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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Lachesis
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Lachesis

Bushmasters

Buschmeister

Bushmastere, Stumme Klapperslanger

1803 Lachesis Daudin (type species: Crotalus mutus Linnaeus 1766)
1811 Trigonocephalus Oppel 1810 (type species: Scytale ammodytes Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801 ["1801-02"])
1815 Trigalus Rafinesque [substitute name for Trigonocephalus Oppel 1811]
1820 Cophias Merrem (type species: Coluber crotalinus Gmelin 1788)
Contents: 4 species, none of which are endemic.
Distribution: Central America, South America.
Reported from: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.

Lachesis acrochorda

Chocoan Bushmaster

Choco-Buschmeister*

Chocó-bushmaster*

1896 Bothrops acrochordus Garcia
1909 Bothrops calcaratus Posada-Arango (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1909 Bothrops verrucosus Posada-Arango (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of muta (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated as a separate species by Campbell & Lamar (2004) and Ripa (2004).
Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, Panama.


Lachesis melanocephala

Black-headed Bushmaster, Costa Rican Bushmaster

Schwarzkopf-Buschmeister*

Sorthovedet Bushmaster*

1986 Lachesis muta melanocephala Solorzano & Cerdas
Lachesis melanocephala Zamudio & Greene 1997

Distribution: Costa Rica, Panama.


Lachesis muta

South American Bushmaster, Common Bushmaster

Amazonische Buschmeister

Sydamerikansk Bushmaster*

1766 Crotalus mutus Linnaeus
Lachesis mutus Daudin 1803
1788 Coluber crotalinus Gmelin (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Cophias crotalinus Merrem 1820
Trigonocephalus crotalinus Schinz 1822
Crasedocephalus crotalinus [sic] Gray 1825
1801 Scytale ammodytes Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille [1801-02] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1801 Scytale catenatus Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille [1801-02] (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1802 Coluber Alecto Shaw (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1803 Lachesis ater Daudin (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1824 Bothrops Surucucu Wagler (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1824 Lachesis rhombeata Wied
Lachesis muta rhombeata Hoge & Romano 1978
1872 Trigonocephalus brasiliensis Liais (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1966 Lachesis muta noctivaga Hoge (Campbell & Lamar 2004)

Other common names:
rhombeata: Brazilian Bushmaster
Remarks: Costa & Bérnils (2018) did not include Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe, and Sao Paulo in the distribution, although reported from the states by other authors.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.


Lachesis stenophrys

Central American Bushmaster

Zentralamerikanischer Buschmeister

Centralamerikansk Bushmaster*

1876 Lachesis stenophrys Cope
Lachesis muta stenophrys Taylor 1951

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Zamudio & Greene (1997). Although reported from Colombia (Pérez-Santos & Moreno 1988), presence in the country needs verification (see Cadle 1992).
Distribution: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama.