bicarinatus Macleay
Lygosoma bicarinatum Oudemans 1894
Carlia bicarinata Mittleman 1952
1878 Heteropus albertisii Peters & Doria (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)
Lygosoma albertisii Boulenger 1887

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Carlia bomberai

Bomberai Peninsula Rainbow Skink*

Bomberai-Regenbogenskink*

Bomberai-regnbueskink*

2006 Carlia bomberai Zug & Allison

Distribution: Indonesia (Western New Guinea).


Carlia caesius

Papuan Blue-throated Rainbow Skink*

Papuanischer Blaukehliger Regenbogenskink*

Papuansk Blåstrubet Regnbueskink*

2006 Carlia caesius Zug & Allison

Distribution: Indonesia (Western New Guinea).


Carlia crypta

Mount Lewis Rainbow Skink*

Mount-Lewis-Regenbogenskink*

Mount Lewis-regnbueskink*

2018 Carlia crypta Singhal, Hoskin, Couper, Potter & Moritz

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).





Carlia decora

Elegant Rainbow Skink

Schmuck-Regenbogenskink*

Pragt-regnbueskink*

2012 Carlia decora Hoskin & Couper

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia diguliensis

Digul River Rainbow Skink

Digul-Regenbogenskink*

Digul-regnbueskink*

1926 Leiolopisma fuscum diguliense Kopstein
Carlia diguliensis Zug 2004

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of fusca (e.g., Loveridge 1948; de Rooij 1915). Revalidated by Zug (2004).
Distribution: Indonesia (Aru Islands, Western New Guinea).


Carlia dogare

Sandy Rainbow Skink

Sand-Regenbogenskink*

Sand-regnbueskink*

1975 Carlia dogare Covacevich & Ingram

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia eothen

Eastern Papuan Rainbow Skink*

Ostpapuanischer Regenbogenskink*

Østpapuansk Regnbueskink*

2004 Carlia eothen Zug

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson, Goodenough, Normanby], Eastern New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago [Misima, Rossel, Sudest], Woodlark, Trobriand Islands).


Carlia fusca

Brown Rainbow Skink*, Brown Four-fingered Skink

Dunkelbrauner Regenbogenskink*

Mørkebrun Regnbueskink*

1839 Heteropus fuscus Dumeril & Bibron
Lygosoma fuscum Boulenger 1887
Liolepisma fuscum Lucas 1898
Leiolepisma fuscum Barbour 1912
Carlia fusca Mittleman 1952
Leiolopisma fuscum Mitchell 1953
1874 Heteropus tricarinatus Meyer (Zug 2004)
Lygosoma fuscum tricarinatum Boulenger 1887
Carlia tricarinata Mittleman 1952
1948 Lygosoma fuscum jamnanum Loveridge (Zug 2004)

Remarks: Previously included populations now assigned to aenigma, ailanpalai, aramia, beccarii, diguliensis, eothen, leucotaenia, luctuosa, mysi, nigrauris, spinauris, and tutela. Zug (2004, 2010) revised the group and restricted the range of fusca to NW. New Guinea and some of its satellites.
Distribution: Indonesia (Waigeo, Western New Guinea, Yapen).


Carlia gracilis

Slender Rainbow Skink

Venus-Regenbogenskink*

Venus-regnbueskink*

1974 Carlia gracilis Storr
1985 Carlia boltoni Wells & Wellington (tentative synonymy)
1985 Carlia arafurae Wells & Wellington (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia).


Carlia inconnexa

Whitsunday Rainbow Skink

Whitsunday-Regenbogenskink*

Whitsunday-regnbueskink*

1989 Carlia pectoralis inconnexa Ingram & Covacevich
Carlia inconnexa Hoskin & Couper 2012

Distribution: Australia (Queensland: Whitsunday Islands).


Carlia insularis

Kimberley Islands Rainbow Skink

Kimberley-Islands-Regenbogenskink*

Kimberley Islands-regnbueskink*

2017 Carlia insularis Afonso Silva, Santos, Ogilvie & Moritz

Remarks: Previously regarded as populations of johnstonei (Afonso-Silva, Santos, Ogilvie & Moritz 2017).
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia: Bonaparte Archipelago, incl. East Montalivet Island).


Carlia isostriacantha

Monsoonal Three-keeled Rainbow Skink

Monsun-Regenbogenskink*

Monsun-regnbueskink*

2017 Carlia isostriacantha Afonso Silva, Santos, Ogilvie & Moritz

Remarks: Previously regarded as populations of triacantha (Afonso-Silva, Santos, Ogilvie & Moritz 2017).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia).


Carlia jarnoldae

Lined Rainbow Skink, (Jewel Skink)

Juwel-Regenbogenskink*

Juvel-regnbueskink*

1975 Carlia jarnoldae Covacevich & Ingram

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia johnstonei

Rough Brown Rainbow Skink

Rauhe Braune Regenbogenskink*

Ru Brun Regnbueskink*

1974 Carlia johnstonei johnstonei Storr

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to insularis.
Distribution: Australia (Western Australia).


Carlia leucotaenia

White-striped Rainbow Skink*

Weißstreifen-Regenbogenskink*

Hvidstribet Regnbueskink*

1860 Heteropus leucotaenia Bleecker
Carlia leucotaenia Zug 2004
1864 Heteropus schlegeli Peters (Zug 2004)
Carlia schlegeli Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of fusca (e.g., Boulenger 1887; Rooij 1915). Revalidated by Zug (2004). Timor is not part of the range (Zug 2004).
Distribution: Indonesia (Ambon, Seram).


Carlia longipes

Long-toed Rainbow Skink, (Robust Rainbow Skink, Closed-litter Rainbow Skink)

Langzehiger Regenbogenskink*

Langtået Regnbueskink*

1878 Heteropus longipes Macleay
Carlia longipes Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 1983
1877 Heteropus cheverti Macleay (Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009)

Remarks: Previously included quinquecarinata and sexdentata (e.g., Zug 2004). Confined to Australia (Zug 2004). Records from Northern Territory refer to sexdentata (Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009).
Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia luctuosa

Black-hooded Rainbow Skink*

Kapuzen-Regenbogenskink*

Sorthættet Regnbueskink*

1878 Heteropus luctuosus Peters & Doria
Lygosoma fuscum luctuosa Loveridge 1948
Carlia luctuosa Zug 2004
1890 Lygosoma atrogulare Ogilby (Zug 2004)
1898 Lygosoma nigrigulare Boulenger (Zug 2004)
Carlia nigrigulare Mittleman 1952

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Carlia munda

Striped Rainbow Skink, Shaded-litter Rainbow Skink

Gestreifter Regenbogenskink*

Stribet Regnbueskink*

1885 Heteropus mundus De Vis
Lygosoma mundum Smith 1937
Carlia munda Mittleman 1952
1845 Mocoa melanopogon Gray [not Gongylus melanopogon Duméril & Bibron 1839] (Storr 1974; Ingram & Covacevich 1988)
1984 Carlia covacevichi Wells & Wellington [substitute name for Mocoa melanopogon Gray 1845]
1985 Carlia springelli Wells & Wellington (tentative synonymy)

Remarks: Previously referred to as Carlia foliorum (e.g., Storr 1974). See also remarks under Lygisaurus foliorum. A record from Sulawesi (Iskandar & Tjan 1996, as melanopogon) was based on Sphenomorphus melanopogon, but actually represents S. variegatus.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Carlia mysi

Morobe Rainbow Skink*, (Mys' Rainbow Skink)

Morobe-Regenbogenskink*

Morobe-regnbueskink*

2004 Carlia mysi Zug

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Duke of York, New Britain, New Ireland], Eastern New Guinea, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville]), Solomon Islands.


Carlia nigrauris

Black-eared Rainbow Skink*

Schwarzohren-Regenbogenskink*

Sortøret Regnbueskink*

2010 Carlia nigrauris Zug

Distribution: Indonesia (Tinjil).


Carlia pectoralis

Open-litter Rainbow Skink

Port-Curtis-Regenbogenskink*

Port Curtis-regnbueskink*

1885 Heteropus pectoralis De Vis
Lygosoma pectorale Smith 1937
Carlia pectorale Mittleman 1952
1885 Heteropus lateralis De Vis (Ingram & Covacevich 1989; Hoskin & Couper 2012)
1890 Lygosoma devisii Boulenger (Ingram & Covacevich 1989; Hoskin & Couper 2012)

Remarks: Previously included inconnexa.
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland).


Carlia peronii

Timor Rainbow Skink*

Timor-Regenbogenskink*

Timor-regnbueskink*

1839 Heteropus peroni Dumeril & Bibron
Carlia peronii Mittleman 1952

Remarks: Previously included spinauris.
Distribution: East Timor, Indonesia (Semau).


Carlia pulla

Dark Rainbow Skink*

Dunkler Regenbogenskink*

Mørk Regnbueskink*

1911 Leiolopisma pullum Barbour
Lygosoma pullum De Rooij 1915
Carlia pulla Mittleman 1952

Distribution: Indonesia (Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Carlia quinquecarinata

Torres Strait Rainbow Skink*, Eastern Torres Rainbow Skink

Torres-Strait-Regenbogenskink*

Torres Strait-regnbueskink*

1878 Heteropus quinquecarinatus Macleay
Carlia quinquecarinatus Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of longipes (e.g., Zug 2004). Revalidated by Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton (2009). May occur in Papua New Guinea (Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009).
Distribution: Australia (Queensland: Torres Strait Islands).


Carlia rhomboidalis

Australian Blue-throated Rainbow Skink, Blue-lipped Rainbow Skink, Red-and-Blue-throated Rainbow Skink

Australischer Blaukehliger Regenbogenskink*

Australsk Blåstrubet Regnbueskink*

1869 Heteropus rhomboidalis Peters
Lygosoma rhomboidale Boulenger 1887
Carlia rhomboidale Mittleman 1952

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia rimula

Crevice Rainbow Skink*

Spalten-Regenbogenskink*

Spalte-regnbueskink*

1980 Carlia rimula Ingram & Covacevich

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia rostralis

Black-throated Rainbow Skink

Schwarzkehl-Regenbogenskink*

Sortstrubet Regnbueskink*

1885 Heteropus rostralis De Vis
Carlia rostralis Ingram & Covacevich 1989

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of longipes (e.g., Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 1983).
Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia rubigo

Orange-flanked Rainbow Skink

Orangeseitiger Regenbogenskink*

Orangesidet Regnbueskink*

2012 Carlia rubigo Hoskin & Couper

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia rubrigularis

Red-throated Rainbow Skink, Northern Red-throated Skink

Rotkehliger Regenbogenskink*

Rødstrubet Regnbueskink*

1989 Carlia rubrigularis Ingram & Covacevich

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia rufilatus

Red-sided Rainbow Skink

Rotseitiger Regenbogenskink*

Rødsidet Regnbueskink*

1974 Carlia rufilatus Storr
1985 Carlia boustedi Wells & Wellington (tentative synonymy)

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia).


Carlia schmeltzii

Robust Rainbow Skink

Großer Regenbogenskink*

Stor Regnbueskink*

1867 Heteropus schmeltzii Peters
Carlia schmeltzii Cogger 1975
1975 Carlia prava Covacevich & Ingram (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Carlia sexdentata

Northern Cape York Rainbow Skink*, (Macleay's Rainbow Skink)

Endeavour-Regenbogenskink*

Endeavour-regnbueskink*

1878 Heteropus sexdentatus Macleay
Carlia sexdentatus Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009
1877 Heteropus variegatus Macleay (Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009)
1885 Heteropus maculatus De Vis (Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009)
1885 Heteropus rubricatus De Vis (Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton 2009)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of longipes (e.g., Zug 2004). Revalidated by Donnellan, Couper, Saint & Wheaton (2009).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands]).


Carlia spinauris

Lelogama Rainbow Skink*

Lelogama-Regenbogenskink*

Lelogama-regnbueskink*

1927 Lygosoma spinauris Smith
Lygosoma fuscum spinauris Brongersma 1942
Carlia spinauris Zug 2010

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of peronii (e.g., Greer 1976). Revalidated by Zug (2010).
Distribution: East Timor, Indonesia (West Timor).


Carlia storri

Brown Bicarinate Rainbow Skink, (Storr's Rainbow Skink)

Brauner Zweikiel-Regenbogenskink*

Brun Tokølet Regnbueskink*

1989 Carlia storri Ingram & Covacevich

Distribution: Australia (Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands], Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Carlia sukur

Sukur Rainbow Skink*, Sukur Four-toed Skink

Sukur-Regenbogenskink*

Sukur-regnbueskink*

2014 Carlia sukur Zug & Kaiser

Distribution: Indonesia (Sukur).


Carlia tetradactyla

Southern Rainbow Skink

Südlicher Regenbogenskink*

Sydlig Regnbueskink*

1879 Mocoa tetradactyla O'Shaughnessy
Lygosoma tetradactylum Boulenger 1887
Carlia tetradactyla Mittleman 1952
1890 Lygosoma maccooeyi Ramsay & Ogilby (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)
Carlia maccooeyi Littlejohn & Rawlinson 1971

Distribution: Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria).


Carlia triacantha

Desert Rainbow Skink, Three-spined Rainbow Skink

Wüsten-Regenbogenskink*

Ørken-regnbueskink*

1953 Leiolopisma triacantha Mitchell
Lygosoma triacantha Worrell 1963
Carlia triacantha Cogger 1975
1985 Carlia monsolgaensis Wells & Wellington (tentative synonymy)
1985 Carlia mysteria Wells & Wellington (tentative synonymy)

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to isostriacantha. Taxonomic status of the Top End population (northernmost Northern Territory) is uncertain. It may also belong to isostriacantha (Afonso Silva, Santos, Ogilvie & Moritz 2017).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, South Australia, Western Australia).


Carlia tutela

Moluccan Rainbow Skink*, Halmahera Brown Skink

Maluku-Regenbogenskink*

Maluku-regnbueskink*

2004 Carlia tutela Zug

Remarks: Previously reported as fusca (e.g., de Rooij 1915). The introduced Carlia population in Palau was first thought to represent tutela (Zug 2004), however, they have now been identified as ailanpalai (Zug 2013).
Distribution: Indonesia (Halmahera, Morotai, Ternate).


Carlia vivax

Lively Rainbow Skink, Tussock Rainbow Skink

Lebhafter Regenbogenskink*

Livlig Regnbueskink*

1884 Myophila vivax De Vis
Leiolopisma vivax Mitchell 1953
Carlia vivax Mittleman 1952
Lygosoma vivax Worrell 1963
1885 Heteropus blackmanni De Vis (Ingram & Covacevich 1989)

Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands]).


Carlia wundalthini

Cape Melville Rainbow Skink

Cape-Melville-Regenbogenskink*

Cape Melville-regnbueskink*

2014 Carlia wundalthini Hoskin

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).