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Taxonomy of the genus Varanus Biodiversity of the family Varanidae

Bibliography of the genus
Varanus (Monitor Lizards)

(Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae)

Note: In order to limit redundancy, relevant literature indexed in the related bibliographies in the left column may not have been included in this page. For a comprehensive search of literature, these bibliographies should therefore also be consulted.


Varanus in general

Anonymous. 1928. Protection of monitor lizards. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 33: 185-187.

Akeret, B. 2013. Erfahrungen mit dem Bau von Waranterrarien und der Haltung kleiner Varanus-Arten der Untergattung Odatria. Draco 14(53): 37-44.

Arbuckle, K. 2009. Ecological function of venom in Varanus, with a compilation of dietary records from the literature. Biawak 3(2): 46-56.

Arida, E.; Böhme, W. 2010. The origin of Varanus: when fossils, morphology, and molecules alone are never enough. Biawak 4(4): 117-124.

Ast, J.C. 2001. Mitochondrial DNA evidence and evolution in Varanoidea (squamata). Cladistics 17(3): 211-226.

Attwell, R.I.G. 1960. A monitor´s mishap. Wild Life (Nairobi) 2(3): 31.

Ballou, G. 1957. Varanus, the little dragon. Nature Magazine (New York) 50: 79-80.

Barabanov, A.; Milto, K.D, 2017. An annotated type catalogue of the anguid, dibamid, scincid and varanid lizards in the Department of Herpetology, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia (Reptilia: Sauria: Anguidae, Dibamidae, Scincidae and Varanidae). Zootaxa 4244(1): 65–78.

Bartholomew, G.A.; Tucker, V.A. 1964. Size, body temperature, thermal conductance. oxygen consumption and heartrate in Australian Varanid lizards. Physiological Zoology 37(4): 341-354.

Baverstock, P.R.; King, D.; King, M.; Birrell, J.; Krieg, M. 1993. The evolution of species of the Varanidae: microcomplement fixation analysis of serum albumins. Australian Journal of Zoology 41(6): 621-638.

Bayless, M.K. 1997. The distribution of African monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae). African Journal of Ecology 35(4): 374-377.

Bayless, M.K. 2002. Monitor lizards: A pan-African check-list of their zoogeography (Sauria: Varanidae: Polydaedalus). Journal of Biogeography 29(12): 1643-1701.

Bayless, M.K. 2004. The local names of Pacific monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae) of Oceania & Indo-Malaysia, excluding Australia. Micronesica 37(1): 49-55.

Bayless, M.K. 2006. Savannah Monitors: A Complete Guide to Varanus exanthematicus and Others. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 128 pp.

Bayless, M.K.; Adragna, J.A. 1997. Monitor lizards in the Philippine Islands: a historical perspective (Sauria: Varanidae). Asia Life Sciences 6(1-2): 39-50.

Bayless, M.K.; Luiselli, L. 2001. A review of predation on African monitor lizards (Varanidae). Bulletin de la Societe Herpetologique de France 97: 19-26.

Beadon, W.R.C. 1924. Python and monitor. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 30: 229-230.

Becker, H.O. 1991. The lung morphology of Varanus yemenensis Bohme, Joger & Schätti, 1989, and its bearing on the systematics of the Afro-Asian monitor radiation. Mertensiella 2: 29-37.

Becker, H.O.; Böhme, W.; Perry, S.F. 1989. Die Lungenmorphologie der Warane (Reptilia: Varanidae) und ihre sytematisch-stammegeschichtliche Bedeutung. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 40(1): 27-56.

Bedford, G.; Christian, K.A. 1996. Tail morphology related to habitat of varanid lizards and some other reptiles. Amphibia-Reptilia 17(2): 131-140.

Bellairs, A.A. 1949. Observations on the snout of Varanus and a comparison with that of other lizards and snakes. Journal of Anatomy (London) 83: 116-146.

Bellairs, A.A.; Miles, A.E.W. 1960. Apparent failure of tooth replacement in monitor lizards. With remarks on loss of teeth in other reptiles. British Journal of Herpetology 2(11): 189-194.

Bennett, D. 1990. Monitor lizards in the wild and in the home. Thames and Chiltern Herpetological Group Newsletter 112: 4-12.

Bennett, D. 1991. Monitor lizards of the world. Rephiberary 168: 2-3.

Bennett, D. 1993. Some remarks on longevity in monitor lizards. SWHS Journal 2(3): 27-29.

Bennett, D. 1996. Warane der Welt. Welt der Warane. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 383 pp. (Translation by T. Wilms of 1996 English original).

Bennett, D. 1998. Monitor lizards. Natural history, biology & husbandry. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 352 pp. (2nd revised and expanded edition of "A little book of monitor lizards". Edited by T. Wilms & B. Bartholemew).

Bharatan, E. 1971. Cobra and monitor lizard. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 68(3): 838-839.

Blamires, S.J. 2000. Estimating the number of Varanus inhabiting an Australian tropical beach from track characteristics. Herpetological Review 31(3): 155-158.

Blamires, S.J. 2000. Some habitat and behaviour observations of varanids in the Northern Territory. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 30(2): 42-45.

Böhme, W. 1991. Artbildung bei Waranen (Sauria: Varanidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 67(1): 81-83.

Böhme, W. 1991. New findings on the hemipenial morphology of monitor lizards and their systematic implications. Mertensiella 2: 42-49.

Böhme, W. 1991. The identity of Varanus gouldii (Gray, 1838), and the nomenclature of the V. gouldii-species complex. Mertensiella 2: 38-41.

Böhme, W. 1995. Hemiclitoris discovered: a fully differentiated erectile structure in female monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) (Reptilia: Varanidae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 33(3): 129-132.

Böhme, W. 2003. Checklist of the living monitor lizards of the world (family Varanidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 341: 1-43.

Böhme, W.; Horn, H.G. (eds.) 1991. Advances in monitor research. Proceedings of the 'First Multidisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards' held in the Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Institute and Museum Bonn, September 20-22, 1989. Mertensiella 2: 1-266.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 2009. A review of iguanian and anguimorph lizard genitalia (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae; Varanoidea, Shinisauridae, Xenosauridae, Anguidae) and their phylogenetic significance: comparisons with molecular data sets. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 47(2): 189-202.

Bone, W.H. 1920. The booming lizard of Australia. Science (New York) 52: 273.

Boshoff, A.F.; Palmer, N.G. 1980. Macro-analysis of prey remains from martial eagle nests in the Cape Province. Ostrich 51(1): 7-13.

Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2. Iguanidae, Xenosauridae, Zonuridae, Anguidae, Anniellidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, Xantusiidae, Teiidae, Amphisbaenidae. British Museum (Natural History), London. 497 pp.

Branch, W.R. 1982. Hemipeneal morphology of platynotan lizards. Journal of Herpetology 16(1): 16-38.

Branch, W.R. 1991. The life and leguaans of 'Gogga' Brown. African Wildlife 45(4): 172-175.

Branch, W.R. 1997. Family Varanidae. pp. 76-82. In: Wyk, J.H. van (ed.). Proceedings of the FitzSimons Commemorative Symposium (South African lizards: 50 years of progress) and Third H.A.A. Symposium on African herpetology: held at the Transvaal Museum, Pretoria, South Africa, 11-15 October 1993. Herpetological Association of Africa, Matieland. 227 pp.

Broadley, D.G. 1975. Nesting habits of Varanus. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 13(1): 7.

Brown, C.; Foster, C.; Spivey White, J.; Hesletine, J. 2003. Feeding behaviour in monitor lizards and snakes; does direction of prey ingestion influence prey handling time? Herpetological Bulletin 83: 26-29.

Brown, D. 2012. A Guide to Australian Monitors in Captivity. Australian Birdkeeper / Reptile Publications, Burleigh, Queensland. 264 pp.

Brygoo, E.R. 1987. Les types de varanides (reptiles, sauriens) du Museum national d'Histoire naturelle. Catalogue critique. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Section A Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 9(2): 21-38.

Brygoo, E.R. 1991. Addenda. 'Catalogue des types de varanides'. Bulletin du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle Section A Zoologie Biologie et Ecologie Animales 12(3-4): 143.

Bucklitsch, Y.; Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2016. Scale morphology and micro-structure of monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus spp.) and their allies: implications for systematics, ecology, and conservation. Zootaxa 4153(1): 1-192.

Burnett, S. 1997. Colonizing cane toads cause population declines in native predators: reliable anecdotal information and management implications. Pacific Conservation Biology 3(1): 65-72.

Burton, A.M. 1993. Response of prey species to foraging goshawks Accipiter spp. Australian Bird Watcher 15(2): 94-95.

Card, W. 1994. A reproductive history of monitors at the Dallas Zoo. Vivarium (Lakeside) 6(1): 26-29, 44, 46-47.

Card, W. 1995. Monitor lizard husbandry. Bulletin of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians 5(3): 9-17.

Card, W. 1995. Monitor lizards: this man's best friends. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 44(1): 148, 150, 152, 154-157, 159, 161-163.

Card, W.; Kluge, A.G. 1995. Hemipeneal skeleton and varanid lizard systematics. Journal of Herpetology 29(2): 275-280.

Christian, A. 2007. Scaling effects in monitor lizards and consequences for the evolution of large size in terrestrial vertebrates. Mertensiella 16: 1-9.

Christian, A.; Garland, T. 1996. Scaling of limb proportions in monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of Herpetology 30(2): 219-230.

Christian, K.A.; Conley, K.E. 1994. Activity and resting metabolism of varanid lizards compared with 'typical' lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 42(2): 185-193.

Christian, K.A.; Weavers, B.W. 1996. Thermoregulation of monitor lizards in Australia: an evaluation of methods in thermal biology. Ecological Monographs 66(2): 139-157.

Cissé, M. 1971. La diapause chex les Varanides du Senegal. Notes Africaines 131: 57-67.

Cissé, M. 1972. L'alimentation des varanides au Senegal. Bulletin IFAN (Ser. A) 34(2): 503-515.

Cissé, M. 1976. Le cycle genital des Varans du Senegal (reptiles, lacertiliens). Bulletin IFAN (Sci. Nat.) 38(1): 188-205.

Clemente, C.J.; Thompson, G.G.; Withers, P.C. 2009. Evolutionary relationships of sprint speed in Australian varanid lizards. Journal of Zoology (London) 278(4): 270-280.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. 2009. Metabolic rate and endurance capacity in Australian varanid lizards (Squamata; Varanidae; Varanus). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 97(3): 664-676.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G.; Lloyd, D. 2011. Evolution of limb bone loading and body size in varanid lizards. Journal of Experimental Biology 214(18): 3013-3020.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G.; Lloyd, D. 2013. Lizard tricks: overcoming conflicting requirements of speed versus climbing ability by altering biomechanics of the lizard stride. Journal of Experimental Biology 216(20): 3854-3862.

Cogger, H.G. 1959. Australian Goannas. Australian Museum Mag. 13: 71-75.

Collar, D.C.; Schulte, J.A.; Losos, J.B. 2011. Evolution of extreme body size disparity in monitor lizards (Varanus). Evolution 65(9): 2664-2680.

Conrad, J.L.; Ast, J.C.; Montanari, S.; Norell, M.A. 2011. A combined evidence phylogenetic analysis of Anguimorpha (Reptilia: Squamata). Cladistics 27(3): 230-277.

Cota, M. 2009. Study and conservation of varanids of Thailand: past achievements and future challenges. Journal of Wildlife in Thailand 16(1): 11.

Cota, M. (ed.). 2016. Proceedings of the 2015 Interdisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. 247 pp.

D'Abreu, E.A. 1933. Notes on monitor lizards. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 36(2): 269-270.

Daniels, R.J.R. 1995. Notes on the status of monitor lizards & crocodiles in India. Cobra (Madras) 21: 6-11.

Das, I. 1989. Indian monitor lizards: a review of human utilisation patterns. Hamadryad 14(1): 16-19.

Dil'mykhamedov, M.E. 1974. [Some morphological peculiarities of Varanidae and about their position in the Squamata system]. (In Russian). Biologicheskie Nauk. kazakh. gosud. Univ. 6: 80-82.

Dollinger, P. (ed.) 1985. Identification manual. Vol. 3. Reptilia, Amphibia, Pisces. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, Lausanne, Switzerland. 266pp.

Earley, R.L.; Attum, O.; Eason, P. 2002. Varanid combat: perspectives from game theory. Amphibia-Reptilia 23(4): 469-485.

Eidenmüller, B. 1997. Haltung und Zucht von Waranen. Reptilia (D) 2(5): 22-25.

Eidenmüller, B. 1997. The monitor family. pp. 35-46. In: Wilkie, A.H. (ed.). Reptile and amphibian culture: proceedings of the 1997 International Herpetological Society's Symposium. International Herpetological Society, Stourbridge. 96 pp.

Eidenmüller, B. 1997. Warane. Lebensweise, Pflege, Zucht. Herpeton, Offenbach.

Eidenmüller, B. 2001. Die Warane des Northern Territory, Australien. Draco 2(3) (7): 30-41.

Eidenmüller, B. 2005. Captive care of monitors. Part II: diet and reproduction. Iguana (West Hartford) 12(4): 246-251.

Eidenmüller, B. 2005. Captive care of monitors. Part I: Introduction and housing. Iguana (West Hartford) 12(3): 177-181.

Eidenmüller, B. 2007. Kleinwarane im Terrarium. Reptilia (D) 12(63): 16-23.

Eidenmüller, B. 2007. Monitor lizards: natural history, captive care, breeding. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 176 pp.

Eidenmüller, B. 2009. Warane - Lebensweise, Pflege, Zucht. 3rd ed. Herpeton, Offenbach. 207 pp.

Eidenmüller, B. 2015. Smaragdwarane. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 94 pp.

Eidenmüller, B. 2016. Emerald Monitors - The Varanus prasinus Group. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 94 pp.

Eidenmüller, B.; Philippen, H.D. 2008. Varanoid lizards / Warane und Krustenechsen. (Terralog vol. 6). Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main / Rodgau. 148 pp.

Farlow, J.O.; Pianka, E.R. 2000. Body form and trackway pattern in Australian Desert Monitors (Squamata: Varanidae): comparing zoological and ichnological diversity. Palaios 15(3): 235-247.

Fauvel, J.B.; Koch, A. 2009. Zoo-ethnological observations in southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia: a case study of Kembar Buaya ("monitor twins"). Biawak 3(3): 77-80.

Fitch, A.J.; Goodman, A.E.; Donnellan, S.C. 2006. A molecular phylogeny of the Australian monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Australian Journal of Zoology 54(4): 253-269.

Fleay, D. 1950. Goannas, giant lizards of the Australian bush. Animal Kingdom 53: 92-96.

Fleay, R. 1958. How to capture a goanna. Animal Kingdom 61: 73-75.

Fry, B.G.; Scheib, H. 2007. Venom breathing dragons: the molecular diversity of protein toxins in varanid venoms. Mertensiella 16: 10-24.

Frydlova, P.; Frynta, D. 2010. A test of Rensch's rule in varanid lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 100(2): 293-306.

Fuller, S.; Baverstock, P.; King, D. 1998. Biogeographic origins of goannas (Varanidae): a molecular perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 9(2): 294-307.

Funk, R.S.; Vilaro, P.R. 1980. An English translation of Robert Mertens 'Keys to the monitor lizards, with a list of currently recognized species and subspecies'. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 15(2): 31-46.

Galinat, A. 1987. [Mysterious lizards]. (In Polish). Wszechswiat 88(7-8): 163-164.

Gaulke, M. 1991. On the diet of the water monitor, Varanus salvator, in the Philippines. Mertensiella 2: 143-153.

Gaulke, M. 1997. Sex determination of monitor lizards in the field - a review of methods. Hamadryad 22(1): 28-31.

Gaulke, M. 1997. Warane. Nutzung durch den Menschen. Reptilia (D) 2(5): 28-32.

Good, D.A.; Bauer, A.M.; Günther, R. 1993. An annotated type catalogue of the anguimorph lizards (Squamata: Anguidae, Helodermatidae, Varanidae, Xenosauridae) in the Zoological Museum, Berlin. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 69(1): 45-56.

Goulburnite, (-). 1909. A bird enemy - the goanna. Emu 8: 157-158. (Reprint of 1908 original article).

Green, B.; Christian, K. 2007. Field metabolic rates (FMRs) and water fluxes in free-living varanid lizards; a review. Mertensiella 16: 240-246.

Grossman, A.B. 1955. Review of "The systematic position of Lanthonotus and the affinities of the anguinomorphan lizards". Quarterly Review of Biology 30: 400.

Gunawardena, S.A. 2016. Forensic significance of monitor lizard scavenging activity on human corpses. Biawak 10(2): 45-47.

Haberle, H. 1976. Warane - eine Zusammenfassung mit Kurzbeschreibung. Aquarium Aqua Terra 10(87): 409-415.

Haberle, H. 1976. Warane und einige Hinweise für die Pflege. Das Aquarium 85(July): 318-320.

Harrison, J.L. 1955. The age of a monitor lizard. Malayan Nature Journal 9(4): 134-135.

Hocknull, S.A.; Piper, P.J.; Bergh, G.D. van den; Due, R.A.; Morwood, M.J.; Kurniawan, I. 2009. Dragon's paradise lost: palaeobiogeography, evolution and extinction of the largest-ever terrestrial lizards (Varanidae). PLoS ONE 4(9): e7241, 1-15.

Hoerenberg, T.; Koch, A. 2013. Die Zwergwarane der Untergattung Odatria Gray, 1838. Draco 14(53): 6-19.

Holmes, R.S.; King, M.; King, D. 1975. Phenetic relationships among varanid lizards based upon comparative electrophoretic data and karyotypic analyses. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 3(4): 257-262.

Holmes, R.S.; King, M.; King, D. 1975. Phenetic relationships among varanid lizards based upon comparative electrophoretic data of lactate dehydrogenase isozymes and karyotypic analyses. Proceedings of the Australian Biochemical Society 8: 2.

Horn, H.G. 1976. Mangelerscheinungen bei der Haltung von Waranen. Salamandra 12(3): 159-162.

Horn, H.G. 1995. Neue und unentdeckte Warane. Zur Geschichte einiger moderner Waranentdeckungen. TI-Magazin 125: 43-45.

Horn, H.G. 1999. Evolutionary efficiency and success in monitors: a survey on behaviour and behavioural strategies and some comments. Mertensiella 11: 167-180.

Horn, H.G. 2004. Keeping monitors in captivity: a biological, technical and legislative problem. pp. 556-570. In: Pianka, E.R.; King, D.R.; King, R.A. (eds.). Varanoid lizards of the world. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 588 pp.

Horn, H.G.; Böhme, W. (eds.) 1999. Advances in monitor research 2. Proceedings of the "Second Multidisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards", held in the Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Institute and Museum Bonn, August 12-14, 1997. Mertensiella 11: 1-366.

Horn, H.G.; Böhme, W.; Krebs, U. (eds.). 2007. Advances in monitor research III. Mertensiella 16: 1-447.

Horn, H.G.; Böhme, W.; Krebs, U. 2007. Proceeding of the "Third Multidisciplinary World Conference on monitor lizards" held in the Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Museum, Bonn, October 3-5, 2005. Mertensiella 16: 1-447.

Horn, H.G.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 1994. New data on ritualized combats in monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae), with remarks on their function and phylogenetic implications. Zoologische Garten 64(5): 265-280.

Horn, H.G.; Visser, G.J. 1989. Review of reproduction of monitor lizards Varanus spp. in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 28: 140-150.

Horn, H.G.; Visser, G.J. 1991. Basic data on the biology of monitors. Mertensiella 2: 176-187.

Horn, H.G.; Visser, G.J. 1997. Review of reproduction of monitor lizards Varanus spp in captivity 2. International Zoo Yearbook 35: 227-246.

Hoser, R.T. 2013. Monitor lizards reclassified with some common sense (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Australasian Journal of Herpetology 21: 41-58.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1985. Opinion 1359. Uroplat- as the stem of family-group names in Reptilia, Sauria and Insecta, Coleoptera: a ruling to remove the homonymy. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 42(4): 344-346.

Irvine, W. 1957. Notes on the genus Varanus (Monitor lizards). North Queensland Naturalist 27(119): 1-2.

Irvine, W. 1958. Notes on the genus Varanus (continued). North Queensland Naturalist 27(120): 3.

Irwin, S. 1996. An innovative strategy for the detection of egg-deposition in captive varanid reptiles. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 26(1): 31-32.

Irwin, S.; Engle, K.; Mackness, B. 1996. Nocturnal nesting by captive varanid lizards. Herpetological Review 27(4): 192-194.

IUCN Species Survival Committee. Captive Breeding Specialist Group. 1993. Conservation assessment and management plan and global captive action plan summaries: Iguaninae and Varanidae, Boidae and Pythonidae, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Caprinae and Tragulidae, Cervidae, 25 March 1993. Iucn/ssc Captive Breeding Specialist Group, Place of Publication Not Given. 252pp.

James, C.D.; Losos, J.B.; King, D.R. 1992. Reproductive biology and diets of goannas (Reptilia: Varanidae) from Australia. Journal of Herpetology 26(2): 128-136.

Jennings, W.B.; Pianka, E.R. 2004. Tempo and timing of the Australian Varanus radiation. pp. 77-87. In: Pianka, E.R.; King, D.R.; King, R.A. (eds.). Varanoid lizards of the world. Indiana University Press, Bloomington. 588 pp.

Joleaud, L. 1930. Études de geographie zoologique sur la Berberie. Les Reptiles. Compte Rendu des Seances de la Societe de Biogeographie 7(53): 17-22.

King, D. 1991. The effect of body size on the ecology of varanid lizards. Mertensiella 2: 204-210.

King, D.; Fuller, S.; Baverstock, P. 1999. The biogeographical origins of varanid lizards. Mertensiella 11: 43-49.

King, D.; Green, B. 1993. Family Varanidae. pp. 253-260. In: Glasby, C.J.; Ross, G.J.B. & Beesley, P.L. (eds.). Fauna of Australia. Vol. 2A. Amphibia & Reptilia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 439 pp.

King, D.; Green, B. 1993. Goannas: the biology of varanid lizards. 1st ed. University of New South Wales Press, Kensington. 102 pp.

King, D.; Green, B. 1999. Goannas: the biology of varanid lizards. 2nd ed. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney. 116 pp.

King, D.; Green, B. 1999. Monitors: the biology of varanid lizards. 2nd ed. Krieger, Malabar. 116 pp.

King, D.; King, M.; Baverstock, P. 1991. A new phylogeny of the Varanidae. Mertensiella 2: 211-219.

King, D.R.; Pianka, E.R.; Green, B. 2002. Biology, ecology and evolution. pp. 23-41. In: Murphy, J.B.; Ciofi, C.; Panouse, C. de la; Walsh, T. (eds.). Komodo dragons: biology and conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington & London. 268 pp.

King, M; King, D. 1975. Chromosomal evolution in the lizard genus Varanus (Reptilia). Aus. J. Biol. Sci. 28(1): 89-108

Kirschner, A.; Müller, T.; Seufer, H. 1996. Faszination Warane. Kirschner & Seufer Verlag, Keltern-Weiler. 254 pp.

Kitamura, S.; Thong-Aree, S.; Madsri, S.; Poonswad, P. 2010. Mammal diversity and conservation in a small isolated forest of southern Thailand. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 58(1): 145-156.

Klee, O. 1972. Urbilder der Drachen - die Warane. Aquarien Magazin (Stuttgart) 6(8): 320-323.

Koch, A. 2016. The trade in exotic reptiles in Germany using the example of monitor lizards (Family Varanidae): a report on the Interdisciplinary Meeting of the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, 18-21 April 2016. Biawak 10(1): 9-12.

Koch, A.; Arida, E.; Böhme, W. 2007. Zwischenbericht über die Herpetofauna Sulawesis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Varanus: phylogeographische Beziehungen zu angrenzenden Gebieten. Elaphe 15(3): 42-52.

Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2005. Die Herpetofauna Sulawesis unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Varanus: phylogeographische Beziehungen zu angrenzenden Gebieten - Das Projekt stellt sich vor. Elaphe 13(4): 43-46.

Koch, A.; Dittmar, K. 2011. Bericht über die Jahrestagung 2011 der DGHT-AG Warane am ZFMK. Elaphe 19(3): 74-75.

Krebs, U. 1991. Ethology and learning: from observation to semi-natural experiment. Mertensiella 2: 220-232.

Krebs, U. 2007. On intelligence in man and monitor. Observations, concepts, proposals. Mertensiella 16: 44-58.

Krebs, U. 2016. The feeding act in a few varanid species. A description with systematic and evolutionary implications. Pp. 151-165. In: Cota, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the 2015 Interdisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. 247 pp.

Kronen, D. 1983. A preliminary bibliography of the Varanidae to 1974. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 18(3-4): 96-110.

Lambiris, A.J.L. 1992. Preliminary remarks on the use of osteoderms as an adjunct to the taxonomy of southern African lizards. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 40: 14-18.

Landsmeer, J.M.F. 1981. Digital morphology in Varanus and Iguana. Journal of Morphology 168(3): 289-295.

Landsmeer, J.M.F. 1981. Forearm rotation in Varanus. (Abstract). Acta Morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica 19(3): 265.

Landsmeer, J.M.F. 1981. Morphology and function of fingers of some reptiles. (Abstract). Acta Morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica 19(2): 164.

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Barts, M. 1996. Varanus albigularis albigularis (Daudin, 1802) - eine verhaltensbiologische Beobachtung. Sauria (Berlin) 18(2): 17-19.

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Bayless, M.K. 1997. The distribution of African monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae). African Journal of Ecology 35(4): 374-377.

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Firth, I.; Turner, M.; Robinson, M.; Meek, R. 2003. Response of monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) to a repeated food source evidence for association learning? Herpetological Bulletin 84: 1-4.

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Kaufman, J.D.; Burghardt, G.M.; Phillips, J.A. 1994. Density-dependent foraging strategy of a large carnivorous lizard, the savanna monitor (Varanus albigularis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 108(4): 381-384.

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Morris, P.J.; Alberts, A.C. 1996. Determination of sex in white-throated monitors (Varanus albigularis), gila monsters (Heloderma suspectum), and beaded lizards (H. horridum) using two-dimensional ultrasound imaging. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 27(3): 371-377.

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Parkyn, F. 1987. When best intentions are not enough. Thames and Chiltern Herpetological Group Newsletter 75: 10-11.

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Phillips, J.A.; Millar, R.P. 1998. Reproductive biology of the white-throated savanna monitor, Varanus albigularis. Journal of Herpetology 32(3): 366-377.

Phillips, J.A.; Packard, G.C. 1994. Influence of temperature and moisture on eggs and embryos of the white-throated savanna monitor Varanus albigularis: implications for conservation. Biological Conservation 69(2): 131-136.

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Riley, A.; Branch, W.R. 1999. Geographical distribution: Geographical distribution: Varanus albigularis albigularis (Daudin, 1802). Rock monitor. South Africa: Eastern Cape Province. African Herp News 28: 33-34.

Rose, W. 1961. Some notes on lizards. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Rhodesia 15(1): 14.

Secor, S.M.; Phillips, J.A. 1997. Specific dynamic action of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus albigularis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Physiology 117(4): 515-522.

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Sprackland, R.G. 2001. Savannah and Grassland Monitors. BowTie Inc., New York. 70 pp.

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Switak, K.H. 2002. Field notes for Varanus albigularis in Southern Africa. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 37(6): 98-99.

Switak, K.H. 2007. Three noteworthy sightings of the white-throated monitor, Varanus albigularis, in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (South Africa's section). Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 42(5): 73-74.

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Varanus auffenbergi

Canto, R. del 2007. Notes on the occurrence of Varanus auffenbergi on Roti Island. Biawak 1(1): 24-25.

Hoerenberg, T. 2013. Der Timorwaran der Insel Roti: Varanus auffenbergi. Draco 14(53): 51-54.

Kirschner, A. 1999. Bemerkungen zur Pflege und Zucht vom Timorwaran der Insel Roti, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 21(123): 13-18.

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Varanus bangonorum

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Varanus baritji

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King, M.; Horner, P. 1987. A new species of monitor (Platynota: Reptilia) from northern Australia and a note on the status of Varanus acanthurus insulanicus Mertens. Beagle 4(1): 73-79.

Varanus beccarii

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Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Eidenmüller, B. 1998. Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus p. prasinus (Schlegel, 1939) und Varanus p. beccarii (Doria, 1874). Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 20(112): 8-13.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Eidenmüller, B.; Wicker, R. 1993. Varanus (Odatria) prasinus beccarii (Doria, 1874), Pflege und Zucht. Salamandra 28(3-4): 171-178.

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Hartdegen, R.; Chiszar, D.; Murphy, J.B. 1999. Observations on the feeding behavior of captive black tree monitors, Varanus beccari. Amphibia-Reptilia 20(3): 330-332.

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Mendyk, R.W. 2015. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 34(2): 139-152.

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Sprackland, R.G. 1991. Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 30(3): 561-576.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus bengalensis

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Auffenberg, W. 1989. Utilization of monitor lizards in Pakistan. Traffic Bulletin 11(1): 8-12.

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Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. On the synonymy and taxonomy of the Bengal monitor lizard, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802) complex (Sauria: Varanidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 18(2): 207-211.

Chandraratne, R.M.M. 1998. Some reptile bones from the Gedige Excavation in 1985, the Citadel of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. Lyriocephalus 3(2): 7-15.

Chowfin, S.M.; Leslie, A.J. 2013. A preliminary investigation into nesting and nest predation of the critically endangered, Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) at Boksar in Corbett Tiger Reserve, Uttarakhand, India. International Journal of Biodiversity and Conservation 5(2): 54-57.

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Das, S.K. 2004. A juvenile common Indian monitor lizard (Varanus bengalensis Daudin) searching the nest of a house sparrow (Passer domesticus Linnaeus). Cobra (Chennai) 58: 9-10.

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Gaulke, M.; Silva, A. de 1997. Monitor lizards of Sri Lanka: preliminary investigations on their population structure. Lyriocephalus 3(1): 1-5.

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Ghimire, H.R.; Phuyal, S. 2013. Impacts of community forestry on the Bengal Monitor, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802): an empirical study from Nepal. Biawak 7(1): 11-17.

Gupta, B.K. 1996. Trade of Bengal monitor Varanus bengalensis in Uttar Pradesh, India. Tigerpaper (Bangkok) 23(1): 1-3.

Gupta, B.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Prakash, S. 1997. The captive maintenance of the Indian monitor (Varanus bengalensis) Daudin in India. Animal Keepers' Forum 24(7): 309-313.

Gupta, D.P.; Sinha, A.K. 2001. Notes on the burrows of Varanus bengalensis in and around Agra. Zoos' Print Journal 16(12): 651-654.

Gupta, D.P.; Sinha, A.K. 2002. Hunting methods adopted to capture Varanus bengalensis in Agra region. Reptile Rap (Newletter of the Reptile Network of South Asia) 4: 3.

Harit, D.N. 1996. Report on lacertilian fauna of Kolasib of Mizoram, India. Himalayan Journal of Environment and Zoology 10(2): 93-94.

Henry, G.M. 1912. Notes on the food of the jackal (Canis aureus) and the talagoya (Varanus bengalensis). Spolia Zeylanica 8(29): 70.

Hossain, L.; Sarker, S.U. 1996. Ecology of the grey land monitor, Varanus bengalensis L. of the Hatiya Island, Noakhali, Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology 24(1): 21-24.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1959. Opinion 540. Protection under the Plenary Powers of the specific names "bengalensis" Daudin, [1802], as published in the combination "Tupinambis bengalensis," and "salvator" Laurenti, 1768, as published in the combination "Stellio salvator" (Class Reptilia). Opinions of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 20(7): 77-86.

Jablonski, D.; Lesko, A.J. 2018. New locality record of the Bengal monitor, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802), from Afghanistan. Herpetology Notes 11: 915-917.

Jacob, D.; Ramaswami, L.S. 1976. The female reproductive cycle of the Indian monitor lizard Varanus monitor. Copeia 1976(2): 256-260.

Jolley, E.; Meek, R. 2006. Varanus bengalensis (Bengal monitor): unusual behaviour and feeding. Herpetological Bulletin 95: 31-32.

Joshi, R. 2018. Varanus bengalensis predation by Ophiophagus hannah in Rajaji Tiger Reserve, India. Biawak 12(1): 34-36.

Karunarathna, S.; Surasinghe, T.; Dissanayake, D.; Botejue, M.; Gabadage, D.; Madawala, M. 2017. Dietary habits and the predators of the Bengal Monitor Varanus bengalensis in Sri Lanka. Biawak 11(1): 28-39.

Klag, K.; Kantz, H. 1987. Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Fortpflanzung von Varanus b. bengalensis im Terrarium. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 10(52): 21-24.

Krishnan, M. 1992. The common monitor. Cobra (Madras) 8: 3-6.

Kumar Sharma, I. 1996. Habitat preferences, niche and conservation of monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis and Varanus grisesus [griseus]) in Thar Desert, Rajasthan. Cobra (Madras) 23: 32-34.

Kumar, S. 1992. Indian monitor (Varanus bengalensis) feeding on a black-buck (Antilope cervicapra) kill. Hamadryad 17: 48.

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Loop, M.S. 1974. The effect of relative prey size on the ingestion behaviour of the Bengal monitor lizard, Varanus bengalensis (Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetologica 30(1): 123-127.

Mahendra, B.C. 1930. How the monitor lizard sits in its burrow. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 34(1): 255-256.

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Mash, P. 1945. Indian python (Python molurus) preying on monitor lizard (Varanus monitor). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 45: 249-250.

Mertens, R. 1956. Die Gültigkeit der Namen Varanus bengalensis (Daudin 1802) und Varanus salvator (Laurentus 1768). Senckenbergiana Biologica 37: 395-398.

Misra, P.L. 1960. A note on the common monitor, Varanus monitor Linn. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 57: 669-670.

Mukherjee, A.; Pilakandy, R.; Kumara, H.N.; Manchi, S.S.; Bhupathy, S. 2017. Burrow characteristics and its importance in occupancy of burrow dwelling vertebrates in semiarid area of Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan, India. Journal of Arid Environments 141: 7-15

Mukhopadhyay, A. 1980. Some observations on the biology of the openbill stork, Anastomus oscitans (Boddaert), in southern Bengal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 77(1): 133-137.

Nawaz, M.; Nawaz, Y. 2003. Monitor lizard (Varanidae: Reptilia) in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Tigerpaper (Bangkok) 30(3): 28-30.

Pal, A.; Dey, S.; Roy, U.S. 2012. Seasonal diversity and abundance of herpetofauna in and around an industrial city of West Bengal, India. Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation 7(4): 281-286.

Papenfuss, T.J.; Shafiei Bafti, S.; Sharifi, M.; Bennett, D.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. Varanus bengalensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T164579A5909661. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T164579A5909661.en.

Rajarathinam, R.; Kalaiarasan, V. 1995. Records of cannibalism in captive reptiles. Cobra (Madras) 22: 22-23.

Rao, M.V.S. 1982. Food and feeding behaviour of the Indian common monitor, Varanus monitor, Linn. (Abstract). Pranikee 3(3): 12-13.

Rao, M.V.S.; Kameswara Rao, K. 1983. Feeding ecology of the Indian common monitor Varanus monitor. Annual Reptile Symposium on Captive Propagation and Husbandry Proceedings 6: 197-204.

Rese, R. 1988. Beitrag zur Lebenserwartung von Grosswaranen in Gefangenschaft. Sauria (Berlin) 10(1): 25-26.

Rieppel, O. 1978. The phylogeny of cranial kinesis in lower vertebrates, with special reference to the Lacertilia. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen 156(3): 353-370.

Salim, A. 1944. The courtship of the monitor lizard Varanus monitor. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 44: 479-480.

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Sengupta, D.; Nigam, P. 2018. A combat bout of Indian Monitors, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin 1802) in the Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, India. IRCF (International Reptile Conservation Foundation) Journal 25(3): 210–211.

Sharma, R.C. 1982. Taxonomic and ecological studies on the reptiles of Gujarat. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 80(1-2): 85-106.

Sharma, S.K. 1998. Vegetarianism in monitor lizard Varanus bengalensis (Schneider). Cobra (Chennai) 34: 22-23.

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Varadaraju. 2013. Present status of three monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis, V. flavescens and V. salvator) in the Sunderbans. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 113(1): 203-210.

Verma, A.K.; Sahi, D.N. 1995. On the distribution, ecology and status of the Indian monitor lizard Varanus bengalensis (Daudin) in J & K State. Cobra (Madras) 19: 6-9.

Vijaya, J. 1981. Breeding notes. Hamadryad 6(3): 10.

Weston, P. 2008. Varanus bengalensis (Bengal monitor) nesting. Biawak 2(2): 97.

Whitaker, R. 1970. Cobra and monitor together in the same burrow. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 66(3): 364.

Wikramanayake, E.D. 1995. Activity and thermal ecophysiology of two sympatric monitor lizards in Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian Natural History 1(2): 213-224.

Wikramanayake, E.D. 1995. Monitors around us. Loris 20(5): 202-205.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Dryden, G. 1999. Implications of heating and cooling rates in Varanus bengalensis and V. salvator. Mertensiella 11: 149-156.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Dryden, G.L. 1993. Thermal ecology of habitat and microhabitat use by sympatric Varanus bengalensis and V. salvator in Sri Lanka. Copeia 1993(3): 709-714.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Green, B. 1989. Thermoregulatory influences on the ecology of two sympatric varanids in Sri Lanka. Biotropica 21(1): 74-79.

Williams, J. 1935. Notes on the Indian monitor lizard (Varanus monitor) and flying lizard (Draco maculatus). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 37(3): 739-740.

Wischniewski, A.; Wischniewski, M. 1975. Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802). Aquarium Aqua Terra 9(77): 499.

Yadav, A.K.; Rana, K.S. 1988. Sexual dimorphism in the Indian monitor lizard, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin). Geobios (Jodhpur) 15(5): 210-214.

Yang, D.; Li, S. 1987. A new species of Varanus from Yunnan, with morphological comparison between it and six other species from southeast Asia. Chinese Herpetological Research 1: 60-63.

Varanus bitatawa

Abaño-Sarigumba, T.; Brown, R.M.; Welton, L.J.; Ibañez, J.C. 2018. Records of the Northern Sierra Madre Forest Monitor Varanus bitatawa from the Northern Cordillera Mountain Range of Luzon Island, Philippines. Herpetological Review 49(2): 208-209.

Law, S.J.; Kort, S.R. de; Bennett, D.; Weerd, M. van 2016. Morphology, activity area, and movement patterns of the frugivorous monitor lizard Varanus bitatawa. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 11(3): 467-475.

Law, S.J.; Kort, S.R. de; Bennett, D.; Weerd, M. van 2018. Diet and habitat requirements of the Philippine endemic frugivorous monitor lizard Varanus bitatawa. Biawak 12(1): 12-22.

Sy, E.Y. 2012. First record of Varanus bitatawa in the Philippine pet trade. Biawak 6(2): 73.

Welton, L.J.; Siler, C.D.; Bennett, D.; Diesmos, A.C.; Duya, M.R.; Dugay, R.; Rico, E.L.B.; Weerd, M. van; Brown, R.M. 2010. A spectacular new Philippine monitor lizard reveals a hidden biogeographic boundary and a novel flagship species for conservation. Biology Letters 6(5): 654-658.

Welton, L.J.; Siler, C.D.; Diesmos, A.C.; Diesmos, M.L.; Lagat, R.D.; Causaren, R.M.; Brown, R.M. 2012. Genetic identity, geographic ranges, and major distribution records for frugivorous monitor lizards of Luzon Island, Philippines. Herpetological Review 43(2): 226-230.

Varanus boehmei

Allison, A.; Shea, G.; Tallowin, O. 2016. Varanus boehmei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T178267A21646951. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T178267A21646951.en.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Jacobs, H.J. 2003. A further new emerald tree monitor lizard of the Varanus prasinus species group from Waigeo, West Irian (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 39(2): 65-74.

Reisinger, M.; Reisinger-Raweyai, D. 2007. Varanus boehmei, Haltung und erstmalige Nachzucht im Terrarium. Reptilia (D) 12(63): 34-38.

Reisinger, M.; Reisinger-Raweyai, D. 2007. Varanus boehmei: keeping and first breeding in the terrarium. Reptilia (GB) 50: 20-24.

Varanus bogerti

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Koch, A.; Ernst, N.; Eidenmüller, B.; Kraus, F. 2014. New data on the rare Varanus bogerti Mertens, 1950 and V. telenesetes Sprackland, 1991 (Squamata: Varanidae), two endemic monitor lizard taxa from island groups off southeastern New Guinea. Herpetological Journal 24(2): 111-122.

Mertens, R. 1950. Notes on some Indo-Australian monitors (Sauria, Varanidae). American Museum Novitates 1456: 1-7.

Sprackland, R.G. 1991. Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 30(3): 561-576.

Tallowin, O.; Shea, G.; Allison, A. 2016. Varanus bogerti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42485692A42485697. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T42485692A42485697.en.

Varanus brevicaudus

Doughty, P.; Kealley, L.; Fitch, A.; Donnellan, S.C. 2014. A new diminutive species of Varanus from the Dampier Peninsula, western Kimberley region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29(2): 128-140.

Fyfe, G.; Munday, B.; Comber, J. 1999. Captive husbandry and breeding of the short-tailed goanna Varanus brevicauda at the Alice Springs Desert Park. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 29(2): 31-36.

Gillam, M.W.; Cawood, I.S.; Honner, G.J. 1978. New reptile records from central Australia Northern Territory. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 9(2): 18-25.

Jackson, R. 2001. Survival technique by a short tailed pygmy monitor Varanus brevicauda in a flood situation. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 31(2): 92-93.

James, C.D. 1996. Ecology of the pygmy goanna (Varanus brevicauda) in spinifex grasslands of central Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 44(2): 177-192.

King, D.R.; Pianka, E.R. 2007. Ecology of the pygmy monitor Varanus brevicauda in Western Australia. Mertensiella 16: 304-321.

Mebs, D. 1979. Der australische Kurzschwanzwaran (Varanus brevicauda). Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein Darmstadt Bericht N.F. 1978(3): 15-16.

Pianka, E.R. 1970. Notes on Varanus brevicauda. Western Australian Naturalist 11(5): 113-116.

Schmida, G.E. 1974. Der Kurzschwanzwaran (Varanus brevicauda). DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 27: 390-394.

Schmida, G.E. 1975. Däumlinge aus der Familie der Riesen (Varanus brevicauda, V. caudolineatus und V. gilleni). Aquarien 9(1): 8-11.

Shea, G.; Ellis, R.; Wilson, S.; Oliver, P. 2018. Varanus brevicauda. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83777390A101752295. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83777390A101752295.en.

Thompson, G.G. 1996. Breeding Varanus brevicauda. Western Australian Naturalist 21(2): 119-121.

Varanus bushi

Aplin, K.P.; Fitch, A.J.; King, D.J. 2006. A new species of Varanus Merrem (Squamata: Varanidae) from the Pilbara region of Western Australia, with observations on sexual dimorphism in closely related species. Zootaxa 1313: 1-38.

Ellis, R. 2016. Natural history notes: Varanus bushi (Bush's Monitor). Diet. Herpetological Review 47(3): 470.

Wilson, S.; Macdonald, S.M.; Teale, R.; Doughty, P. 2018. Varanus bushi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83777426A83928558. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83777426A83928558.en.

Varanus caerulivirens

Lisle, H.F. de 2007. Varanus caerulivirens (turquoise monitor). Reproduction. Biawak 1(1): 39-40.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1999. Der Türkiswaran Varanus caerulivirens Ziegler, Bohme & Philipp, 1999. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 21(122): 10-11.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 2007. Preliminary investigations of the natural diet of six monitor lizard species of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 16: 336-345.

Weijola, V.S.A. 2010. Geographical distribution and habitat use of monitor lizards of the North Moluccas. Biawak 4(1): 7-23.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W.; Philipp, K.M. 1999. Varanus caerulivirens sp. n., a new monitor lizard of the V. indicus group from Halmahera, Moluccas, Indonesia (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 12(1-2): 45-56.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus caudolineatus

Aplin, K.P.; Fitch, A.J.; King, D.J. 2006. A new species of Varanus Merrem (Squamata: Varanidae) from the Pilbara region of Western Australia, with observations on sexual dimorphism in closely related species. Zootaxa 1313: 1-38.

Bush, B. 1987. The movement of reptiles in mulga fenceposts with records from Esperance, Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 16(8): 171-172.

Ellis, R.; Wilson, S. 2018. Varanus caudolineatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83777621A101752300. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83777621A101752300.en.

Minke, C.H. 1914. Varanus caudolineatus - ein waran für kleinste Terrarien. Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 25: 427-438.

Pianka, E.R. 1969. Notes on the biology of Varanus caudolineatus and Varanus gilleni. Western Australian Naturalist 11(4): 76-82.

Retes, F.; Bennett, D. 2001. Multiple generations, multiple clutches, and early maturity in four species of monitor lizards (Varanidae) bred in captivity. Herpetological Review 32(4): 244-245.

Schmida, G.E. 1975. Däumlinge aus der Familie der Riesen (Varanus brevicauda, V. caudolineatus und V. gilleni). Aquarien 9(1): 8-11.

Smith, L.A. 1988. Notes on a clutch of monitor (Varanus caudolineatus) eggs. Western Australian Naturalist 17(4): 96.

Thompson, G. 1993. Daily movement patterns and habitat preferences of Varanus caudolineatus (Reptilia: Varanidae). Wildlife Research 20(2): 227-231.

Thompson, G.G.; Bradshaw, S.D.; Withers, P. 1997. Energy and water turnover rates of a free-living and captive goanna, Varanus caudolineatus (Lacertilia: Varanidae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Physiology 116(2): 105-111.

Thompson, G.G.; King, D. 1995. Diet of Varanus caudolineatus (Reptilia: Varanidae). Western Australian Naturalist 20(4): 199-204.

Thompson, G.G.; Thompson, S.A. 2002. Clutch of Varanus caudolineatus (Varanidae). Western Australian Naturalist 23(3): 228.

Thompson, G.G.; Withers, P. 1994. Standard metabolic rates of two small Australian varanid lizards (Varanus caudolineatus and V. acanthurus). Herpetologica 50(4): 494-502.

Thompson, G.G.; Withers, P.; Thompson, S.A. 1992. The combat ritual of two monitor lizards Varanus caudolineatus and Varanus gouldii. Western Australian Naturalist 19(1): 21-25.

Varanus cerambonensis

Philipp, K.M.; Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1999. The identity of Varanus indicus: redefinition and description of a sibling species coexisting at the type locality (Sauria, Varanidae, Varanus indicus group). Spixiana 22(3): 273-287.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 2007. Preliminary investigations of the natural diet of six monitor lizard species of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 16: 336-345.

Weijola, V.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. A single species of mangrove monitor (Varanus) occupies Ambon, Seram, Buru and Saparua, Moluccas, Indonesia. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 9(1): 14-23.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus cumingi

Gaulke, M. 1991. Systematic relationships of the Philippine water monitors as compared with Varanus s. salvator, with a discussion of dispersal routes. Mertensiella 2: 154-167.

Gaulke, M. 1992. Distribution, population density, and exploitation of the water monitor (Varanus salvator) in the Philippines. Hamadryad 17: 21-27.

Horn, H.G. 1994. Der Ritualkampf von Varanus salvator cumingi. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 16(92): 27-30.

Koch, A.; Auliya, M.; Schmitz, A.; Kuch, U.; Böhme, W. 2007. Morphological studies on the systematics of south east Asian Water Monitors (Varanus salvator complex): nominotypic populations and taxonomic overview. Mertensiella 16: 109-180.

Koch, A.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 2010. Unravelling the underestimated diversity of Philippine water monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanus salvator complex), with the description of two new species and a new subspecies. Zootaxa 2446: 1-54.

Siler, C.D.; Welton, L.J.; Brown, R.M.; Infante, C.; Diesmos, A.C. 2011. Natural history notes: Ophiophagus hannah (King Cobra). Diet. Herpetological Review 42(2): 297.

Sy, E.; Diesmos, A.C.; Jakosalem, P.G.; Gonzalez, J.C.; Paguntalan, L.M.; Demegillo, A.; Custodio, C.; Delima, E.; Tampos, G.; Gaulke, M.; Jose, R. 2009. Varanus cumingi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T169897A6687602. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T169897A6687602.en.

Wicker, R.; Gaulke, M.; Horn, H.G. 1999. Contributions to the biology, keeping and breeding of the Mindanao water monitor (Varanus s. cummingi). Mertensiella 11: 213-223.

Varanus dalubhasa

Cruz, C.J.P.D.; Abuid, F. 2017. Natural history notes: Varanus dalubhasa (Enteng’s Monitor Lizard). Diet. Herpetological Review 48(3): 664.

Welton, L.J.; Travers, S.L.; Siler, C.D.; Brown, R.M. 2014. Integrative taxonomy and phylogeny-based species delimitation of Philippine water monitor lizards (Varanus salvator complex) with descriptions of two new cryptic species. Zootaxa 3881(3): 201-227.

Varanus doreanus

Böhme, W.; Horn, H.G.; Ziegler, T. 1994. Zur Taxonomie der Pazifikwarane (Varanus-indicus-Komplex): Revalidierung von Varanus doreanus (A.B. Meyer, 1874) mit Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart. Salamandra 30(2): 119-142.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Natusch, D.J.D.; Lyons, J.A. 2017. Notes on the natural history of Blue-tailed Monitors (Varanus doreanus) in Australia. Biawak 11(1): 8-14.

Parker, F.; Oliver, P.; Tallowin, O. 2016. Varanus doreanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42485703A42485712. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T42485703A42485712.en.

Philipp, K.M. 1999. Niche partitioning of Varanus doreanus, V. indicus and V. jobiensis in Irian Jaya: preliminary results. Mertensiella 11: 307-316.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 2007. Preliminary investigations of the natural diet of six monitor lizard species of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 16: 336-345.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W.; Eidenmüller, B.; Philipp, K.M. 2001. A note on the coexistence of three species of Pacific monitor lizards in Australia (Sauria, Varanidae, Varanus indicus group). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 50(1-2): 27-30.

Ziegler, T.; Le, M.D. 2018. New records of the Blue-tailed Monitor, Varanus doreanus (Meyer, 1874), including a maximum size record. Biawak 12(1): 48-53.

Ziegler, T.; Philipp, K.M.; Böhme, W. 1999. Zum Artstatus und zur Genitalmorphologie von Varanus finschi Bohme, Horn et Ziegler, 1994, mit neuen Verbreitungsangaben für V. finschi und V. doreanus (Meyer, 1874) (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 50(2): 267-279.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus douarrha

Weijola, V.; Kraus, F.; Vahtera, V.; Lindqvist, C.; Donnellan, S.C. 2017. Reinstatement of Varanus douarrha Lesson, 1830 as a valid species with comments on the zoogeography of monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae) in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 64(6): 434-451.

Varanus dumerilii

Barbour, T. 1921. Aquatic skinks and arboreal monitors. Copeia 1921(1): 42-44.

Bennett, D.; Lim, B.L. 1995. A note on the distribution of Varanus dumerilii and V. rudicollis in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 49(2): 113-116.

Bezuijen, M.R. 2012. Geographic distribution: Varanus dumerilii (Dumeril's Monitor). Herpetological Review 43(1): 104.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Carruccio, A. 1901. Sovra un Crocodilus porosus Schn., ed un Varanus dumerili Gray, donati da S. M. il Re Umberto al Museo Zoologica della R. Universita di Roma. Boll. Soc. zool. Ital. 2(1): 102-105.

Cota, M.; Chan-ard, T.; Mekchai, S.; Laotaew, S. 2008. Geographical distribution, instinctive feeding behavior and report of nocturnal activity of Varanus dumerilii in Thailand. Biawak 2(4): 152-158.

Cota, M.; Krebs, U. 2016. Do the hatchlings of Dumeril’s Monitor (Varanus dumerilii) Schlegel, 1839 display batesian mimicry? A conspicuous phenomenon and its presumptive evidence. Pp. 69 92. In: Cota, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the 2015 Interdisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. 247 pp.

Davis, R.; Darling, R.; Darlington, A. 1986. Ritualized combat in captive Dumeril's monitors, Varanus dumerili. Herpetological Review 17(4): 85-86, 88.

Davis, R.B.; Phillips, L.G. 1991. A method of sexing the Dumeril's monitor, Varanus dumerili. Herpetological Review 22(1): 18-19.

Harrison, J.L.; Lim, B.L. 1957. Monitor lizards of Malaya. Malayan Nature Journal 12(1): 1-10.

Hauschild, A. 1998. Haltung und Nachzucht des Dumeril-Warans, Varanus dumerilii (Schlegel, 1839). Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 20(115): 27-34.

Hauschild, A. 2001. Kenntnisse, Beobachtungen und Nachzucht des Dumeril-Warans, Varanus dumerili (Schlegel, 1839). Draco 2(3) (7): 76-80.

Horn, H.G.; Schulz, B. 1977. Varanus dumerilii, wie ihn nicht jeder kennt. Aquarium (Bornheim) 11(9): 37-38.

Krebs, U. 1977. Der Dumerilwaran (Varanus dumerilii), ein spezialisierter Krabbenfresser? Salamandra 15(3): 146-157.

Krebs, U. 1979. Der Duméril-Waran (Varanus dumerilii), ein spezialisierter Krabbenfresser? (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 15(3): 146-157.

Krebs, U. 1991. Ethology and learning: from observation to semi-natural experiment. Mertensiella 2: 220-232.

Mendyk, R.W. 2015. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 34(2): 139-152.

Radford, L.; Paine, F.L. 1989. The reproduction and management of the Dumeril's monitor Varanus dumerili at the Buffalo Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 28: 153-155.

Schlegel, H. 1837-1844. Abbildungen neuer oder unvollständig bekannter Amphibien, nach der Natur oder dem Leben entworfen, herausgegeben und mit einem erläuternden Texte begleitet. Arnz & Co., Düsseldorf. 141 pp. (The dates of publication of the pages, as given by Williams and Wallach, 1989, are as follows: pp: 1-32 [1837]; 33-80 [1839] and 81-141 [1844]).

Shogaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Emoto, M. 1978. [On the foreign reptile and scorpions found in port among lauan log shipments in Japan]. (In Japanese). Japanese Journal of Sanitary Zoology 29(4): 355-357.

Sprackland, R.G. 1976. Notes on Dumeril's monitor lizard, Varanus dumerili (Schlegel). Sarawak Museum Journal 24: 287-291.

Sprackland, R.G. 1993. The taxonomic status of the monitor lizard, Varanus dumerilii heteropholis Boulenger, 1892 (Reptilia: Varanidae). Sarawak Museum Journal 44(65): 113-121.

Yong, D.L.; Fam, S.D.; Ng, J.J. 2008. Rediscovery of Dumeril's monitor Varanus dumerilii (Varanidae) in Singapore. Nature in Singapore 1: 21-22.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1996. Über das Beutespektrum von Varanus dumerilii (Schlegel, 1839). Salamandra 32(3): 203-210.

Varanus eremius

Goldberg, S.R. 2007. Notes on the reproductive biology of the rusty Desert Monitor, Varanus eremius, the sand monitor, Varanus gouldii, and the black-tailed monitor, Varanus tristis, (Squamata: Varanidae) from Western Australia. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 42(3): 47-49.

Pianka, E.R. 1968. Notes on the biology of Varanus eremius. Western Australian Naturalist 11(2): 39-44

Pianka, E.R. 1982. Observations on the ecology of Varanus in the Great Victoria Desert. Western Australian Naturalist 15(2): 1-8.

Pianka, E.R. 2007. An update on the ecology of the pygmy monitor Varanus eremius in Western Australia. Mertensiella 16: 346-352.

Shea, G.; Wilson, S.; Oliver, P. 2018. Varanus eremius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83777752A101752305. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83777752A101752305.en.

Varanus exanthematicus

Attum, O.; Earley, R.L.; Bayless, M.; Eason, P. 2000. The agonistic behaviour of Bosc's monitor (Varanus exanthematicus Bosc, 1792) in captivity. Herpetological Bulletin 73: 22-26.

Balsai, M. 1997. Controversies about rodent diets for savannah monitors. Vivarium (Lakeside) 8(5): 18-19.

Bayless, M.K. 1994. Zur Fortpflanzungsbiologie des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra 30(2): 109-118.

Bayless, M.K. 1997. The distribution of African monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae). African Journal of Ecology 35(4): 374-377.

Bayless, M.K. 2006. Polydactylism in Bosc's monitor (Varanus exanthematicus). Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 41(11): 203.

Bayless, M.K. 2006. Savannah Monitors: A Complete Guide to Varanus exanthematicus and Others. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 128 pp.

Bayless, M.K. 2008. Local names of Pan-African monitor lizards (Varanidae: Varanus: Polydaedalus). Biawak 2(2): 61-71.

Bayless, M.K.; Luiselli, L. 2000. The ecological distribution of monitor lizards (Reptilia, Varanidae) in Nigeria. Miscellania Zoologica (Barcelona) 23(1): 1-8.

Bennett, A.F.; Hicks, J.W.; Cullum, A.J. 2000. An experimental test of the thermoregulatory hypothesis for the evolution of endothermy. Evolution 54(5): 1768-1773.

Bennett, D. 2000. Observations on Bosc's monitor lizard (Varanus exanthematicus) in the wild. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 35(8): 177-180.

Bennett, D. 2000. Preliminary data on the diet of juvenile Varanus exanthematicus (Sauria: Varanidae) in the coastal plain of Ghana. Herpetological Journal 10(2): 75-76.

Bennett, D. 2000. The density and abundance of juvenile Varanus exanthematicus (Sauria: Varanidae) in the coastal plain of Ghana. Amphibia-Reptilia 21(3): 301-306.

Bennett, D. 2001. A very misunderstood monitor lizard. Varanus exanthematicus. Reptilia (GB) 19: 43-46.

Bennett, D.; Basuglo, B. 1998. Natural history notes: Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc's Monitor). Predation. Herpetological Review 29(4): 240-241.

Bennett, D.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. Varanus exanthematicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178346A7527972. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T178346A7527972.en.

Bennett, D.; Thakoordyal, R. 2003. The savannah monitor lizard: the truth about Varanus exanthematicus. Viper Press, Glossop. 83 pp.

Böhme, W.; Fritz, J.P.; Schutte, F. 1987. Neuentdeckung einer Grossechse (Sauria: Varanus) aus der Arabischen Republik Jemen. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 9(46): 13-20.

Coiro, J. 2007. Captive breeding of Varanus exanthematicus. Biawak 1(1): 29-33.

Cooper, W.E. 1989. Prey odor discrimination in the varanoid lizards Heloderma suspectum and Varanus exanthematicus. Ethology 81(3): 250-258.

Cooper, W.E. 1989. Strike-induced chemosensory searching occurs in lizards. Journal of Chemical Ecology 15(4): 1311-1320.

Cooper, W.E. 1993. Duration of poststrike elevation in tongue-flicking rate in the savannah monitor lizard, Varanus exanthematicus. Ethology Ecology & Evolution 5(1): 1-18.

Cooper, W.E.; Habegger, J.J. 2001. Responses by juvenile savannah monitor lizards (Varanus exanthematicus) to chemical cues from animal prey, plants palatable to herbivores, and conspecifics. Journal of Herpetology 35(4): 618-624.

Cupul-Magaña, F.G. 2012. Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792), Apalone spinifera emoryi (Le Sueur, 1827) y Gopherus berlandieri (Agassiz, 1857): reptiles exóticos en el área urbana de Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México. Cuadernos de Herpetologia 26(2): 59-60.

Darlington, J. 1984. Monitor eggs. EANHS (East African Natural History Society) Bulletin 1984: 27.

Dijk, P. van; Manley, G.A.; Gallo, L. 1998. Correlated amplitude fluctuations of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in six lizard species. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 104(3)(1): 1559-1564.

Dijk, P. van; Manley, G.A.; Gallo, L.; Pavusa, A.; Taschenberger, G. 1996. Statistical properties of spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in one bird and three lizard species. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 100(4)(1): 2220-2227.

Don, M.; Estany, A.; Ramos, A.; Leoni, R.; Muchlinski, A. 1994. Re-examination of the afebrile response in two lizard species (Varanus exanthematicus and Gerrhosaurus major). Journal of Herpetology 28(3): 385-388.

Elias, J.A.; McBrayer, L.D.; Reilly, S.M. 2000. Prey transport kinematics in Tupinambis Teguixin and Varanus exanthematicus: conservation of feeding behavior in 'chemosensory-tongued' lizards. Journal of Experimental Biology 203(4): 791-801.

Firth, I.; Turner, M.; Robinson, M.; Meek, R. 2003. Response of monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) to a repeated food source evidence for association learning? Herpetological Bulletin 84: 1-4.

Fritz, J.P.; Fritz, B. 1991. Karyotypic characterization of Varanus yemenensis. Mertensiella 2: 136-142.

Grandison, A.G.C. 1956. On a collection of lizards from West Africa. Bulletin de l'Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire Serie A Sciences Naturelles 18: 224-245.

Jefferies, M.G. 1963. Some notes on the diet of Varanus exanthematicus. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Rhodesia 20: 8-9.

Landsmeer, J.M.F. 1990. Functional morphology of the hindlimb in some Lacertilia. European Journal of Morphology 28(1): 3-34.

Lenz, S. 1995. Zur Biologie und Ökologie des Nilwarans, Varanus niloticus (Linnaeus 1766) in Gambia, Westafrika. Mertensiella 5: 1-256.

Manley, G.A. 2004. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions in monitor lizards. Hearing Research 189(1-2): 41-57.

McElroy, E.J.; Wilson, R.; Biknevicius, A.R.; Reilly, S.M. 2014. A comparative study of single-leg ground reaction forces in running lizards. Journal of Experimental Biology 217(5): 735-742.

Meissner, M. 1995. Der Steppenwaran. Aquarium (Bornheim) 310: 24.

Müller, L. 1905. Der westafrikanische Steppenwaran Varanus exanthematicus. Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 16: 266-268.

Owens, A.K.; Krysko, K.L.; Heinrich, G.L. 2005. Natural history notes: Gopherus polyphemus (Gopher Tortoise). Predation. Herpetological Review 36(1): 57-58.

Owerkowicz, T.; Farmer, C.G.; Hicks, J.W.; Brainerd, E.L. 1999. Contribution of gular pumping to lung ventilation in monitor lizards. Science (Washington, D.C.) 284(5420): 1661-1663.

Roder, A.; Horn, H.G. 1994. Über zwei Nachzuchten des Steppenwarans (Varanus exanthematicus). Salamandra 30(2): 97-108.

Rowland, V. 1990. Care of the bosc monitor - a lovable lizard. Thames and Chiltern Herpetological Group Newsletter 110: 20-22.

Soler, J.; Martínez-Silvestre, A. 2013. Feral monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) in Catalonia, Spain: an increasing phenomenon. Biawak 7(1): 21-24.

Sprackland, R.G. 2001. Savannah and Grassland Monitors. BowTie Inc., New York. 70 pp.

Steyn, P. 1992. Pale chanting goshawks associating with rock monitors. Gabar 7(2): 68.

Switak, K.H. 1997. Varanid I have known: Africa's Savannah and White-throated Monitors. Monitor (Journal of the Victorian Herpetological Society) 9(1): 45-49.

Switak, K.H. 2003. Field notes for Varanus exanthematicus in West Africa. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 38(7): 136-137.

Wang, T.; Hicks, J.W. 2004. Why savannah monitor lizards hyperventilate during activity: a comparison of model predictions and experimental data. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology 144(2-3): 251-261.

Wesiak, K. 2006. Zur Pflege und Nachzucht des westafrikanischen Steppenwarans Varanus (Polydaedalus) exanthematicus (Bosc, 1792). Elaphe 14(3): 21-34.

Yeboah, S. 1994. Aspects of the biology of two sympatric species of monitor lizards Varanus niloticus and Varanus exanthematicus (Reptilia, Sauria) in Ghana. African Journal of Ecology 32(4): 331-333.

Varanus finschi

Bennett, D.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. Varanus finschi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178027A7486763. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T178027A7486763.en.

Böhme, W.; Horn, H.G.; Ziegler, T. 1994. Zur Taxonomie der Pazifikwarane (Varanus-indicus-Komplex): Revalidierung von Varanus doreanus (A.B. Meyer, 1874) mit Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart. Salamandra 30(2): 119-142.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 2007. Preliminary investigations of the natural diet of six monitor lizard species of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 16: 336-345.

Weijola, V.; Kraus, F.; Vahtera, V.; Lindqvist, C.; Donnellan, S.C. 2017. Reinstatement of Varanus douarrha Lesson, 1830 as a valid species with comments on the zoogeography of monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae) in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 64(6): 434-451.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W.; Eidenmüller, B.; Philipp, K.M. 2001. A note on the coexistence of three species of Pacific monitor lizards in Australia (Sauria, Varanidae, Varanus indicus group). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 50(1-2): 27-30.

Ziegler, T.; Philipp, K.M.; Böhme, W. 1999. Zum Artstatus und zur Genitalmorphologie von Varanus finschi Bohme, Horn et Ziegler, 1994, mit neuen Verbreitungsangaben für V. finschi und V. doreanus (Meyer, 1874) (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 50(2): 267-279.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus flavescens

Al-Razi, H. 2014. Geographic distribution: Varanus flavescens (Yellow Monitor). Herpetological Review 45(2): 284.

Al-Razi, H.; Baki, M.A.; Alam, S.M.I. 2014. Varanus flavescens (yellow monitor): thermoregulation. Herpetological Bulletin 129: 27.

Auffenberg, W. 1989. Utilization of monitor lizards in Pakistan. Traffic Bulletin 11(1): 8-12.

Auffenberg, W.; Rahman, H.; Iffat, F.; Perveen, Z. 1990. A study of Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke & Gray) (Sauria: Varanidae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 86(3): 286-307.

Biswas, S.; Kar, S. 1982. Two new records of the species belonging to the genus Varanus Merrem, 1820 (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae) from Orissa. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 79(3-4): 515-520.

Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60-68.

Chakraborty, S.; Chakraborty, R. 1988. Killing of the yellow monitor, Varanus flavescens (Gray 1827) (Squamata: Sauria) in some villages of Birbhum district, West Bengal, India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 84(2): 450-452.

Ghimire, H.R.; Phuyal, S.; Shah, K.B. 2014. Protected species outside the protected areas: People's attitude, threats and conservation of the Yellow Monitor (Varanus flavescens) in the far-western lowlands of Nepal. Journal for Nature Conservation 22(6): 497-503.

Ghimire, H.R.; Shah, K.B. 2014. Status and habitat ecology of the Yellow Monitor, Varanus flavescens, in the southeastern part of Kanchanpur District, Nepal. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 9(2): 387-393.

Husain, A.; Ray, P. 1995. Reptilia. pp. 159-167. In: Ghosh, A.K. (ed.). Fauna of western Himalaya. Part 1: Uttar Pradesh. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 228 pp.

IUCN World Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1996. Varanus flavescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T22872A9396496. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T22872A9396496.en.

Karki, A.; Karki, D.; Jnawali, S.R.; Paudel, S.; Adhikari, S.; Panthi, S. 2018. Varanus flavescens: status, distribution and potential threats - a case from Nepal. Biawak 12(1): 37-41.

Khan, M.S. 1993. Hemipeneal morphology of Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke and Gray, 1927), and its phylogenetic implications. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 25(2): 135-138.

Khatiwada, J.R.; Ghimire, B.C. 2009. Conservation status of Varanus flavescens in Chitwan, Nepal. Biawak 3(4): 100-105.

Mackay, R.S. 1968. Observations on peristaltic activity versus temperature and circadian rhythms in undisturbed Varanus flavescens and Ctenosauria pectinata. Copeia 1968: 252-259.

Mertens, R. 1924. Herpetologische Mitteilungen. Senckenbergiana 6: 177-185.

Mertens, R. 1959. Der Schädel des indischen Gelbwarans, Varanus flavescens. Senckenbergiana Biologica 40(3/4): 113-115.

Mitra, D. 2001. Captive breeding of yellow monitor lizard (Varanus flavescens). Cobra (Chennai) 46: 36-37.

Mukhopadhyay, A. 1980. Some observations on the biology of the openbill stork, Anastomus oscitans (Boddaert), in southern Bengal. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 77(1): 133-137.

Nawaz, M.; Nawaz, Y. 2003. Monitor lizard (Varanidae: Reptilia) in Baluchistan, Pakistan. Tigerpaper (Bangkok) 30(3): 28-30.

Rajarathinam, R.; Sivakumar, S. 2010. Longevity of the yellow monitor lizard Varanus flavescens (Hardwicke and Gray, 1827) in captivity. Cobra (Chennai) 4(2): 20-22.

Rese, R. 1991. Varanus (Empagusia) flavescens (Hardwicke & Gray). Sauria (Berlin) 13(3): 1-2.

Reza, A.H.M.A.; Sourav, S.H. 2010. Varanus flavescens (Yellow Monitor): distribution and reproduction. Herpetological Bulletin 112: 38-39.

Varadaraju. 2013. Present status of three monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis, V. flavescens and V. salvator) in the Sunderbans. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 113(1): 203-210.

Visser, G. 1992. Monitors and the Rotterdam Zoo. Vivarium (Lakeside) 4(3): 19-22.

Visser, G.H. 1985. Notizen zur Brutbiologie des Gelbwarans Varanus (Empagusia) flavescens (Hardwicke & Gray 1827) im Zoo Rotterdam. Salamandra 21(2-3): 161-168.

Varanus giganteus

Anonymous. 1963. Aus befreundeten Zoos: (Varanus giganteus in Stuttgart Wilhelma Zoo). Freunde Kölner Zoo 6(7): 122.

Bredl, J.; Horn, H.G. 1987. Über die Nachzucht des australischen Riesenwarans Varanus giganteus (Gray, 1845) (Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 23(2-3): 90-96.

Heger, N.A.; Heger, T.G. 2007. Behavior, ecology, and thermal physiology of Varanus giganteus: a field study of Australia's largest monitor lizard. Mertensiella 16: 255-290.

Horn, H.G. 1981. Varanus spenceri, nicht Varanus giganteus: eine Richtigstellung (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 17(1-2): 78-81.

Horn, H.G.; Visser, G.J. 1988. Freilandbeobachtungen und einige morphometrische Angaben zu Varanus giganteus (Gray, 1845) (Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 24(2-3): 102-118.

Irwin, S. 1997. Courtship, mating and egg deposition by the captive perentie Varanus giganteus (Gray, 1845). Vivarium (Lakeside) 8(4): 26-31, 56.

Irwin, S.; Engle, K.; Mackness, B. 1996. Nocturnal nesting by captive varanid lizards. Herpetological Review 27(4): 192-194.

King, D.; Green, B. 1993. Dimensions of the perentie (Varanus giganteus) and other large varanids. Western Australian Naturalist 19(3): 195-200.

King, D.; Green, B.; Butler, H. 1989. The activity pattern, temperature regulation and diet of Varanus giganteus on Barrow Island, Western Australia. Australian Wildlife Research 16(1): 41-47.

MacDonald, S. 2007. Observations on the stomach contents of a road-killed perentie, Varanus giganteus in western Queensland. Biawak 1(1): 21-23.

Mertens, R. 1959. Über die Schädel einiger bemerkenswerter Warane Australiens. Vijschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 104 (Festschr. Steiner): 115-128.

Robinson, A.C. 1992. Perenties, predators and prey. South Australian Naturalist 67(1-2): 30-34.

Shea, G.; Ellis, R.; Wilson, S.; Oliver, P. 2018. Varanus giganteus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83777786A101752310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83777786A101752310.en.

Stirling, E.C. 2015. Observations on the habits of the large Central Australian Monitor (Varanus giganteus), with a note on the 'fat bodies' of this species. Biawak 9(2): 78-83.

Stirling, E.L. 1912. Observations on the habits of the large central Australian monitor (Varanus giganteus) with a note on the 'fat bodies' of this species. Transactions Royal Society of South Australia 36: 26-33.

Sullivan, J. 2007. Perentie, Varanus giganteus, in Kalbarri National Park. Western Australian Naturalist 25(4): 259.

Thompson, G.G.; Heger, N.A.; Heger, T.G.; Withers, P. 1995. Standard metabolic rate of the largest Australian lizard, Varanus giganteus. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Comparative Physiology 111(4): 603-608.

Thompson, S.A.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G.; Robinson, D. 2005. Range extension for the Perentie, Varanus giganteus (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 88(1): 41-43.

Varanus gilleni

Aplin, K.P.; Fitch, A.J.; King, D.J. 2006. A new species of Varanus Merrem (Squamata: Varanidae) from the Pilbara region of Western Australia, with observations on sexual dimorphism in closely related species. Zootaxa 1313: 1-38.

Barnett, B. 1981. Observations on fish feeding in reptiles. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 13(1): 11-13.

Boyle, D.M.; Lamoreaux, W.E. 1984. Captive reproduction in the pygmy mulga monitor Varanus gilleni at the Dallas Zoo. Annual Reptile Symposium on Captive Propagation and Husbandry Proceedings 7: 59-63.

Carpenter, C.C.; Gillingham, J.C.; Murphy, J.B.; Mitchell, L.A. 1976. A further analysis of the combat ritual of the pygmy mulga monitor, Varanus gilleni (Reptilia: Varanidae). Herpetologica 32(1): 35-40.

Cogger, H.G. 1962. Reptile studies in the Musgrave Ranges. Australian Natural History 14: 51-56.

Delean, S. 1980. A new record of the pygmy mulga monitor, Varanus gilleni (Lucas and Frost). Herpetofauna (Sydney) 12(1): 35.

Eidenmüller, B. 1994. Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Zucht von Varanus acanthurus Boulenger, 1885, V. storri Mertens, 1966 und V. gilleni Lucas & Frost, 1895. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 16(88): 6-12.

Eidenmüller, B.; Wicker, R. 1997. The breeding of Gillen's pygmy monitor Varanus gilleni, Lucas & Frost 1895. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 27(1): 2-6.

Gow, G.F. 1982. Notes on the reproductive biology of the pygmy mulga goanna Varanus gilleni Lucas & Frost 1895. Northern Territory Naturalist 5: 4-5.

Horn, H.G. 1978. Nachzucht von Varanus gilleni (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 14(1): 29-32.

Murphy, J.B.; Mitchell, L.A. 1974. Ritualized combat behaviour of the pygmy mulga monitor lizard, Varanus gilleni (Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetologica 30(1): 90-97.

Peters, U. 1969. Ein seltener Zwergwaran, Varanus (Odatria) gilleni Lucas & Frost. Aqua Terra 16(1): 16-17

Peters, U. 1974. Kurz vorgestellt: Varanus (Odatria) gilleni. Aquarium Aqua Terra 8(65): 512-513.

Pianka, E.R. 1969. Notes on the biology of Varanus caudolineatus and Varanus gilleni. Western Australian Naturalist 11(4): 76-82.

Polleck, R. 1982. Der Gillenwaran Varanus gilleni. Aquarien Magazin 16(6): 366-367.

Polleck, R. 2001. Haltung und Zucht vom Gillenwaran, Varanus gilleni Lucas & Frost, 1895. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 23(131): 15-18.

Ramm, T. 2013. Die erfolgreiche Haltung und Nachzucht von Gillens Zwergwaran (Varanus gilleni) im Terrarium. Draco 14(53): 45-50.

Schmida, G.E. 1975. Däumlinge aus der Familie der Riesen (Varanus brevicauda, V. caudolineatus und V. gilleni). Aquarien 9(1): 8-11.

Shea, G.; Wilson, S.; Oliver, P. 2018. Varanus gilleni. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83777806A83935729. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83777806A83935729.en.

Varanus glauerti

Doody, J.S.; Schembri, B.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. Natural history notes: Varanus pilbarensis (Pilbara Rock Monitor) and Varanus glauerti (Kimberly Rock Monitor). Tail display behavior. Herpetological Review 46(3): 439-440.

Hoerenberg, T. 2013. Parthenogenese bei Varanus glauerti. Draco 14(53): 29-30.

Izaber, F. 2003. Varanus glauerti - das "Scaly jewel". Reptilia (D) 8(43): 41-42.

Mertens, R. 1957. Two new goannas from Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 5(7): 183-187.

Ramm, T. 2013. Haltung und erfolgreiche Nachzucht des Kimberley-Felswarans, Varanus glauerti. Draco 14(53): 20-28.

Rankin, P.; Horner, P.; King, M. 1987. An additional varanid species in the Northern Territory. Beagle 4(1): 81-82.

Retes, F.; Bennett, D. 2001. Multiple generations, multiple clutches, and early maturity in four species of monitor lizards (Varanidae) bred in captivity. Herpetological Review 32(4): 244-245.

Rokylle, G. 1989. An addition to the ranges of two rock monitors; Varanus glauerti and Varanus glebopalma. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 19(1): 25-26.

Shea, G. 2018. Varanus glauerti. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T178028A83777814. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T178028A83777814.en.

Sweet, S.S. 1999. Spatial ecology of Varanus glauerti and V. glebopalma in northern Australia. Mertensiella 11: 317-366.

Zeeuw, M. de 2010. Husbandry and reproduction of Varanus glauerti in captivity. Biawak 4(3): 103-107.

Varanus glebopalma

Christian, T. 1977. Notes on Varanus glebopalma. Vic. Herp. Soc. Newsletter 6: 11-13.

Horn, H.G.; Schurer, U. 1978. Bemerkungen zu Varanus (Odatria) glebopalma Mitchell 1955 (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 14(3): 105-116.

Hoser, R.T. 2014. The break up of Odatria (Kimberleyvaranus) glebopalma (Mitchell, 1955) into three obvious subspecies. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 24: 16-19.

Rhind, D.; Doody, J.S.; Ellis, R.J.; Ricketts, A.; Scott, G.; Clulow, S.; McHenry, C.R. 2013. Natural history notes: Varanus glebopalma (Black-palmed Monitor). Nocturnal activity and foraging. Herpetological Review 44(4): 687-688.

Rokylle, G. 1989. An addition to the ranges of two rock monitors; Varanus glauerti and Varanus glebopalma. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 19(1): 25-26.

Shea, G.; Cogger, H. 2018. Varanus glebopalma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778099A101752315. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778099A101752315.en.

Sweet, S.S. 1999. Spatial ecology of Varanus glauerti and V. glebopalma in northern Australia. Mertensiella 11: 317-366.

Varanus gouldii

Barbour, T. 1943. Defence posture of Varanus gouldii. Copeia 1943(1): 56.

Barnett, B. 1979. Incubation of sand goanna (Varanus gouldii) eggs. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 11(1): 21-22.

Bennett, D. 2003. The Varanus gouldii group. Reptilia (GB) 30: 27-29.

Bennett, D.F. 2003. Der Varanus-gouldii-Komplex. Reptilia (D) 8(43): 26-28.

Berney, F.L. 1936. Gould's monitor (Varanus gouldiae). Queensland Naturalist 10(1): 12-14.

Bird, R.B.; Tayor, N.; Codding, B.F.; Bird, D.W. 2013. Niche construction and dreaming logic: aboriginal patch mosaic burning and varanid lizards (Varanus gouldii) in Australia. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 280(1772): 20132297, 1-7.

Böhme, W. 1991. The identity of Varanus gouldii (Gray, 1838), and the nomenclature of the V. gouldii-species complex. Mertensiella 2: 38-41.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the names Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for Hydrosaurus gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(3): 173-174.

Bolton, J.; Moseby, K. 2004. The activity of sand goannas Varanus gouldii and their interaction with reintroduced greater stick-nest rats Leporillus conditor. Pacific Conservation Biology 10(2-3): 193-201.

Bruton, M.J. 2013. Arboreality, excavation, and active foraging: novel observations of radiotracked woma pythons Aspidites ramsayi. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 56(2): 313-329.

Card, W. 1994. Double clutching Gould's monitors (Varanus gouldii) and Gray's monitors (Varanus olivaceus) at the Dallas Zoo. Herpetological Review 25(3): 111, 114.

Case, T.J.; Schwaner, T.D. 1993. Island/mainland body size differences in Australian varanid lizards. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 94(1): 102-109.

Christian, K.A. 1995. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (NCN) and Varanus gouldii (sand goanna). Diet and predation. Herpetological Review 26(3): 146.

Christian, K.A.; Conley, K.E. 1994. Activity and resting metabolism of varanid lizards compared with 'typical' lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 42(2): 185-193.

Christian, K.A.; Corbett, L.K.; Green, B.; Weavers, B.W. 1995. Seasonal activity and energetics of two species of varanid lizards in tropical Australia. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 103(3): 349-357.

Christian, K.A.; Weavers, B.W. 1996. Thermoregulation of monitor lizards in Australia: an evaluation of methods in thermal biology. Ecological Monographs 66(2): 139-157.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. 2008. Higher than predicted endurance for juvenile goannas (Varanidae; Varanus). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 91(3): 265-267.

Couper, P.J.; Covacevich, J.A.; Amey, A.P. 2002. Back-filling of a burrow entrance by a subadult Varanus gouldii. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 32(1): 47-48.

Craig, M.; Doughty, P.; Melville, J. 2018. Varanus gouldii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778110A101752320. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778110A101752320.en.

Delean, S. 1981. Notes on aggressive behaviour by Goulds goannas (Varanus gouldii) in captivity. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 12(2): 30.

Doles, M.; Card, W. 1995. Delayed fertilization in the monitor lizard Varanus gouldii. Herpetological Review 26(4): 196.

Doody, J.S.; Cherriman, S. 2012. Natural history notes: Varanus gouldii (Sand Monitor) and Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Predation. Herpetological Review 43(4): 653-654.

Frappell, P.B.; Mortola, J.P. 1998. Passive body movement and gas exchange in the frilled lizard (Chlamydosaurus kingii) and goanna (Varanus gouldii). Journal of Experimental Biology 201(15): 2307-2311.

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Tsellarius, A.Y.; Cherlin, V.A.; Menshikov, Y.A. 1991. [Preliminary report on the study of biology of Varanus griseus (Reptilia, Varanidae) in Middle Asia]. (In Russian, English summary). Gerpetologicheskie Issledovaniya 1: 61-103, 172.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Men'shikov, Y.G. 1994. Indirect communication and its role in the formation of social structure in Varanus griseus (Sauria). Russian Journal of Herpetology 1(2): 121-132.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Menshikov, Y.G. 1995. [The structure of nesting holes and the protection of clutches by the females of Varanus griseus (Reptilia, Sauria)]. (In Russian, English summary). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 74(1): 119-128.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Men'shikov, Y.G.; Tsellarius, E.Y. 1995. Spacing pattern and reproduction in Varanus griseus of western Kyzylkum. Russian Journal of Herpetology 2(2): 153-165.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Tsellarius, E.Y. 1996. Courtship and mating in Varanus griseus of Western Kyzylkum. Russian Journal of Herpetology 3(2): 122-129.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Tsellarius, E.Y. 1997. Behavior of Varanus griseus during encounters with conspecifics. Asiatic Herpetological Research 7: 108-130.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Tsellarius, E.Y. 1999. [Identification of sex in the alive desert monitor Varanus griseus (Reptilia, Sauria)]. (In Russian, English summary). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 78(5): 622-625.

Tsellarius, A.Y.; Tsellarius, E.Y.; Men'shikov, Y.G. 1997. Notes on the diet and foraging of Varanus griseus. Russian Journal of Herpetology 4(2): 170-181.

Tsellarius, R.Y.; Tsellarius, A.Y. 1997. [Thermal conditions of Varanus griseus (Reptilia, Sauria) activity]. (In Russian, English summary). Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 76(2): 206-211.

Vernet, R.; Lemire, M.; Grenot, C. 1988. Field studies on activity and water balance of a desert monitor Varanus griseus (Reptilia, Varanidae). Journal of Arid Environments 15(1): 81-90.

Vernet, R.; Lemire, M.; Grenot, C.J.; Francaz, J.M. 1988. Ecophysiological comparisons between two large Saharan lizards, Uromastix acanthinurus (Agamidae) and Varanus griseus (Varanidae). Journal of Arid Environments 14(2): 187-200.

Vogel, Z. 1980. Werden die nordafrikanischen Dornschwänze und Wüstenwarane das 20. Jahrhundert überleben? DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 33(1): 30-31.

Yadgarov, T.; Akramov, M.S.; Makhmudov, B.; Sartaeva, K.M.; Khozhdaev, A.F. 1988. [On new finds of lizards and snakes in Uzbekistan]. (In Russian). Doklady Akademii Nauk Uzbekskoi SSR 1988(2): 52-53.

Yadgarov, T.Y. 1968. [Information on the Ecology of the Desert monitor (Varanus griseus) in the River Surhandarja Basin]. (In Russian). Gerpetologia Srednei Azii. Tashkent.

Zander, A. 1895. Einige transkaspische Reptilien. Zoologische Garten 36: 297-305.

Zarkhidze, V.A. 1981. [Varanus griseus in western Turkmenistan]. pp. 55-56. In: Darevsky, I.S.; Ananjeva, N.B.; Barkagan, Z.S.; Borkin, L.Y.; Sokolova, T.M. & Szczerbak, N.N. (eds.). The problems of herpetology: abstracts. Nauka, Leningrad. 163 pp. (abstract, in Russian).

Varanus hamersleyensis

Camina Vega, A.; Koch, A. 2017. First breeding report of the Pilbara Rock Monitor (Varanus pilbarensis Storr, 1980) in Spain with taxonomic comments on the recently described V. hamersleyensis Maryan et al., 2014. Biawak 11(1): 19-27.

Ellis, R.; Wilson, S. 2018. Varanus hamersleyensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778155A101752325. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778155A101752325.en.

Maryan, B.; Oliver, P.M.; Fitch, A.J.; O'Connell, M. 2014. Molecular and morphological assessment of Varanus pilbarensis (Squamata: Varanidae), with a description of a new species from the southern Pilbara, Western Australia. Zootaxa 3768(2): 139-158.

Varanus indicus

Ball, E.; Glucksman, J. 1978. Limnological studies of Lake Wisdom, a large New Guinea caldera lake with a simple fauna. Freshwater Biology 8(5): 455-468.

Beehler, B.M.; Crill, W.; Jefferies, B.; Jefferies, M. 1992. New Guinea harpy-eagle attempts to capture a monitor lizard. Emu 92(4): 246-247.

Bennett, D.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. Varanus indicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178416A7542350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T178416A7542350.en.

Böhme, W.; Horn, H.G.; Ziegler, T. 1994. Zur Taxonomie der Pazifikwarane (Varanus-indicus-Komplex): Revalidierung von Varanus doreanus (A.B. Meyer, 1874) mit Beschreibung einer neuen Unterart. Salamandra 30(2): 119-142.

Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60-68.

Böhme, W.; Koch, A.; Ziegler, T. 2016. Comment on the proposed conservation of Tupinambus [Tupinambis] indicus Daudin, 1832 (currently Varanus indicus; Reptilia, Squamata) by replacement of the neotype. (Case 3676). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 73(1): 55-58.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Cota, M. 2008. Varanus indicus and its presence on the Mariana Islands: natural geographic distribution vs. introduction. Biawak 2(1): 18-27.

Dryden, G.L. 1965. The food and feeding habits of Varanus indicus on Guam. Micronesica 2: 72-76.

Dunson, W.A. 1974. Salt gland secretion in a mangrove monitor. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (A) 47(4): 1245-1255.

Frydlova, P.; Hnizdo, J.; Velensky, P.; Simkova, O.; Cikanova, V.; Chylikova, L.; Frynta, D. 2013. Easy life of males? Indirect evidence that growth is easier than egg production in mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards (Varanus indicus). Acta Herpetologica 8(2): 105-113.

Frydlova, P.; Velensky, P.; Simkova, O.; Cikanova, V.; Hnizdo, J.; Rehak, I.; Frynta, D. 2011. Is body shape of mangrove-dwelling monitor lizards (Varanus indicus; Varanidae) sexually dimorphic? Amphibia-Reptilia 32(1): 27-37.

Frynta, D.; Frydlova, P.; Hnizdo, J.; Simkova, O.; Cikanova, V.; Velensky, P. 2010. Ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism in monitor lizards: males grow for a longer period, but not at a faster rate. Zoological Science (Tokyo) 27(12): 917-923.

Fullbeck, J. 1947. Monitors in the Marshalls. Fauna (Philadelphia) 9: 122-124.

Gursky, S.L. 2007. The response of spectral tarsiers toward avian and terrestrial predators. pp. 241-252. In: Gursky, S.L.; Nekaris, K.A.I. (eds.). Primate anti-predator strategies. [Developments in Primatology]. Springer, New York. 393 pp.

Irwin, S.; Engle, K.; Mackness, B. 1996. Nocturnal nesting by captive varanid lizards. Herpetological Review 27(4): 192-194.

Kishida, K. 1929. A new monitor from the island of Saipan, South Sea Islands. Lansania Tokyo 1: 13-16.

Kok, R. 1995. Zur Haltung und Nachzucht des Pazifikwarans (Varanus indicus). Salamandra 31(3): 129-136.

McCoid, M.J.; Hensley, R.A. 1991. Mating and combat in Varanus indicus. Herpetological Review 22(1): 16-17.

McCoid, M.J.; Hensley, R.A.; Witteman, G.J. 1994. Factors on the decline of Varanus indicus on Guam, Mariana Islands. Herpetological Review 25(2): 60-61.

McCoid, M.J.; Witteman, G.J. 1993. Life history notes: Varanus indicus (Mangrove Monitor). Diet. Herpetological Review 24(3): 105.

Mertens, R. 1941. Zwei neue Warane des Australischen Faunengebietes. Senckenbergiana Biologica 23(4/6): 266-272.

Mertens, R. 1971. Über eine Waransammlung aus dem östlichen Neuguinea. Senckenbergiana Biologica 52: 1-5.

Philipp, K.M. 1999. Niche partitioning of Varanus doreanus, V. indicus and V. jobiensis in Irian Jaya: preliminary results. Mertensiella 11: 307-316.

Philipp, K.M.; Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1999. The identity of Varanus indicus: redefinition and description of a sibling species coexisting at the type locality (Sauria, Varanidae, Varanus indicus group). Spixiana 22(3): 273-287.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 2007. Preliminary investigations of the natural diet of six monitor lizard species of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 16: 336-345.

Polleck, R. 1979. Der Pazifik-Waran im Terrarium. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 32(8): 285-286.

Reed, R.N.; Morton, J.M.; Desy, G.E. 2000. Use of monofilament snare traps for capture of varanid lizards. Micronesica 33(1-2): 99-104.

Smith, J. 2004. Fish and company smell after three days: Increasing capture rates of carrion-eating varanid lizards. Herpetological Review 35(1): 41-43.

Smith, J.G.; Christian, K.; Green, B. 2008. Physiological ecology of the mangrove-dwelling varanid Varanus indicus. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 81(5): 561-569.

Smith, J.G.; Griffiths, A.D. 2009. Determinants of home range and activity in two semi-aquatic lizards. Journal of Zoology (London) 279(4): 349-357.

Sprackland, T.; Sprackland, R. 2000. A collection of translations of type descriptions of monitor lizard Varanus indicus and its allies (Reptilia: Varanidae). Lizard Biology 1(1): [www.curator.org/VMNH_Publications/MuseumJournals/Lizard_biology.htm].

Tenhu, H.; Schildger, B.; Kuchling, G.; Thompson, G. 1999. Ultrasonic examination and anatomy of monitors (Varanus gouldii, V. indicus and V. griseus) (Sauria: Varanidae). Mertensiella 11: 181-187.

Uchida, T.A. 1966. Observations on the monitor lizard, Varanus indicus (Daudin), as a rat-control agent on Ifaluk, western Caroline Islands. Bulletin Wld Hlth Org. 35: 976-980.

Uchida, T.A. 1967. Observations on the monitor lizard, Varanus indicus (Daudin), as a rat control agent on Ifaluk, western Caroline Islands. Micronesica 3: 17-18.

Weijola, V. 2015. Case 3676. Tupinambis indicus Daudin, 1802 (currently Varanus indicus; Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of usage of the specific name by replacement of the neotype. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 72(2): 134-141.

Weijola, V.; Kraus, F.; Vahtera, V.; Lindqvist, C.; Donnellan, S.C. 2017. Reinstatement of Varanus douarrha Lesson, 1830 as a valid species with comments on the zoogeography of monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae) in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 64(6): 434-451.

Weijola, V.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. A single species of mangrove monitor (Varanus) occupies Ambon, Seram, Buru and Saparua, Moluccas, Indonesia. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 9(1): 14-23.

Wesiak, K. 1993. Über Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus indicus (Daudin, 1802). Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 15(87): 21-25.

Wesiak, K. 2009. Terrarienhaltung und Erstnachzucht des Pazifikwarans Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus (Daudin, 1802), mit einigen Bemerkungen zur Entwicklung der Jungtiere. Elaphe 17(1): 44-55.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Dryden, G.L. 1988. The reproductive ecology of Varanus indicus on Guam. Herpetologica 44(3): 338-344.

Woods, I.G. 2007. Varanus indicus (mangrove monitor) Liapari Island. Biawak 1(2): 90.

Wostl, E.; Hinkle, T.J.; Lardner, B.; Reed, R.N. 2011. Natural history notes: Boiga irregularis (Brown Treesnake). Predation and diet. Herpetological Review 42(2): 282.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W.; Eidenmüller, B.; Philipp, K.M. 2001. A note on the coexistence of three species of Pacific monitor lizards in Australia (Sauria, Varanidae, Varanus indicus group). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 50(1-2): 27-30.

Ziegler, T.; Philipp, K.M.; Böhme, W. 1999. Zum Artstatus und zur Genitalmorphologie von Varanus finschi Bohme, Horn et Ziegler, 1994, mit neuen Verbreitungsangaben für V. finschi und V. doreanus (Meyer, 1874) (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Zoologische Abhandlungen (Dresden) 50(2): 267-279.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus jobiensis

Ahl, E. 1932. Eine neue Eidechse und zwei neue Frösche von der insel Jobi. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 17(6): 892-899.

Bayless, M.K.; Dwyer, Q. 1997. Notes on the peach-throated monitor. Reptile & Amphibian Magazine 47: 26-30.

Böhme, W. 1991. New findings on the hemipenial morphology of monitor lizards and their systematic implications. Mertensiella 2: 42-49.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Engelmann, W.E.; Horn, H.G. 2003. Erstmalige Nachzucht von Karl-Schmidt's Waran, Varanus jobiensis, im Zoo Leipzig. Zoologische Garten 73(6): 353-358.

Horn, H.G. 1977. Notizen zu Systematik, Fundortangaben und Haltung von Varanus (Varanus) karlschmidti (Reptilia, Sauria, Varanidae). Salamandra 13(2): 78-88.

Kraus, F. 2013. Further range extensions for reptiles and amphibians from Papua New Guinea. Herpetological Review 44(2): 277-280.

Mertens, R. 1951. A new lizard of the genus Varanus from New Guinea. Fieldiana Zoology 31(43): 467-471.

Mertens, R. 1971. Über eine Waransammlung aus dem östlichen Neuguinea. Senckenbergiana Biologica 52: 1-5.

Philipp, K.M. 1999. Niche partitioning of Varanus doreanus, V. indicus and V. jobiensis in Irian Jaya: preliminary results. Mertensiella 11: 307-316.

Philipp, K.M.; Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 2007. Preliminary investigations of the natural diet of six monitor lizard species of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 16: 336-345.

Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Tallowin, O. 2016. Varanus jobiensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T178029A21647160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T178029A21647160.en.

Stefani, M. 2008. Husbandry and reproduction of the peach-throated monitor Varanus jobiensis in captivity. Biawak 2(3): 124-130.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus juxtindicus

Böhme, W.; Philipp, K.; Ziegler, T. 2002. Another new member of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group (Sauria, Varanidae): an undescribed species from Rennell Island, Solomon Islands. Salamandra 38(1): 15-26.

Harlow, P.; McCoy, M. 2013. Varanus juxtindicus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T196661A2471949. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T196661A2471949.en.

Soler, J.; Martínez-Silvestre, A. 2013. Feral monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) in Catalonia, Spain: an increasing phenomenon. Biawak 7(1): 21-24.

Wesiak, K.; Koch, A. 2009. Successful husbandry and first breeding of Varanus juxtindicus Boehme et al., 2002, with remarks on the development of juveniles of this "rarely-kept" endemic Solomon monitor species. Biawak 3(4): 106-121.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus keithhornei

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Cogger, H.G. 1999. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56(4): 272-273.

Covacevich, J.A.; Couper, P. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(1): 37-38.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Holthuis, L.B. 1997. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 54(4): 250.

Hoser, R. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(2): 113-114.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2001. Opinion 1970 (Case 3043). Odatria keithhornei Wells & Wellington, 1985 (Reptilia, Squamata): specific name placed on the Official List. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 58(1): 74-75.

Irwin, S. 1994. Notes on behaviour and diet of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 35(1): 128.

Irwin, S.; Engle, K.; Mackness, B. 1996. Nocturnal nesting by captive varanid lizards. Herpetological Review 27(4): 192-194.

Shea, G. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(1): 38-39.

Sprackland, R.G. 1991. Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 30(3): 561-576.

Sprackland, R.G.; Smith, H.M.; Strimple, P. 1997. Case 3043. Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of the specific name. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 54(2): 100-103.

Sprackland, R.G.; Smith, H.M.; Strimple, P. 1997. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 54(4): 250-251.

Sprackland, R.G.; Smith, H.M.; Strimple, P. 1999. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56(4): 273-274.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the specific name of Varanus teriae Sprackland, 1991 (Reptilia, Squamata). Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(2): 111-113.

Varanus kingorum

Eidenmüller, B. 1999. Haltung und Nachzucht von King's Felsenwaran, Varanus kingorum Storr, 1980. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 21(121): 19-23.

Eidenmüller, B. 2003. Haltung und kontinuierliche Vermehrung von Kings Felsenwaran, Varanus kingorum Storr 1980, mit der erstmaligen Nachzucht eines albinotischen Jungtieres. Reptilia (D) 8(43): 36-40.

Patanant, K.C. 2012. Heads you lose, tails you win: notes on a tail-assisted foraging behavior in Varanus (Odatria) kingorum. Biawak 6(2): 74-77.

Retes, F.; Bennett, D. 2001. Multiple generations, multiple clutches, and early maturity in four species of monitor lizards (Varanidae) bred in captivity. Herpetological Review 32(4): 244-245.

Shea, G.; Cogger, H.; Woinarski, J. 2018. Varanus kingorum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778181A101752335. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778181A101752335.en.

Storr, G.M. 1980. The monitor lizards (genus Varanus Merrem, 1820) of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 8(2): 237-293.

Vitt, R. 2013. Zur Inkubation von Gelegen von Varanus kingorum, Kings Zwergwaran. Reptilia (D) 18(99): 66-67.

Varanus komodoensis

Anonymous. 1968. Komodo dragons breed in captivity. New Scientist 40: 352.

Anonymous. 1969. Komodo-Waran. Naturw. Rdsch. Stutt. 22: 314-315.

Anonymous. 1969. Off to Komodo to study monitors. Animal Kingdom 72: 29.

Anonymous. 1974. Komodo dragon. Largest living lizard. Zoonooz 47(4): 12-13.

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Anonymous. 2012. Early Accounts of Komodo Dragons. Biawak 6(2): 88.

Areste, M. 2010. The new habitat for Komodo dragons at Barcelona Zoo. IZN International Zoo News 57(7)(384): 415-422.

Ariefiandy, A.; Purwandana, D.; Coulson, G.; Forsyth, D.M.; Jessop, T.S. 2013. Monitoring the ungulate prey of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis: distance sampling or faecal counts. Wildlife Biology 19(2): 126-137.

Ariefiandy, A.; Purwandana, D.; Natali, C.; Imansyah, M.J.; Surahman, M.; Jessop, T.S.; Ciofi, C. 2015. Conservation of Komodo dragons Varanus komodoensis in the Wae Wuul nature reserve, Flores, Indonesia: a multidisciplinary approach. pp. 67–80. In: Zoological Society of London (ed.). International Zoo Yearbook. Vol. 49. Reptile Conservation. Zoological Society of London, London. 442 pp.

Ariefiandy, A.; Purwandana, D.; Seno, A.; Chrismiawati, M.; Jessop, T.S.; Ciofi, C. 2014. Evaluation of three field monitoring-density estimation protocols and their relevance to Komodo dragon conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation 23(10): 2473-2490.

Ariefiandy, A.; Purwandana, D.; Seno, A.; Ciofi, C.; Jessop, T.S. 2013. Can camera traps monitor Komodo Dragons a large ectothermic predator. PLoS ONE 8(3): 1-8.

Arnett, J.R. 1994. Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) (Owens). American Zoo and Aquarium Association Regional Conference Proceedings 1994: 5-8.

Attenborough, D. 1957. Zoo quest for a dragon. Lutterworth Press, London. 157 pp.

Auffenberg, K.; Auffenberg, W. 2002. Introduction: the past to now. pp. 1-19. In: Murphy, J.B.; Ciofi, C.; Panouse, C. de la; Walsh, T. (eds.). Komodo dragons: biology and conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington & London. 268 pp.

Auffenberg, W. 1970. A day with number 19. Report on a study of the Komodo monitor. Animal Kingdom 73(6): 18-23.

Auffenberg, W. 1972. Komodo dragons. Natural History (New York) 81(4): 52-59.

Auffenberg, W. 1978. Social and feeding behavior in Varanus komodoensis. pp. 301-336. In: Greenberg, N. & MacLean, P.D. (eds.). Behaviour and neurology of lizards: an interdisciplinary colloquium. U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare. National Institute of Mental Health. Rockville, Maryland. 352 pp.

Auffenberg, W. 1981. The behavioural ecology of the Komodo monitor. University Presses of Europe, Gainesville. 406 pp.

Auffenberg, W. 1995. The behavioral ecology of the Komodo monitor. Demography. pp. 143-165. In: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis: population and habitat viability assessment (PHVA), 4-7 December 1995 Bogor, Indonesia. Briefing book. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. 323 pp.

Auffenberg, W. 1995. The behavioral ecology of the Komodo monitor. Ecology. pp. 47-75. In: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis: population and habitat viability assessment (PHVA), 4-7 December 1995 Bogor, Indonesia. Briefing book. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. 323 pp.

Auffenberg, W. 1995. The behavioral ecology of the Komodo monitor. Relationships in time and space. pp. 36-46. In: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis: population and habitat viability assessment (PHVA), 4-7 December 1995 Bogor, Indonesia. Briefing book. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. 323 pp.

Auffenberg, W. 1995. The behavioral ecology of the Komodo monitor. Reproduction. pp. 166-191. In: IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group. Komodo monitor Varanus komodoensis: population and habitat viability assessment (PHVA), 4-7 December 1995 Bogor, Indonesia. Briefing book. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. 323 pp.

Bekiares, N.A. 1999. Komodo dragons in captivity: a century of progress. American Zoo and Aquarium Association Annual Conference Proceedings 1999: 375.

Belterman, R.; Visser, G. (eds.) 2005. Komodo Dragon studbook Varanus komodoensis. Europe regional EAZA - EEP. Rotterdam Zoo, Rotterdam. 5 pp.

Benirschke, K. 1975. A 'pair' of komodos. Zoonooz 48(7): 12.

Benirschke, K. 1975. 'Ora' follow-up. Zoonooz 48(12): 9.

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Whittaker, G.; Whittaker, M.; Coe, J. 2005. Prototyping naturalistic enrichment features: a case study. pp. 60-70. In: Clum, N.; Silver, S.; Thomas, P. (eds.). Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment, 31 July - 5 August 2005, New York, USA. Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx. 360 pp.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Ridwan, W.; Marcellini, D. 1999. The thermal ecology of free-ranging Komodo dragons, Varanus komodoensis, on Komodo Island, Indonesia. Mertensiella 11: 157-166.

Woodward, A.S. 1927. On Varanus komodoensis, V.salvator, V.albigularis and V.rudicollis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1927: 256.

Varanus kordensis

Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60-68.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Jacobs, H.J. 2002. Zur morphologischen Variabilität der nominellen Smaragdwaran-Taxa Varanus prasinus (H. Schlegel, 1839) und V. kordensis (A.B. Meyer, 1874), mit Bemerkungen zur Erstzucht des letzteren. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 24(137): 21-34.

Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Tallowin, O. 2016. Varanus kordensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42485718A42485725. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T42485718A42485725.en.

Varanus lirungensis

Koch, A.; Arida, E.; Schmitz, A.; Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 2009. Refining the polytypic species concept of mangrove monitors (Squamata: Varanus indicus group): a new cryptic species from the Talaud Islands, Indonesia, reveals the underestimated diversity of Indo-Australian monitor lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 57(1): 29-40.

Weijola, V.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. A single species of mangrove monitor (Varanus) occupies Ambon, Seram, Buru and Saparua, Moluccas, Indonesia. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 9(1): 14-23.

Varanus mabitang

Gaulke, M. 2005. Freilanduntersuchungen am Mabitang (Varanus mabitang), einer stark bedrohten Grosswaranart von der Philippinen-Insel Panay. Elaphe 13(1): 51-56.

Gaulke, M. 2010. Overview on the present knowledge on Varanus mabitang Gaulke and Curio, 2001, including new morphological and meristic data. Biawak 4(2): 50-58.

Gaulke, M.; Altenbach, A.V.; Demegillo, A.; Struck, U. 2005. On the distribution and biology of Varanus mabitang. Silliman Journal 46(1): 89-117.

Gaulke, M.; Altenbach, A.V.; Demegillo, A.; Struck, U. 2007. On the diet of Varanus mabitang. Mertensiella 16: 228-239.

Gaulke, M.; Curio, E. 2001. A new monitor lizard from Panay Island, Philippines (Reptilia, Sauria, Varanidae). Spixiana 24(3): 275-286.

Gaulke, M.; Curio, E.; Demegillo, A.; Paulino, N. 2002. Varanus mabitang, a rare monitor lizard from Panay Island and a new conservation target. Silliman Journal 43(1): 24-41.

Gaulke, M.; Diesmos, A.C.; Demegillo, A.; Gonzalez, J.C. 2009. Varanus mabitang. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T169829A6679528. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T169829A6679528.en.

Struck, U.; Altenbach, A.V.; Gaulke, M.; Glaw, F. 2002. Tracing the diet of the monitor lizard Varanus mabitang by stable isotope analyses ([delta]15N, [delta]13C). Naturwissenschaften 89(10): 470-473.

Ziegler, T.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 2005. Genital morphology and systematics of Varanus mabitang Gaulke & Curio, 2001 (Squamata: Varanidae). Current Herpetology 24(1): 13-17.

Varanus macraei

Bennett, D. 2015. International trade in the Blue Tree Monitor Lizard Varanus macraei. Biawak 9(2): 50-57.

Böhme, W.; Jacobs, H.J. 2001. Varanus macraei sp. n., eine neue Waranart der V. prasinus-Gruppe aus West Irian, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 23(133): 5-10.

Canto, R. del 2013. Field observations on Varanus macraei. Biawak 7(1): 18-20.

Dedlmar, A. 2007. Haltung, Pflege und Nachzucht von Varanus macraei. Reptilia (D) 12(63): 39-41.

Dedlmar, A. 2007. Keeping and breeding the blue tree monitor Varanus macraei. Reptilia (GB) 50: 25-27.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Jacobs, H.J. 2002. Erstnachzucht von Varanus macraei. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 24(141): 29-33.

Koch, A. 2016. Der Blaue Baumwaran (Varanus macraei) von Batanta:?wunderschön und stark bedroht Reptilia (D) 21(122): 38-41.

Mendyk, R.W. 2007. Dizygotic twinning in the blue tree monitor, Varanus macraei. Biawak 1(1): 26-28.

Moldovan, D. 2009. Haltung und Zucht von Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) macraei Boehme & Jacobs, 2002. Sauria (Berlin) 30(4): 5-10.

Rauhaus, A.; Gutjahr, L.; Oberreuter, J.; Ziegler, T. 2014. 7 Jahre Haltung und Nachzucht des Blaugefleckten Baumwarans (Varanus macraei) im Kölner Zoo: Ein Rück- und Ausblick. Terraria-Elaphe 2014(50): 32-37.

Schneider, A. 2016. Der Blaue Baumwaran, Varanus macraei – ein prächtiger Botschafter der indopazifischen Inselwelt. Reptilia (D) 21(122): 16-20.

Schneider, A. 2016. Der Blaue Baumwaran im Terrarium. Reptilia (D) 21(122): 22-33.

Schneider, A. 2016. Die Nachzucht des Blauen Baumwarans, Varanus (Hapturosaurus) macraei Reptilia (D) 21(122): 34-37.

Schneider, A. 2017. Die Nachzucht des Blauen Baumwarans, Varanus (Hapturosaurus) macraei. Reptilia (D) 22(123): 34-?

Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Tallowin, O. 2017. Varanus macraei. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T42485731A42485734. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T42485731A42485734.en.

Ziegler, T.; Strauch, M.; Pes, T.; Konas, J.; Jirasek, T.; Ruetz, N.; Oberreuter, J.; Holst, S. 2009. First captive breeding of the blue tree monitor Varanus macraei Boehme & Jacobs, 2001 at the Plzen and Cologne zoos. Biawak 3(4): 122-133.

Varanus marmoratus

Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60-68.

Gaulke, M. 1991. Systematic relationships of the Philippine water monitors as compared with Varanus s. salvator, with a discussion of dispersal routes. Mertensiella 2: 154-167.

Gaulke, M. 1992. Distribution, population density, and exploitation of the water monitor (Varanus salvator) in the Philippines. Hamadryad 17: 21-27.

Gaulke, M. 1996. Die Herpetofauna von Sibutu Island (Philippinen), unter Berücksichtigung zoogeographischer und ökologischer Aspekte. Senckenbergiana Biologica 75(1-2): 45-56.

Gaulke, M.; Sy, E.; Afuang, L.; Duya, M.R.; Diesmos, M.; Gonzalez, J.C. 2009. Varanus marmoratus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T169844A6681364. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2009-2.RLTS.T169844A6681364.en.

Koch, A.; Auliya, M.; Schmitz, A.; Kuch, U.; Böhme, W. 2007. Morphological studies on the systematics of south east Asian Water Monitors (Varanus salvator complex): nominotypic populations and taxonomic overview. Mertensiella 16: 109-180.

Koch, A.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 2010. Unravelling the underestimated diversity of Philippine water monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanus salvator complex), with the description of two new species and a new subspecies. Zootaxa 2446: 1-54.

Reyes, M.A.P.; Bennett, D.; Oliveros, C. 2008. The monitor lizards of the Camiguin Island, northern Philippines. Biawak 2(1): 28-36.

Varanus melinus

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Dedlmar, A.; Böhme, W. 2000. Erster Nachtzuchterfolg beim Quittenwaran, Varanus melinus Boehme & Ziegler, 1997. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 22(127): 29-34.

Weijola, V.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. A single species of mangrove monitor (Varanus) occupies Ambon, Seram, Buru and Saparua, Moluccas, Indonesia. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 9(1): 14-23.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1999. Genital morphology and systematics of two recently described monitor lizards of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 11: 121-128.

Ziegler, T.; Ruetz, N.; Oberreuter, J.; Holst, S. 2010. First F2 breeding of the Quince Monitor lizard Varanus melinus Böhme & Ziegler, 1997 at the Cologne Zoo Aquarium. Biawak 4(3): 82-92.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus mertensi

Anonymous. 1965. Neues aus der Wilhelma: Geburt von Varanus mertensi. Aquarien Terrarien 16(9): 306-307.

Blamires, S.J. 1999. An observation of a possible wild mating attempt for the water monitor, Varanus mertensi. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 29(1): 55.

Brotzler, A. 1965. Mertens-Wasserwarane (Varanus mertensi Glauert 1951) zuchteten in der Wilhelma. Freunde Kölner Zoo 8(3): 89.

Christian, K.A.; Conley, K.E. 1994. Activity and resting metabolism of varanid lizards compared with 'typical' lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 42(2): 185-193.

Christian, K.A.; Weavers, B.W. 1996. Thermoregulation of monitor lizards in Australia: an evaluation of methods in thermal biology. Ecological Monographs 66(2): 139-157.

Christian, K.A.; Weavers, B.W.; Green, B.; Bedford, G. 1996. Energetics and water flux in a semiaquatic lizard, Varanus mertensi. Copeia 1996(2): 354-362.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. 2008. Higher than predicted endurance for juvenile goannas (Varanidae; Varanus). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 91(3): 265-267.

Doody, J.S.; Castellano, C.M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B. 2013. Indirect facilitation of a native mesopredator by an invasive species: are cane toads re-shaping tropical riparian communities. Biological Invasions 15(3): 559-568.

Doody, J.S.; Cherriman, S. 2013. Natural history notes: Varanus mertensi (Mertens' Water Monitor). Predation. Herpetological Review 44(1): 150.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Rhind, D.; Castellano, C.M.; Sims, R.; Robinson, T. 2009. Population-level declines in Australian predators caused by an invasive species. Animal Conservation 12(1): 46-53.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Sims, R.; Rhind, D. 2007. A preliminary assessment of the impacts of invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on three species of varanid lizards in Australia. Mertensiella 16: 218-227.

Doody, J.S.; Mayes, P.; Clulow, S.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; Castellano, C.M.; D'Amore, D.; McHenry, C.R. 2014. Impacts of the invasive cane toad on aquatic reptiles in a highly modified ecosystem: the importance of replicating impact studies. Biological Invasions 16(11): 2303-2309.

Doody, J.S.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; Castellano, C.; McHenry, C.; Clulow, S. 2017. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community. Ecology (Washington, D.C.) 98(8): 2093-2101

Doody, J.S.; Soanes, R.; Castellano, C.M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; McHenry, C.R.; Clulow, S. 2015. Invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators. Ecology (Washington, D.C.) 96(9): 2544-2554.

Eidenmüller, B. 1990. Beobachtungen bei der Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus (Varanus) mertensi Glauert, 1951. Salamandra 26(2-3): 132-139.

Eidenmüller, B. 1995. The successful breeding of Merten's monitor lizard, Varanus mertensi. Vivarium (Lakeside) 7(2): 18-20.

Eidenmüller, B.; Stein, R. 1991. Zwillingsanlage bei Varanus (Varanus) mertensi Glauert, 1951. Salamandra 27(4): 282-283.

Eidenmüller, B.; Wicker, R. 1995. The successful breeding of Mertens' monitor lizard, Varanus mertensi, Glauert 1951. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25(2): 4-7.

Eidenmüller, B.; Wicker, R. 1998. Beobachtungen an Varanus mertensi-Gelegen inkubiert unter verschiedenen Bedingungen. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 20(116): 30-34.

Glauert, L. 1951. A new Varanus from east Kimberley Varanus mertensi. Western Australian Naturalist 3(1): 14-16.

Griffiths, A.D.; Mckay, J.L. 2007. Cane Toads reduce the abundance and site occupancy of Merten's Water Monitor (Varanus mertensi). Wildlife Research 34(8): 609-615.

Hermes, N. 1981. Mertens water monitor feeding on trapped fish. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 13(1): 34.

Irwin, S.; Engle, K.; Mackness, B. 1996. Nocturnal nesting by captive varanid lizards. Herpetological Review 27(4): 192-194.

Kelly, M.J.; Kiernan, B. 2012. Breeding Mertens Water Monitors (Varanus mertensi) in the UK. Herptile 37(4): 144-145.

Mayes, P.J. 2007. The use of burrows and burrow characteristics of the semi-aquatic Varanus mertensi (Reptilia: Varanidae). Mertensiella 16: 312-321.

Mayes, P.J.; Bradshaw, S.D.; Bradshaw, F.J. 2005. Successfully determining the sex of adult Varanus mertensi (Reptilia: Varanidae) using a combination of both hemipenile eversion and the ratio of androgens:estradiol in plasma. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1040: 402-405.

Mayes, P.J.; Bradshaw, S.D.; Bradshaw, F.J. 2007. Reproductive seasonality in the semi-aquatic monitor, Varanus mertensi (Reptilia: Varanidae). Mertensiella 16: 322-335.

Mayes, P.J.; Thompson, G.G.; Withers, P.C. 2005. Diet and foraging behaviour of the semi-aquatic Varanus mertensi (Reptilia: Varanidae). Wildlife Research 32(1): 67-74.

Murphy, J.B.; Lamoreaux, W.E. 1978. Threatening behaviour in Mertens' water monitor Varanus mertensi (Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetologica 34(2): 202-205.

Peters, U. 1970. Observations on Varanus mertensi and V. mitchelli in captivity. Bulletin Zoo. Man. 2(2): 20-22.

Peters, U. 1971. Varanus mertensi in Gefangenschaft. Aquarien Terrarien 18(6): 192-193.

Polleck, R. 1999. F2-Nachzucht mit Anmerkungen zur Terrarienhaltung des Mertenswarans, Varanus mertensi Glauert, 1951. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 21(119): 19-23.

Rhind, D.; Jackson, C.; Pezaro, N.; Doody, J.S. 2016. A nest of Varanus mertensi (Glauert, 1951) in northern Australia. Biawak 10(1): 18-21.

Schmida, G.E. 1978. Schützenfische und Wasserwarane. Freilandbeobachtungen in Australien. Aquarien Magazin 12(2): 60-65.

Schürer, U.; Horn, H.G. 1976. Freiland- und Gefangenschaftsbeobachtungen am australischen Wasserwaran, Varanus mertensi. Salamandra 12(4): 176-188.

Shea, G.; Woinarski, J.; Macdonald, S.M.; Cogger, H. 2018. Varanus mertensi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778246A101752340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778246A101752340.en.

Shine, R. 1986. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers region. Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region Technical Memorandum 16: 1-52.

Shine, R. 1986. Food habits, habitats and reproductive biology of four sympatric species of varanid lizards in tropical Australia. Herpetologica 42(3): 346-360.

Smith, J.G.; Griffiths, A.D. 2009. Determinants of home range and activity in two semi-aquatic lizards. Journal of Zoology (London) 279(4): 349-357.

Smith, J.G.; Griffiths, A.D.; Brook, B.W. 2010. Survival estimation in a long-lived monitor lizard: radio-tracking of Varanus mertensi. Population Ecology 52(1): 243-247.

Somaweera, R.; Webb, J.K.; Shine, R. 2011. It's a dog-eat-croc world: dingo predation on the nests of freshwater crocodiles in tropical Australia. Ecological Research 26(5): 957-967.

Thompson, G.G.; Withers, P. 1998. Standard evaporative water loss and metabolism of juvenile Varanus mertensi (Squamata: Varanidae). Copeia 1998(4): 1054-1059.

Warkentin, T.; Kessner, R. 2011. Erfolgreiches Nachzucht-Jahr in der Reptilienabteilung des Zoo-Aquariums Berlin. Bongo 41: 51-56.

Worrell, E. 1956. A new water monitor from northern Australia. Australian Zoologist 12(3): 201-202.

Varanus mitchelli

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. 2008. Higher than predicted endurance for juvenile goannas (Varanidae; Varanus). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 91(3): 265-267.

Doody, J.S. 2014. Natural history notes: Varanus mitchelli (Mitchell's Water Monitor). Predation. Herpetological Review 45(4): 702.

Doody, J.S.; Castellano, C.M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B. 2013. Indirect facilitation of a native mesopredator by an invasive species: are cane toads re-shaping tropical riparian communities. Biological Invasions 15(3): 559-568.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Rhind, D.; Castellano, C.M.; Sims, R.; Robinson, T. 2009. Population-level declines in Australian predators caused by an invasive species. Animal Conservation 12(1): 46-53.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Sims, R.; Rhind, D. 2007. A preliminary assessment of the impacts of invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on three species of varanid lizards in Australia. Mertensiella 16: 218-227.

Doody, J.S.; Milenkaya, O.; Rhind, D.; Eastley, T.; Penrose, K. 2010. Natural history notes: Varanus mitchelli (Mitchell's Water Monitor). Diet and foraging behavior. Herpetological Review 41(2): 233-234.

Doody, J.S.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; Castellano, C.; McHenry, C.; Clulow, S. 2017. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community. Ecology (Washington, D.C.) 98(8): 2093-2101

Doody, J.S.; Soanes, R.; Castellano, C.M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; McHenry, C.R.; Clulow, S. 2015. Invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators. Ecology (Washington, D.C.) 96(9): 2544-2554.

Gaikhorst, G.; McLaughlin, J.; Larkin, B.; McPharlin, M. 2010. Successful captive breeding of Mitchell's Water Monitor, Varanus mitchelli (Mertens 1958), at Perth Zoo. Zoo Biology 29(5): 615-625.

Peters, U. 1968. Moloch horridus, Varanus spenceri, V. mitchelli, Egernia bungana und Heteronotia binoei im Taronga-Zoo, Sydney. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 21: 252-254.

Peters, U. 1970. Observations on Varanus mertensi and V. mitchelli in captivity. Bulletin Zoo. Man. 2(2): 20-22.

Peters, U. 1971. Bemerkungen über Mitchell's Wasserwaran Varanus (Varanus) mitchelli Mertens, 1958. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 8: 75-77.

Shea, G.; Woinarski, J.; Cogger, H. 2018. Varanus mitchelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778268A101752345. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778268A101752345.en.

Shine, R. 1986. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers region. Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region Technical Memorandum 16: 1-52.

Shine, R. 1986. Food habits, habitats and reproductive biology of four sympatric species of varanid lizards in tropical Australia. Herpetologica 42(3): 346-360.

Varanus nebulosus

Arida, E.; Setyawatiningsih, S.C. 2015. Erratum: On the occurrence of Varanus nebulosus (Gray, 1831) (Squamata: Varanidae) on Riau Archipelago, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3931(4): 600.

Arida, E.; Setyawatiningsih, S.C. 2015. On the occurrence of Varanus nebulosus (Gray, 1831) (Squamata: Varanidae) on Riau Archipelago, Indonesia. Zootaxa 3919(1): 197-200.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. On the synonymy and taxonomy of the Bengal monitor lizard, Varanus bengalensis (Daudin, 1802) complex (Sauria: Varanidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 18(2): 207-211.

Brongersma, L.D. 1947. Zoological notes from Port Dickson. 1. Amphibians and reptiles. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 27: 300-308.

Duengkae, P.; Chuaynkern, Y. 2009. Observations of basking in Varanus bengalensis nebulosus from northeastern Thailand. Biawak 3(3): 88-92.

Gairdner, K.G. 1915. Notes on the fauna and flora of Ratburi and Petchaburi districts (Part II). Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam 1(3): 131-156.

Harrison, J.L.; Lim, B.L. 1957. Monitor lizards of Malaya. Malayan Nature Journal 12(1): 1-10.

Meek, R. 1978. On the thermal relations of two Oriental varanids: Varanus bengalensis nebulosis and Varanus salvator. Report Cotswold Herpetological Symposium 1978: 32-47.

Stanner, M. 2011. Preliminary account of the Clouded Monitors (Varanus bengalensis nebulosus) of Ban Truem Village, northeastern Thailand. Biawak 5(3): 36-40.

Traeholt, C. 1997. Effect of masking the parietal eye on the diurnal activity and body temperature of two sympatric species of monitor lizards, Varanus s. salvator and Varanus b. nebulosus. Journal of Comparative Physiology B Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 167(3): 177-184.

Traeholt, C. 1997. Notes on the food and feeding behaviour of Varanus bengalensis nebulosus on Palau Tioman, Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 50(3): 173-181.

Yang, D.; Liu, W. 1994. Relationships among species groups of Varanus from southern southeastern Asia with description of a new species from Vietnam. Zoological Research 15(1): 11-15.

Varanus nesterovi

Böhme, W. 2017. Rediscovery of Nesterov’s Desert Monitor Lizard, Varanus nesterovi Böhme, Ehrlich, Milto, Orlov & Scholz, 2014 (Squamata: Varanidae) in Iraq. Sauria (Berlin) 39(3): 57-62.

Böhme, W.; Ehrlich, K.; Milto, K.D.; Orlov, N.L.; Scholz, S. 2015. A new species of desert monitor lizard (Varanidae: Varanus: Psammosaurus) from the western Zagros region (Iraq, Iran). Russian Journal of Herpetology 22(1): 41-52.

Varanus niloticus

Anonymous. 1975. An anthill as nursery. Zoon (Pretoria) 1: 17-18.

Anonymous. 1981. New breed of 'dragon' invades southern Florida. Chicago Herpetological Society Newsletter 1981(August): 1 p. (Unpaginated. Reprinted from Chicago Tribune, July 19, 1981).

Amer, S.A.M. 2003. Phylogenetic relationship between two African varanid species (Reptilia), inferred from protein and mitochondrial DNA data. Journal of Union of Arab Biologists Cairo A Zoology 19: 23-38.

Angelici, F.M.; Luiselli, L. 1999. Aspects of the ecology of Varanus niloticus (Reptilia, Varanidae) in southeastern Nigeria, and their contribution to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of V. niloticus species complex. Revue d'Ecologie la Terre et la Vie 54(1): 29-42.

Barry, K. 2004. Water leguaan robbing nest of Goliath heron. Honeyguide 50(1): 43.

Bates, M.F. 2010. Geographical distribution: Varanus niloticus Linnaeus, 1766. Water Monitor. South Africa: Free State. African Herp News 52: 25-26.

Bayless, M.K. 1997. The distribution of African monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae). African Journal of Ecology 35(4): 374-377.

Bayless, M.K. 2008. Local names of Pan-African monitor lizards (Varanidae: Varanus: Polydaedalus). Biawak 2(2): 61-71.

Bayless, M.K.; Luiselli, L. 2000. The ecological distribution of monitor lizards (Reptilia, Varanidae) in Nigeria. Miscellania Zoologica (Barcelona) 23(1): 1-8.

Bayless, M.K.; Pierson, B. 2003. Varanus niloticus (Nile monitor): captive adult feeding on ants. Herpetological Bulletin 85: 29-30.

Bennett, D. 2002. Diet of juvenile Varanus niloticus (Sauria: Varanidae) on the Black Volta River in Ghana. Journal of Herpetology 36(1): 116-117.

Berny, P.J.; Buffrenil, V. de; Hemery, G. 2006. Use of the nile monitor, Varanus niloticus L (Reptilia: Varanidae), as a bioindicator of organochlorine pollution in African wetlands. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 77(3): 359-366.

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FitzSimons, V. 1956. Reptiles and Amphibians of the Wonderboom Nature Reserve. Fauna and Flora (Pretoria) 7: 89-106.

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Muhigwa, J.B.B. 1998. Diel activity and biotope choices of the Nile monitor lizard in western Kenya. African Journal of Ecology 36(3): 271-275.

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Varanus nuchalis

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Gaulke, M.; Reiter, J. 2001. Zur Biologie des Raunacken-Bindenwaranes. Draco 2(3) (7): 42-49.

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Varanus obor

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Weijola, V.S.A.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. A new melanistic species of monitor lizard (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) from Sanana Island, Indonesia. Zootaxa 2434: 17-32.

Varanus olivaceus

Auffenberg, W. 1976. First description of an adult Varanus grayi. Copeia 1976(3): 586-588.

Auffenberg, W. 1979. A monitor lizard in the Philippines. Oryx 15(1): 39-46.

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Banks, C. 1997. Melbourne Zoo's partnership role in the conservation of threatened endemic Philippine fauna. Sylvatrop 5(1-2): 105-112.

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Bennett, D. 2000. Preliminary survey and status report for Varanus olivaceus on Polillo Island. pp. 9-27. In: Bennett, D. (ed.). Wildlife of Polillo Island, Philippines. University of Oxford - University of the Philippines at Los Banos Polillo '99 project. Final report. Viper Press, Glossop. 174 pp.

Bennett, D. 2014. A dubious account of breeding Varanus olivaceus in captivity at the Paradise Reptile Zoo in Mindoro, Philippines. Biawak 8(1): 12-14.

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Bennett, D.; Hampson, K.; Yngente, V. 2001. A noose trap for catching a large arboreal lizard, Varanus olivaceus. Herpetological Review 32(3): 167-168.

Card, W. 1994. Double clutching Gould's monitors (Varanus gouldii) and Gray's monitors (Varanus olivaceus) at the Dallas Zoo. Herpetological Review 25(3): 111, 114.

Contreras, A.M. 1980. Butaan could be saved. Canopy 6(9): 10.

Gaulke, M.; Curio, E. 2001. A new monitor lizard from Panay Island, Philippines (Reptilia, Sauria, Varanidae). Spixiana 24(3): 275-286.

Lutz, M. 2006. Der Butaan (Varanus olivaceus), Hallowell 1856. Haltung und erste erfolgreiche Nachzucht im Terrarium. Sauria (Berlin) 28(4): 5-13.

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Recchio, I. 2016. Reproduction of the rare frugivorous monitor lizard Varanus olivaceus (Hallowell, 1857), at the Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens. Pp. 93-103. In: Cota, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the 2015 Interdisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. 247 pp.

Ruiter, M. de 1993. Erste Nachzucht des Gray-Warans. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 46(10): 619.

Strange, A. 1984. A study of activity patterns and spacing in Gray's monitor lizard - Varanus grayi May 1982 - July 1983. Canadian Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Society Bulletin 21(4): 1-2.

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Vincent, M.; Wilson, S. 1998. Varanus olivaceus. Gray's monitor: a cause for concern. Reptilia (GB) 5: 26-28.

Welton, L.J.; Siler, C.D.; Diesmos, A.C.; Diesmos, M.L.; Lagat, R.D.; Causaren, R.M.; Brown, R.M. 2012. Genetic identity, geographic ranges, and major distribution records for frugivorous monitor lizards of Luzon Island, Philippines. Herpetological Review 43(2): 226-230.

Yuyek, M.D. 2012. Husbandry and reproduction of Varanus olivaceus Hallowell (Sauria: Varanidae) at the Avilon Montalban Zoological Park. Biawak 6(6): 39-53.

Varanus palawanensis

Conrad, J.L. 2015. Skeletons of the little-known Palawan Monitor, Varanus palawanensis (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of Herpetology 49(3): 485-490.

Koch, A.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 2010. Unravelling the underestimated diversity of Philippine water monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanus salvator complex), with the description of two new species and a new subspecies. Zootaxa 2446: 1-54.

Varanus panoptes

Bennett, D. 1992. A note on Varanus panoptes rubidus (Storr 1980) in Wanjarri, Western Australia. British Herpetological Society Bulletin 39: 28-30.

Blamires, S.J. 1999. A note on the reproductive seasonality of Varanus panoptes in the wet-dry tropics of Australia. Hamadryad 24(1): 49-51.

Blamires, S.J. 2000. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Northern Sand Goanna). Diet. Herpetological Review 31(3): 177.

Blamires, S.J. 2001. Influence of temperature on burrow use by the monitor lizard Varanus panoptes of the coastal dunes at Fog Bay, northern Australia. Asiatic Herpetological Research 9 [2000]: 25-29.

Blamires, S.J. 2004. Habitat preferences of coastal goannas (Varanus panoptes): are they exploiters of Sea Turtle nests at Fog Bay, Australia? Copeia 2004(2): 370-377.

Blamires, S.J.; Guinea, M.L. 2003. Emergence success of Flatback Sea Turtles (Natator depressus) at Fog Bay, Northern Territory, Australia. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4(3): 548-556.

Blamires, S.J.; Guinea, M.L.; Prince, R.I.T. 2003. Influence of nest site selection on predation of Flatback Sea Turtle (Natator depressus) eggs by varanid lizards in northern Australia. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 4(3): 557-563.

Blamires, S.J.; Nobbs, M. 2000. Observations of mangrove habitation by the monitor lizard Varanus panoptes. Northern Territory Naturalist 16: 21-23.

Böhme, W. 1988. Der Arguswaran (Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980) auf Neuguinea: V. panoptes horni ssp. n. (Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 24(2-3): 87-101.

Böhme, W. 1991. The identity of Varanus gouldii (Gray, 1838), and the nomenclature of the V. gouldii-species complex. Mertensiella 2: 38-41.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the names Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for Hydrosaurus gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(3): 173-174.

Christian, K.A. 1995. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (NCN) and Varanus gouldii (sand goanna). Diet and predation. Herpetological Review 26(3): 146.

Christian, K.A.; Conley, K.E. 1994. Activity and resting metabolism of varanid lizards compared with 'typical' lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 42(2): 185-193.

Christian, K.A.; Corbett, L.K.; Green, B.; Weavers, B.W. 1995. Seasonal activity and energetics of two species of varanid lizards in tropical Australia. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 103(3): 349-357.

Christian, K.A.; Weavers, B.W. 1996. Thermoregulation of monitor lizards in Australia: an evaluation of methods in thermal biology. Ecological Monographs 66(2): 139-157.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. 2008. Higher than predicted endurance for juvenile goannas (Varanidae; Varanus). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 91(3): 265-267.

Clemente, C.J.; Withers, P.C.; Thompson, G.G. 2012. Optimal body size with respect to maximal speed for the Yellow-spotted Monitor Lizard (Varanus panoptes; Varanidae). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85(3): 265-273.

Doody, J.S.; Castellano, C.M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B. 2013. Indirect facilitation of a native mesopredator by an invasive species: are cane toads re-shaping tropical riparian communities. Biological Invasions 15(3): 559-568.

Doody, J.S.; Cherriman, S. 2012. Natural history notes: Varanus gouldii (Sand Monitor) and Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Predation. Herpetological Review 43(4): 653-654.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Rhind, D.; Castellano, C.M.; Sims, R.; Robinson, T. 2009. Population-level declines in Australian predators caused by an invasive species. Animal Conservation 12(1): 46-53.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Sims, R.; Rhind, D. 2007. A preliminary assessment of the impacts of invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on three species of varanid lizards in Australia. Mertensiella 16: 218-227.

Doody, J.S.; Green, B.; Sims, R.; Rhind, D.; West, P.; Steer, D. 2006. Indirect impacts of invasive Cane Toads (Bufo marinus) on nest predation in pig-nosed turtles (Carettochelys insculpta). Wildlife Research 33(5): 349-354.

Doody, J.S.; Hall, M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; Dryden, G. 2012. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Diet. Herpetological Review 43(3): 491-492.

Doody, J.S.; James, H.; Ellis, R.J.; Gibson, N.; Mitchell, R.; Mahony, S.; Hamilton, D.G.; Rhind, D.; Simon, C.; McHenry, C.R. 2014. Cryptic and complex nesting in the Yellow-spotted Monitor, Varanus panoptes. Journal of Herpetology 48(3): 363-370.

Doody, J.S.; James, H.; Walmsley, C.W.; Rhind, D.; Edgar, M.; Maik, F.; D'Amore, D.; Simon, C.; McHenry, C.R. 2015. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Toxic prey avoidance. Herpetological Review 46(1): 96-97.

Doody, J.S.; Lloyd, R.; Rhind, D. 2012. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Diet and prey capture. Herpetological Review 43(2): 339-340.

Doody, J.S.; McHenry, C.; Mahony, S.; Taylor, S.; Clulow, S. 2015. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Diet. Herpetological Review 46(2): 263-264.

Doody, J.S.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; Castellano, C.; McHenry, C.; Clulow, S. 2017. Chronic effects of an invasive species on an animal community. Ecology (Washington, D.C.) 98(8): 2093-2101

Doody, J.S.; Sawyer, G.; Hands, K. 2015. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Diet and foraging behavior. Herpetological Review 46(1): 95-96.

Doody, J.S.; Soanes, R.; Castellano, C.M.; Rhind, D.; Green, B.; McHenry, C.R.; Clulow, S. 2015. Invasive toads shift predator-prey densities in animal communities by removing top predators. Ecology (Washington, D.C.) 96(9): 2544-2554.

Gentry, A. 1999. Comments on the proposed conservation of the names Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for H. gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56(1): 70-71.

Hoser, R. 1999. Comments on the proposed conservation of the names Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for H. gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 56(1): 66-70.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2000. Opinion 1948. Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 (currently Varanus gouldii) and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata): specific names conserved by the designation of a neotype for H. gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 57(1): 63-65.

Irwin, S.; Lyons, B.; Frisby, T. 1996. Nocturnal activity by Varanus panoptes at Cape Melville. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 26(2): 50.

King, D.R. 1997. Comment on the proposed conservation of the specific names of Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 (currently Varanus gouldii) and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for H. gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 54(4): 249-250.

Lei, J.; Booth, D.T.; Dwyer, R.G. 2017. Spatial ecology of yellow-spotted goannas adjacent to a sea turtle nesting beach. Australian Journal of Zoology 65(2): 77-86

Lenk, P.; Eidenmüller, B.; Staudter, H.; Wicker, R.; Wink, M 2005. A parthenogenetic Varanus. Amphibia-Reptilia 26(4): 507-514.

Llewelyn, J.; Schwarzkopf, L.; Phillips, B.L.; Shine, R. 2014. After the crash: how do predators adjust following the invasion of a novel toxic prey type? Austral Ecology 39(2): 190-197.

Paden, L. 2008. Varanus panoptes horni (argus monitor) reproduction. Biawak 2(2): 95-96.

Paden, L. 2008. Varanus panoptes horni (Argus monitor) sexual maturity. Biawak 2(4): 173-174.

Rhind, D.; Doody, J.S.; Pritchard, R.; McHenry, C.R. 2013. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Cannibalism. Herpetological Review 44(3): 516-517.

Rhind, D.; Sawyer, G.; Trembath, D.; Parrott, M.; Doody, J.S. 2014. Natural history notes: Varanus panoptes (Yellow-spotted Monitor). Diet and behavior. Herpetological Review 45(2): 335-336.

Schardt, M. 2000. Aktuelle Übersicht zur Nomenklatur der australischen "Gouldswarane" sowie Angaben zur Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus panoptes panoptes Storr, 1980. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 22(129): 22-32.

Schardt, M. 2001. Übersicht zur Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus panoptes panoptes Storr, 1980 in der Folgegeneration F2. Draco 2(3) (7): 55-61

Shannon, R. 2008. Observations on three species of Varanus in Ilfracombe, Queensland. Biawak 2(2): 80-86.

Shannon, R.; Mendyk, R.W. 2009. Aquatic foraging behavior and freshwater mussel (Velesunio sp.) predation by Varanus panoptes panoptes in central-western Queensland. Biawak 3(3): 85-87.

Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Parker, F.; Tallowin, O.; Doughty, P. 2018. Varanus panoptes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T42485740A42485745. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T42485740A42485745.en.

Shea, G.; Cogger, H.G. 1998. Comment on the proposed conservation of the names Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for Hydrosaurus gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(2): 106-111.

Shea, G.M.; Sadlier, R.A. 2001. An ovigerous argus monitor, Varanus panoptes panoptes. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 31(2): 132-133.

Shine, R. 1986. Diets and abundances of aquatic and semi-aquatic reptiles in the Alligator Rivers region. Supervising Scientist for the Alligator Rivers Region Technical Memorandum 16: 1-52.

Shine, R. 1986. Food habits, habitats and reproductive biology of four sympatric species of varanid lizards in tropical Australia. Herpetologica 42(3): 346-360.

Sprackland, R.G.; Smith, H.M.; Strimple, P. 1997. Case 3042. Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 (currently Varanus gouldii) and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata): proposed conservation of the specific names by the designation of a neotype for H. gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 54(2): 95-99.

Sprackland, R.G.; Smith, H.M.; Strimple, P. 1998. Comments on the proposed conservation of the names Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray, 1838 and Varanus panoptes Storr, 1980 (Reptilia, Squamata) by the designation of a neotype for Hydrosaurus gouldii. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 55(3): 175-176.

Storr, G.M. 1980. The monitor lizards (genus Varanus Merrem, 1820) of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 8(2): 237-293.

Ujvari, B.; Madsen, T. 2009. Increased mortality of naive varanid lizards after the invasion of non-native Cane Toads (Bufo marinus). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 4(2): 248-251.

Ward-Fear, G.; Pearson, D.J.; Brown, G.P.; Rangers, B.; Shine, R. 2016. Ecological immunization: in situ training of free-ranging predatory lizards reduces their vulnerability to invasive toxic prey. Biology Letters 12(1): 20150863.

Werneburg, I.; Polachowski, K.M.; Hutchinson, M.N. 2015. Bony skull development in the Argus monitor (Squamata, Varanidae, Varanus panoptes) with comments on developmental timing and adult anatomy. Zoology (Jena) 118(4): 255-280.

Wiechmann, R. 2012. Observations on parthenogenesis in monitor lizards. Biawak 6(1): 11-21.

Varanus pilbarensis

Camina Vega, A.; Koch, A. 2017. First breeding report of the Pilbara Rock Monitor (Varanus pilbarensis Storr, 1980) in Spain with taxonomic comments on the recently described V. hamersleyensis Maryan et al., 2014. Biawak 11(1): 19-27.

Camina Vega, A.; Wefer, E. 2016. Remarks on a case of deformities in a female Varanus pilbarensis. Biawak 10(2): 51-53.

Doody, J.S.; Schembri, B.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. Natural history notes: Varanus pilbarensis (Pilbara Rock Monitor) and Varanus glauerti (Kimberly Rock Monitor). Tail display behavior. Herpetological Review 46(3): 439-440.

Eidenmüller, B.; Langner, C. 1998. Bemerkungen zu Haltung und Zucht des Pilbara-Felsenwarans Varanus pilbarensis Storr, 1980. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 20(117): 5-10.

Hoerenberg, T. 2013. Der Pilbara-Waran, Varanus pilbarensis – Haltung und Nachzucht. Draco 14(53): 31-36.

Maryan, B.; Oliver, P.M.; Fitch, A.J.; O'Connell, M. 2014. Molecular and morphological assessment of Varanus pilbarensis (Squamata: Varanidae), with a description of a new species from the southern Pilbara, Western Australia. Zootaxa 3768(2): 139-158.

Oliver, P.; Doughty, P.; Wilson, S.; Ellis, R.; Macdonald, S.M. 2018. Varanus pilbarensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778365A101752350. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778365A101752350.en.

Retes, F.; Bennett, D. 2001. Multiple generations, multiple clutches, and early maturity in four species of monitor lizards (Varanidae) bred in captivity. Herpetological Review 32(4): 244-245.

Storr, G.M. 1980. The monitor lizards (genus Varanus Merrem, 1820) of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 8(2): 237-293.

Varanus prasinus

Allison, A.; Shea, G.; Tallowin, O. 2016. Varanus reisingeri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42485766A42485769. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T42485766A42485769.en.

Baldwin, B. 2006. Successful care and reproduction of green tree monitors (Varanus prasinus) at the San Diego Zoo. Iguana (West Hartford) 13(4): 283-287.

Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60-68.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Bosch, H.A.J. in den 1999. Successful breeding of the Emerald monitor (Varanus p. prasinus) in the Lobbecke Museum + Aquazoo, Dusseldorf (Germany). Mertensiella 11: 225-226.

Bucklitsch, Y.; Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2016. Scale morphology and micro-structure of monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae: Varanus spp.) and their allies: implications for systematics, ecology, and conservation. Zootaxa 4153(1): 1-192.

Clarke, R.H. 2004. A record of the Emerald Monitor Varanus prasinus from Boigu Island, Torres Strait, Australia. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 34(2): 70-71.

Czechura, G.V. 1980. The emerald monitor Varanus prasinus (Schlegel): an addition to the Australian mainland herpetofauna. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 20(1): 103-109.

Dedlmar, A. 1994. Haltung und Nachzucht des Smaragdwarans (Varanus (Odatria) prasinus). Salamandra 30(4): 234-240.

Eidenmüller, B. 1998. Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus p. prasinus (Schlegel, 1939) und Varanus p. beccarii (Doria, 1874). Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 20(112): 8-13.

Eidenmüller, B. 2015. Smaragdwarane. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 94 pp.

Eidenmüller, B. 2016. Emerald Monitors - The Varanus prasinus Group. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 94 pp.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Eidenmüller, B.; Wicker, R. 2005. Eine weitere neue Waranart aus dem Varanus prasinus-Komplex von der Insel Misol, Indonesien. Sauria (Berlin) 27(1): 3-8.

Greene, H.W. 1986. Diet and arboreality in the emerald monitor, Varanus prasinus, with comments on the study of adaptation. Fieldiana Zoology 31: 1-12.

Hartdegen, R.W.; Roberts, D.T.; Chiszar, D. 2000. Laceration of prey integument by Varanus prasinus (Schlegel, 1839) and V. beccarii (Doria, 1874). Hamadryad 25(2): 196-198.

Jacobs, H.J. 2002. Zur morphologischen Variabilität der nominellen Smaragdwaran-Taxa Varanus prasinus (H. Schlegel, 1839) und V. kordensis (A.B. Meyer, 1874), mit Bemerkungen zur Erstzucht des letzteren. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 24(137): 21-34.

Jacobs, H.J. 2008. Zucht von Varanus reisingeri Eidenmüller & Wicker, 2005 mit Vergleich der Jugendkleider der V. prasinus-Gruppe und Bemerkungen zu deren Taxonomie. Sauria (Berlin) 30(1): 5-12.

Mann, H.J. 1976. Zur Behandlung eines Smaragdwarans, Varanus prasinus. Salamandra 12(4): 206-207.

Mendyk, R.W. 2015. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 34(2): 139-152.

Mertens, R. 1971. Über eine Waransammlung aus dem östlichen Neuguinea. Senckenbergiana Biologica 52: 1-5.

Mundhenk, K. 2008. Two observations of captured green tree monitors (Varanus prasinus) in the western province of Papua New Guinea. Biawak 2(3): 119-120.

Polleck, R. 2004. Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus prasinus prasinus (Schlegel, 1839). Sauria (Berlin) 26(2): 43-45.

Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Parker, F.; Tallowin, O. 2016. Varanus prasinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42485751A42485760. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T42485751A42485760.en.

Shuter, A.D. 2014. A novel underwater foraging behavior observed in Varanus prasinus at the Wildlife Conservation Society's Bronx Zoo. Biawak 8(2): 61-63.

Sprackland, R.G. 1991. Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 30(3): 561-576.

Sprackland, R.G. 1991. The emerald monitor lizard, Varanus prasinus. Tropical Fish Hobbyist 39(8): 110-114.

Whittier, J.; Moeller, D.R. 1993. Varanus prasinus (the emerald goanna) on Moa Island, Torres Strait, Australia. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 34(1): 130.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1996. Zur Hemiclitoris der squamaten Reptilien: Auswirkungen auf einige Methoden der Geschlechtsunterscheidung. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 18(101): 11-19.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus primordius

Bennett, D.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. Varanus primordius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178030A7487647. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T178030A7487647.en.

Husband, G.A. 2001. Lebensweise und Haltung von Varanus primordius. Draco 2(3) (7): 50-54.

Husband, G.A. 2001. Natural history and captive maintenance of the northern bluntspined monitor Varanus primordius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 31(2): 126-131.

Mertens, R. 1942. Eine weiterer neuer Waran aus Australien. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Leipzig) 138(1/2): 41-44.

Mertens, R. 1947. Ein weiterer neuer Waran aus Australien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 138(1/2) [1942]: 41-44.

Mertens, R. 1963. Ein wenig bekannter Zwergwaran, Varanus acanthurus primordius. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 16: 377-379.

Storr, G.M. 1966. Rediscovery and taxonomic status of Varanus primordius. Copeia 1966(3): 583-584.

Varanus rainerguentheri

Grabbe, J. 2014. Erster Nachweis von Parthenogenese bei Varanus rainerguentheri, einem Pazifikwaran aus derindicus-Gruppe. Terraria-Elaphe 2014(50): 38-42.

Grabe, J.; Koch, A. 2014. First and repeated cases of parthenogenesis in the varanid subgenus Euprepiosaurus (Varanus indicus species group) and the first successful breeding of V. rainerguentheri in captivity. Biawak 8(2): 79-87.

Somma, M.; Koch, A. 2012. New morphological and distributional data on Varanus rainerguentheri (Squamata: Varanidae), an endemic and little-known monitor lizard species of the Moluccas, Indonesia. Salamandra 48(4): 207-212.

Weijola, V.; Sweet, S.S. 2015. A single species of mangrove monitor (Varanus) occupies Ambon, Seram, Buru and Saparua, Moluccas, Indonesia. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 9(1): 14-23.

Weijola, V.S.A. 2010. Geographical distribution and habitat use of monitor lizards of the North Moluccas. Biawak 4(1): 7-23.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W.; Schmitz, A. 2007. A new species of the Varanus indicus group (Squamata, Varanidae) from Halmahera Island, Moluccas: morphological and molecular evidence. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin Zoologische Reihe 83: 109-119.

Varanus rasmusseni

Koch, A.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 2010. Unravelling the underestimated diversity of Philippine water monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanus salvator complex), with the description of two new species and a new subspecies. Zootaxa 2446: 1-54.

Sy, E.Y.; Quemado, R. 2014. Geographic distribution: Varanus rasmusseni (Rasmussen's Water Monitor Lizard). Herpetological Review 45(3): 464.

Varanus rosenbergi

Andrews, R.M.; Pezaro, N.; Doody, J.S.; Guarino, F.; Green, B. 2017. Oviposition to hatching: development of Varanus rosenbergi. Journal of Herpetology 51(3): 396–401

Arnaud, B. 2017. Predation on an eastern water dragon (Intellegama lesueurii) by a heath monitor (Varanus rosenbergi) in Royal National Park, Australia. Herpetology Notes 10: 339.

Bennett, D.; Sweet, S.S. 2010. Varanus rosenbergi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T178031A7488030. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-4.RLTS.T178031A7488030.en.

Case, T.J.; Schwaner, T.D. 1993. Island/mainland body size differences in Australian varanid lizards. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 94(1): 102-109.

Christian, K.; Weavers, B. 1994. Analysis of the activity and energetics of the lizard Varanus rosenbergi. Copeia 1994(2): 289-295.

Christian, K.A.; Conley, K.E. 1994. Activity and resting metabolism of varanid lizards compared with 'typical' lizards. Australian Journal of Zoology 42(2): 185-193.

Christian, K.A.; Weavers, B.W. 1996. Thermoregulation of monitor lizards in Australia: an evaluation of methods in thermal biology. Ecological Monographs 66(2): 139-157.

Clark, T.D.; Butler, P.J.; Frappell, P.B. 2006. Factors influencing the prediction of metabolic rate in a reptile. Functional Ecology 20(1): 105-113.

Ehmann, H.; Swan, G.; Swan, G.; Smith, B. 1991. Nesting, egg incubation and hatching by the heath monitor Varanus rosenbergi in a termite mound. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 21(1): 17-24.

Gaikhorst, G. 2002. Notes of termitarium nesting by Varanus rosenbergi in Western Australia. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 32(1): 4-5.

Georges, A. 1988. A herp happening. Newsletter of the Australian Society of Herpetologists 30: 19.

Glen, A.S.; Sutherland, D.R.; Cruz, J. 2010. An improved method of microhabitat assessment relevant to predation risk. Ecological Research 25(2): 311-314.

Green, B.; Dryden, G.; Dryden, K. 1991. Field energetics of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus rosenbergi. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 88(4): 547-551.

Green, B.; King, D. 1978. Home range and activity patterns of the sand goanna, Varanus gouldii (Reptilia: Varanidae). Australian Wildlife Research 5(3): 417-424.

Green, B.; McKelvey, M.; Rismiller, P. 1999. The behaviour and energetics of hatchling Varanus rosenbergi. Mertensiella 11: 105-112.

King, D.; Green, B. 1979. Notes on diet and reproduction of the sand goanna Varanus gouldii rosenbergi. Copeia 1979(1): 64-70.

Kirshner, D.S. 2016. Notes on the nesting behaviors of Heath Monitors, Varanus rosenbergi Mertens, 1957, in the Sydney region. Pp. 105-121. In: Cota, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the 2015 Interdisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. 247 pp.

Maryan, B.; Robinson, D. 1987. Field compatibility observation. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 17(1-2): 11-12.

Mertens, R. 1957. Eine neuer melanistischer Waran aus dem südlichen Australien. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Leipzig) 159: 17-20.

Mirtschin, P.J. 1982. The Goulds goanna, an Australian native, alien to Reevesby Island. South Australian Naturalist 57(1): 18-19.

Mirtschin, P.J. 1983. Further notes on the goulds goanna from Reevesby Island. South Australian Naturalist 58(1): 12.

Mirtschin, P.J.; Jenkins, R. 1985. History of the Goulds goanna from Reevesby Island. South Australian Naturalist 59(3): 41-42.

Overton, B.M. 1987. An observation of apparent goanna (Varanus rosenbergi) predation on a juvenile echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus var.). South Australian Naturalist 62(1): 84-85.

Rismiller, P.D.; McKelvey, M.W. 2000. Spontaneous arousal in reptiles? Body temperature ecology of Rosenberg's goanna, Varanus rosenbergi. pp. 57-64. In: Heldmaier, G. & Klingenspor, M. (eds.). Life in the cold: eleventh International Hibernation Symposium. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg & New York. 546 pp.

RisMiller, P.D.; McKelvey, M.W.; Green, B. 2010. Breeding phenology and behavior of Rosenberg's Goanna (Varanus rosenbergi) on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Journal of Herpetology 44(3): 399-408.

Rismiller, P.M.; McKelvey, M.W.; Steinlechner, S. 2007. Temperature and humidity in egg incubation mounds of Varanus rosenbergi. Mertensiella 16: 353-363.

Robinson, A.C.; Mirtschin, P.J.; Copley, P.B.; Canty, P.D.; Jenkins, R.B. 1985. The Reevesby Island goanna - a problem in conservation management. South Australian Naturalist 59(4): 56-62.

Schwaner, T.D. 1985. The eradication of a native animal from an island reserve - a critical assessment of the Reevesby Island goanna case history. South Australian Naturalist 59(4): 52-55.

Shea, G. 1994. Three species of goanna occur in the Sydney Basin. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 24(2): 14-18.

Smith, W.; Scott, I.A.W.; Keogh, J.S. 2007. Molecular phylogeography of Rosenberg's goanna (Reptilia: Varanidae: Varanus rosenbergi) and its conservation status in New South Wales. Systematics and Biodiversity 5(4): 361-369.

Sutherland, D.R. 2011. Dietary niche overlap and size partitioning in sympatric varanid lizards. Herpetologica 67(2): 146-153.

Tores, P.J. de; Sutherland, D.R.; Clarke, J.R.; Hill, R.F.; Garretson, S.W.; Bloomfield, L.; Struempher, L.; Glen, A.S.; Cruz, J. 2011. Assessment of risks to non-target species from an encapsulated toxin in a bait proposed for control of feral cats. Wildlife Research 38(1): 39-50.

Traynor, B. 2010. Observations of the heath monitor Varanus rosenbergi (Varanidae): a record from Gambo Hill near Rylstone, New South Wales. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 40(1): 58-62.

Twigg, L.E.; Kok, N.E.; Kirkpatrick, W.E.; Burrow, G. 2001. The longevity of 1080 egg-baits in a regularly baited nature reserve in south-western Australia. Wildlife Research 28(6): 607-618.

Varanus rudicollis

Barbour, T. 1932. A new Bornean monitor. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 13: 1-2.

Bayless, M.K. 1997. The rough-neck monitor lizard (Varanus rudicollis). Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 32(12): 250-252.

Bayless, M.K. 2001. The black roughneck monitor: Malaysia's Tree Lizard. Reptile & Amphibian Hobbyist 6(9): 8-16.

Bennett, D.; Lim, B.L. 1995. A note on the distribution of Varanus dumerilii and V. rudicollis in Peninsular Malaysia. Malayan Nature Journal 49(2): 113-116.

Gaalema, D.E. 2011. Visual discrimination and reversal learning in Rough-necked Monitor Lizards (Varanus rudicollis). Journal of Comparative Psychology 125(2): 246-249.

Gorman, G.C.; Gress, F. 1970. Chromosome cytology of four boid snakes and a varanid lizard, with comments on the cytosystematics of primitive snakes. Herpetologica 26: 308-316.

Gray, J.E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. British Museum (Natural History), London. 289 pp.

Hamilton, R. 2012. First record of the Rough-necked Monitor Varanus rudicollis from Penang, Malaysia. Biawak 6(2): 78.

Harrison, J.L.; Lim, B.L. 1957. Monitor lizards of Malaya. Malayan Nature Journal 12(1): 1-10.

Horn, H.G.; Petters, G. 1982. Beiträge zur Biologie des Rauhnackenwarans, Varanus (Dendrovaranus) rudicollis Gray (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 18(1-2): 29-40.

Lim, B.L. 1958. The harlequin monitor lizard. Malayan Nature Journal 13: 70-72.

Mendyk, R.W. 2015. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 34(2): 139-152.

Mertens, R. 1950. Notes on some Indo-Australian monitors (Sauria, Varanidae). American Museum Novitates 1456: 1-7.

Mertens, R. 1964. Ein angeblich neuer Waran: Varanus swarti. Senckenbergiana Biologica 45(1): 23-25.

Simpson, M. 2008. Varanus rudicollis (rough-necked monitor) occurrence. Biawak 2(4): 169-170.

Wong, T.S. 2008. Varanus rudicollis (rough-necked monitor) occurrence. Biawak 2(4): 171-172.

Woodward, A.S. 1927. On Varanus komodoensis, V.salvator, V.albigularis and V.rudicollis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1927: 256.

Varanus salvadorii

Anonymous. 1962. Photograph of Varanus salvadorii in colour. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 15: 353.

Camina, A.; Salinas, N.; Cuevas, J. 2013. Husbandry and breeding of the Crocodile Monitor Varanus salvadorii Peters & Doria, 1878 in captivity. Biawak 7(2): 56-62.

Horn, H.G.; Sweet, S.S.; Philipp, K.M. 2007. On the distribution of the Papuan monitor (Varanus salvadorii Peters & Doria, 1878) in New Guinea. Mertensiella 16: 25-43.

Mays, S. 2007. Husbandry and captive propagation of crocodile monitor, Varanus salvadorii, at the Houston Zoo. Mertensiella 16: 422-429.

Mendyk, R.W. 2015. Life expectancy and longevity of varanid lizards (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae) in North American zoos. Zoo Biology 34(2): 139-152.

Mertens, R. 1950. Der Schädel von Varanus salvadorii. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Leipzig) 145 (Ergänzungsband): 561-566.

Mertens, R. 1950. Notes on some Indo-Australian monitors (Sauria, Varanidae). American Museum Novitates 1456: 1-7.

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Uyeda, L.T.; Entang, I.; Azhari, P.; Pamungkas, J.; Wirsing, A.; Dyes, R.C. 2016. The role of traditional beliefs in conservation of herpetofauna in Banten, Indonesia. Oryx 50(2): 296-301.

Varadaraju. 2013. Present status of three monitor lizards (Varanus bengalensis, V. flavescens and V. salvator) in the Sunderbans. Records of the Zoological Survey of India 113(1): 203-210.

Villamor, C.I. 1993. Morphometry and conservation status of water monitor lizard (Varanus salvator) in the Philippines. Asia Life Sciences 2(2): 113-120.

Vogel, P. 1979. Innerartliche Auseinandersetzungen bei freilebenden Bindenwaranen (Varanus salvator). (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 15(2): 65-83.

Vogel, P. 1979. Zur Biologie des Bindenwarens (Varanus salvator) im Westjavanischen Naturschutzgebiet Ujung Kulon. Dissertation, University of Basel.

Webb, G.J.W.; Vardon, M.J.; Boeadi 1996. An assessment of the harvest levels and status of three species of reptile (Varanus salvator, Python reticulatus and P. curtus) in Indonesia. pp. 75-82. In: Kitchener, D.J. & Suyanto, A. (eds.). Proceedings of the first international conference on Eastern Indonesian-Australian vertebrate fauna held at Manado, Indonesia, November 22-26, 1994. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Western Australia. 174 pp.

Whitaker, R.; Whitaker, Z. 1980. Distribution and status of Varanus salvator in India and Sri Lanka. Herpetological Review 11(3): 81-82.

Whitaker, Z.; Whitaker, R.; Andrews, R.; Andrews, H. (eds.) 1988. News from the Madras Crocodile Bank. Hamadryad 13(1): 2.

Wickramasinghe, L.J.M.; Kekulandala, L.D.C.B.; Peabotuwage, P.I.K.; Karunarathna, D.M.S.S. 2010. A remarkable feeding behavior and a new distribution record of Varanus salvator salvator (Laurenti, 1768) in eastern Sri Lanka. Biawak 4(3): 93-98.

Wikramanayake, E.D. 1995. Activity and thermal ecophysiology of two sympatric monitor lizards in Sri Lanka. Journal of South Asian Natural History 1(2): 213-224.

Wikramanayake, E.D. 1995. Monitors around us. Loris 20(5): 202-205.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Dryden, G. 1999. Implications of heating and cooling rates in Varanus bengalensis and V. salvator. Mertensiella 11: 149-156.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Dryden, G.L. 1993. Thermal ecology of habitat and microhabitat use by sympatric Varanus bengalensis and V. salvator in Sri Lanka. Copeia 1993(3): 709-714.

Wikramanayake, E.D.; Green, B. 1989. Thermoregulatory influences on the ecology of two sympatric varanids in Sri Lanka. Biotropica 21(1): 74-79.

Woodward, A.S. 1927. On Varanus komodoensis, V.salvator, V.albigularis and V.rudicollis. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1927: 256.

Yong, D.L. 2011. Eating aliens: diet of the Grey-headed Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus in Singapore. Forktail 27: 102-104.

Young, B.A.; Abishahin, G.; Bruther, M.; Kinney, C.; Sgroi, J. 1998. Acoustic analysis of the defensive sounds of Varanus salvator with notes on sound production in other varanid species. Hamadryad 23: 1-14.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1996. Zur Hemiclitoris der squamaten Reptilien: Auswirkungen auf einige Methoden der Geschlechtsunterscheidung. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 18(101): 11-19.

Zwahlen, R. 1978. Zur Ernährung des Bindenwarans (Varanus salvator) in Gefangenschaft. Aquaria (St. Gallen) 25(7): 97-99.

Varanus samarensis

Koch, A.; Gaulke, M.; Böhme, W. 2010. Unravelling the underestimated diversity of Philippine water monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanus salvator complex), with the description of two new species and a new subspecies. Zootaxa 2446: 1-54.

Varanus scalaris

Allison, A.; Shea, G.; Woinarski, J.; Cogger, H. 2018. Varanus scalaris. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T178032A44969426. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T178032A44969426.en.

Christian, K.; Bedford, G. 1996. Thermoregulation by the spotted tree monitor, Varanus scalaris, in the seasonal tropics of Australia. Journal of Thermal Biology 21(2): 67-73.

Sweet, S.S. 2007. Comparative spatial ecology of two small arboreal monitors in northern Australia. Mertensiella 16: 378-402.

Turner, G. 2010. Some predator-prey interactions involving reptiles and frogs from the wet tropics region, north Queensland. Queensland Naturalist 48(4-6): 78-84.

Varanus semiremex

Horn, H.G. 1985. Beiträge zum Verhalten von Waranen: die Ritualkämpfe von Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912 und V. semiremex Peters, 1869 sowie die Imponierphasen der Ritualkämpfe von V. timorensis timorensis (Gray, 1831) und V. t. similis Mertens, 1958 (Sauria: Varanidae) Salamandra 21(2-3): 169-179.

Jackson, R. 2005. The poorly known rusty monitor Varanus semiremex: history, natural history, captive breeding and husbandry. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 35(1): 15-24.

Kinghorn, J.R. 1924. New Varanus from Coquet Island, Queensland. Records of the Australian Museum 14: 135-137.

Mertens, R. 1961. Varanus semiremex in Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 7(8): 209.

Peters, U. 1968. Fang und Haltung von Varanus storri, V. timorensis similis und Varanus semiremex. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 16(10): 338-340.

Peters, U. 1969. Beobachtungen am Mangrove-Waran, Varanus (Odatria) semiremex Peters, 1869. Aqua Terra 6: 61-63.

Peters, U. 1969. Fang und Haltung von Varanus storri, V. timorensis similis und V. semiremex. Aquarien Terrarien 16(10): 338-340.

Stettler, P.H. 1966. Einige Gefangenschaftsbeobachtungen an Varanus semiremex. Aquaterra 3: 95-98.

Varanus semotus

Weijola, V.; Donnellan, S.C.; Lindqvist, C. 2016. A new blue-tailed monitor lizard (Reptilia, Squamata, Varanus) of the Varanus indicus group from Mussau Island, Papua New Guinea. ZooKeys 568: 129-154.

Weijola, V.; Kraus, F.; Vahtera, V.; Lindqvist, C.; Donnellan, S.C. 2017. Reinstatement of Varanus douarrha Lesson, 1830 as a valid species with comments on the zoogeography of monitor lizards (Squamata: Varanidae) in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea. Australian Journal of Zoology 64(6): 434-451.

Varanus similis

Berghof, H.P. 2001. Die Pflege und Vermehrung des kleinen neuguineischen Baumwaranes Varanus (Odatria) similis Mertens, 1958. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 23(135): 5-13.

Berghof, H.P. 2009. Der Getüpfelte Baumwaran - Varanus (Odatria) similis. Natur und Tier-Verlag, Münster. 64 pp.

Chippindale, P. 1991. Captive breeding of the Timor monitor (Varanus timorensis similis). Herpetological Review 22(2): 52-53.

Eidenmüller, B.; Wicker, R. 1991. Einige Beobachtungen bei der Pflege und Nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) timorensis similis Mertens, 1958. Salamandra 27(3): 187-193.

Moldovan, D. 2007. Haltung und Zucht von Varanus (Odatria) similis Mertens, 1958. Sauria (Berlin) 29(3): 21-26.

Moldovan, D. 2008. Husbandry and captive reproduction of Varanus (Odatria) similis, Mertens, 1958. Biawak 2(2): 89-94.

Peters, U. 1968. Fang und Haltung von Varanus storri, V. timorensis similis und Varanus semiremex. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 16(10): 338-340.

Peters, U. 1969. Fang und Haltung von Varanus storri, V. timorensis similis und V. semiremex. Aquarien Terrarien 16(10): 338-340.

Rüegg, R. 1974. Nachzucht beim Timor-Baum-Waran, Varanus timorensis similis Mertens, 1958. Aqua Terra 8(62): 360-363.

Schmida, G.E. 1971. Der getüpfelte Baumwaran Australiens, Varanus timorensis similis. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 24: 168-170.

Valentic, R. 1996. Two lizards and a frog occupying multiple shelter sites within a hollow tree. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 26(1): 48.

Varanus sparnus

Doughty, P.; Kealley, L.; Fitch, A.; Donnellan, S.C. 2014. A new diminutive species of Varanus from the Dampier Peninsula, western Kimberley region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 29(2): 128-140.

Doughty, P.; Shea, G. 2018. Varanus sparnus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778858A101752360. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778858A101752360.en.

Varanus spenceri

Horn, H.G. 1981. Varanus spenceri, nicht Varanus giganteus: eine Richtigstellung (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 17(1-2): 78-81.

Jackson, R.; Lemm, J.M. 2009. Stomach content note for a road-killed Varanus spenceri. Biawak 3(1): 18-20.

Lucas, A.H.S.; Frost, C. 1903. Description of two new Australian lizards, Varanus spenceri and Diplodactylus bilineatus. Proceedings Soc. Victoria (2) 15: 145-147.

Mertens, R. 1959. Über die Schädel einiger bemerkenswerter Warane Australiens. Vijschr. Naturf. Ges. Zürich 104 (Festschr. Steiner): 115-128.

Pengilley, R. 1981. Notes on the biology of Varanus spenceri and V. gouldii, Barkly Tablelands, Northern Territory. Australian Journal of Herpetology 1(1): 23-26.

Peters, U. 1968. Moloch horridus, Varanus spenceri, V. mitchelli, Egernia bungana und Heteronotia binoei im Taronga-Zoo, Sydney. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 21: 252-254.

Peters, U. 1969. Eiablage und Schlupf von Varanus spenceri. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 16(9): 306-307.

Peters, U. 1969. Zum ersten Mal in Gefangenschaft: Eiablage und Schlupf von Varanus spenceri. Aquarien Terrarien 16: 306-307.

Peters, U. 1969. Zum ersten Male nachgezüchtet: Spencers Waran. Aquarien Magazin 3: 412-413.

Peters, U. 1970. Taronga Zoo hatches Spencer's monitors. Animal Kingdom 73(2): 30.

Peters, U. 1971. The first hatching of Varanus spenceri in captivity. Bulletin Zoo. Man. 3(2): 17-18

Peters, U. 1986. Gelungene Aufzucht von Varanus spenceri (Lucas & Frost). Aquarium (Bornheim) 20(205): 377-379.

Shannon, R. 2008. Observations on three species of Varanus in Ilfracombe, Queensland. Biawak 2(2): 80-86.

Valentic, R. 1995. Further instances of nocturnal activity in agamids and varanids. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25(1): 49-50.

Valentic, R.; Turner, G. 1997. Diet and reproductive status of a road-kill Spencer's monitor Varanus spenceri. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 27(2): 43-45.

Woolley, P.A.; Steinbauer, M.J.; Mifsud, G. 2010. Varanus spenceri: a last supper of grasshoppers (Acrididae). Biawak 4(1): 24-25.

Varanus spinulosus

Allison, A.; Hamilton, A.; Tallowin, O. 2013. Varanus spinulosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T196662A2472069. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2013-1.RLTS.T196662A2472069.en.

Böhme, W.; Koch, A. 2010. On the type selection and re-typification of two monitor lizard taxa (Squamata: Varanidae): Monitor bivittatus celebensis Schlegel, 1844 and Monitor kordensis Meyer, 1874; with some comments and corrections on other name-bearing type specimens. Zootaxa 2440: 60-68.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 2007. Notes on the distribution, diet, hemipenis morphology and systematics of Varanus spinulosus Mertens, 1941. Mertensiella 16: 100-108.

Dwyer, Q. 2008. Field observations on Varanus spinulosus. Biawak 2(4): 162-168.

Sprackland, R.G. 1993. Rediscovery of a Solomon Islands monitor lizard (Varanus indicus spinulosus) Mertens, 1941. Vivarium (Lakeside) 4(5): 25-27.

Sprackland, R.G. 1994. Rediscovery and taxonomic review of Varanus indicus spinulosus Mertens, 1941. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 24(2): 33-39.

Varanus stellatus

Angelici, F.M.; Luiselli, L. 1999. Aspects of the ecology of Varanus niloticus (Reptilia, Varanidae) in southeastern Nigeria, and their contribution to the knowledge of the evolutionary history of V. niloticus species complex. Revue d'Ecologie la Terre et la Vie 54(1): 29-42.

Bayless, M.K. 1997. The distribution of African monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae). African Journal of Ecology 35(4): 374-377.

Bayless, M.K. 2008. Local names of Pan-African monitor lizards (Varanidae: Varanus: Polydaedalus). Biawak 2(2): 61-71.

Bayless, M.K.; Akani, G.C.; Luiselli, L. 2003. Daudin's monitor (Varanus ornatus, Daudin 1803) and its association with Ubani (Bonny Island), southern Nigeria. Herpetological Bulletin 83: 2-6.

Bayless, M.K.; Luiselli, L. 2000. The ecological distribution of monitor lizards (Reptilia, Varanidae) in Nigeria. Miscellania Zoologica (Barcelona) 23(1): 1-8.

Böhme, W.; Rödel, M.O.; Brede, C.; Wagner, P. 2011. The reptiles (Testudines, Squamata, Crocodylia) of the forested southeast of the Republic of Guinea (Guinee forestiere), with a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 60(1): 35-61.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. A taxonomic review of the Varanus (Polydaedalus) niloticus (Linnaeus, 1766) species complex. Herpetological Journal 7(4): 155-162.

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Grosswarane im Museum Koenig, mit Bemerkungen zu Afrikas grosster Echse. Tier und Museum 5(3): 65-74.

Dowell, S.A.; Portik, D.M.; Buffrenil, V. de; Ineich, I.; Greenbaum, E.; Kolokotronis, S.O.; Hekkala, E.R. 2016. Molecular data from contemporary and historical collections reveal a complex story of cryptic diversification in the Varanus (Polydaedalus) niloticus species group. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 94(B): 591-604.

Firth, I.; Turner, M.; Robinson, M.; Meek, R. 2003. Response of monitor lizards (Varanus spp.) to a repeated food source evidence for association learning? Herpetological Bulletin 84: 1-4.

Gruetzner, T. 2003. Nachzucht von Varanus ornatus (Daudin, 1803). Elaphe 11(4): 25-34.

Hennessy, J. 2010. Parthenogenesis in an Ornate Nile Monitor, Varanus ornatus. Biawak 4(1): 26-30.

Luiselli, L.; Akani, G.C.; Capizzi, D. 1999. Is there any interspecific competition between dwarf crocodiles (Osteolaemus tetraspis) and Nile monitors (Varanus niloticus ornatus) in the swamps of central Africa? A study from southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Zoology (London) 247(1): 127-131.

Meierkord, R. 2007. Amputation der Schwanzspitze von Varanus ornatus (Daudin, 1803). Elaphe 15(2): 38-40.

Montuelle, S.J.; Herrel, A.; Libourel, P.A.; Daillie, S.; Bels, V.L. 2012. Flexibility in locomotor-feeding integration during prey capture in varanid lizards: effects of prey size and velocity. Journal of Experimental Biology 215(21): 3823-3835.

Montuelle, S.J.; Herrel, A.; Libourel, P.A.; Daillie, S.; Bels, V.L. 2012. Prey capture in lizards: differences in jaw-neck-forelimb coordination. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 105(3): 607-622.

Pauwels, O.S.G.; Carlino, P.; Chirio, L.; Meunier, Q.; Okouyi Okouyi, J.V.; Orbell, C.; Rousseaux, D.; Testa, O. 2017. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica IX. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 52(6): 97-102.

Pauwels, O.S.G.; Chirio, L.; Neil, E.J.; Berry, S.; Texier, N.; Rosin, C. 2017. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica VIII. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 52(3): 41-46.

Pauwels, O.S.G.; Garff, B. le; Ineich, I.; Carlino, P.; Melcore, I.; Boundenga, L.; Vigna, C.; Stévart, T.; Jeffery, K.; Orbell, C.; Squarcini, J.B.; Vande weghe, J.P.; White, L. 2016. Miscellanea Herpetologica Gabonica V & VI. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 51(11): 177-185.

Switak, K.H. 2004. Field notes for Varanus niloticus/ornatus in sub-Saharan Africa. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 39(3): 41-44.

Ullenbruch, K.; Grell, O.; Böhme, W. 2010. Reptiles from southern Benin, West Africa, with the description of a new Hemidactylus (Gekkonidae), and a country-wide checklist. Bonn Zoological Bulletin 57(1): 31-54.

Varanus storri

Bartlett, R.D. 1981. Notes on the captive reproduction of Storr's monitor Varanus storri. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 16(3): 65-66.

Bartlett, R.D. 1982. Initial observations on the captive reproduction of Varanus storri, Mertens. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 13(2): 6-7.

Bennett, D. 1993. Observations on the social interactions of Varanus (Odatria) storri in captivity. SWHS Journal 2(3): 2-6.

Eidenmüller, B. 1994. Bemerkungen zur Haltung und Zucht von Varanus acanthurus Boulenger, 1885, V. storri Mertens, 1966 und V. gilleni Lucas & Frost, 1895. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 16(88): 6-12.

Eidenmüller, B.; Horn, H.G. 1985. Eigene Nachzuchten und der gegenwärtige Stand der Nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) storri Mertens, 1966. Salamandra 21(1): 55-61.

Flugi, U. 1990. Bericht über die Haltung und Nachzucht des Storr'schen Zwergwarans (Varanus storri Mertens, 1966). Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 12(67): 31-34.

McAlpin, S. 2000. Addition to the herpetofauna of Queensland's Brigalow Biogeographic Region. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 45(2): 394.

Mertens, R. 1966. Eine neuer Zwergwaran aus Australien. Senckenbergiana Biologica 47(6): 437-441.

Mudrack, W. 1969. Paarung und Eiablage bei Varanus storri Mertens, 1966. Aqua Terra 6: 25-28.

Peters, U. 1968. Fang und Haltung von Varanus storri, V. timorensis similis und Varanus semiremex. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 16(10): 338-340.

Peters, U. 1969. Fang und Haltung von Varanus storri, V. timorensis similis und V. semiremex. Aquarien Terrarien 16(10): 338-340.

Peters, U. 1973. A contribution on the ecology of Varanus storri. Koolewong 2(4): 12-13.

Peters, U. 1973. Ein Beitrag zur Ökologie von Varanus (Odatria) storri Mertens, 1966. Aquarium Aqua Terra 7(53): 462-463.

Rese, R. 1986. Varanus storri Mertens. Sauria (Berlin) 8(3): 55-56.

Shea, G. 2018. Varanus storri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83778907A101752370. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83778907A101752370.en.

Stirnberg, E.; Horn, H.G. 1981. Eine unerwartete Nachzucht im Terrarium: Varanus (Odatria) storri (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 17(1-2): 55-62.

Storr, G.M. 1980. The monitor lizards (genus Varanus Merrem, 1820) of Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 8(2): 237-293.

Varanus telenesetes

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 1997. Varanus melinus sp. n., ein neuer Waran aus der V. indicus-Gruppe von den Molukken, Indonesien. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(111): 26-34.

Eidenmüller, B.; Koch, A.; Köhler, J.; Wicker, R. 2017. New findings on the relationships among New Guinea tree monitor lizards of the Varanus prasinus (SCHLEGEL, 1839) complex (Squamata: Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetozoa 30(1-2): 9-20.

Koch, A.; Ernst, N.; Eidenmüller, B.; Kraus, F. 2014. New data on the rare Varanus bogerti Mertens, 1950 and V. telenesetes Sprackland, 1991 (Squamata: Varanidae), two endemic monitor lizard taxa from island groups off southeastern New Guinea. Herpetological Journal 24(2): 111-122.

Shea, G.; Allison, A.; Sweet, S.S. 2016. Varanus telenesetes. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T178388A21647361. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T178388A21647361.en.

Sprackland, R.G. 1991. Taxonomic review of the Varanus prasinus group with descriptions of two new species. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 30(3): 561-576.

Varanus timorensis

Behrmann, H.J. 1981. Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus t. timorensis (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 17(3-4): 198-201.

Braunwalder, M.E. 1977. Bemerkungen und Erfahrungen mit künstlichen Rasenmatten in der Terraristik. Salamandra 13(3-4): 187-189.

Eidenmüller, B. 1986. Beobachtungen bei der Pflege und Nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) t. timorensis (Gray, 1831) (Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 22(2-3): 157-161.

Geczy, C. 2009. Cannibalism in captive Varanus timorensis. Biawak 3(2): 61-63.

Horn, H.G. 1985. Beiträge zum Verhalten von Waranen: die Ritualkämpfe von Varanus komodoensis Ouwens, 1912 und V. semiremex Peters, 1869 sowie die Imponierphasen der Ritualkämpfe von V. timorensis timorensis (Gray, 1831) und V. t. similis Mertens, 1958 (Sauria: Varanidae) Salamandra 21(2-3): 169-179.

Izaber, F. 2001. Nachzucht eines ungewöhnlichen Warans. Reptilia (D) 6(27): 9.

King, D. 1993. Diet and reproductive condition of free-ranging Varanus timorensis. Western Australian Naturalist 19(3): 189-194.

Mertens, R. 1941. Zwei neue Warane des Australischen Faunengebietes. Senckenbergiana Biologica 23(4/6): 266-272.

Moehn, L.D. 1984. Courtship and copulation in the Timor monitor, Varanus timorensis. Herpetological Review 15(1): 14-16.

Nathansen, O. 1991. [Timor lizard, Varanus (Odatria) timorensis]. (In Danish). Newsletter of the Australian Society of Herpetologists 34(6): 129-130.

Ruegg, R. 1973. Vivarium Nachzucht beim Timor-Waran. Bulletin Zool. Garten Basel 31: 6-7.

Schmutz, E.; Horn, H.G. 1986. Der Lebensraum von Varanus (Odatria) t. timorensis (Gray, 1831) (Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 22(2-3): 147-156.

Tidemann, S.C.; Palmer, C.; Boyden, J.; Hunt, T. 1992. Predation on gouldian finch Erythrura gouldiae by reptiles. Corella 16(4): 105-106.

Varanus tristis

Akeret, B. 2006. Bau einer Grossterrarienanlage für Warane und Hornvipern. Draco 7(2) (26): 38-47.

Bennett, D. 1993. A note on a newly hatched Varanus tristis tristis in the Great Victoria Desert, Western Australia. British Herpetological Society Bulletin 44: 35-37.

Christian, T. 1981. Varanus tristis - a variable monitor. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 12(2): 7-12.

Eidenmüller, B. 1989. Beobachtungen bei der Haltung und Nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) tristis orientalis Fry, 1913. Salamandra 25(3-4): 265-271.

Ellis, R.; Wilson, S.; Doughty, P.; Oliver, P. 2018. Varanus tristis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T83779050A101752380. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T83779050A101752380.en.

Fitzgerald, M. 1984. A New South Wales record for the freckled tree monitor Varanus tristis orientalis. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 15(1): 23.

Goldberg, S.R. 2007. Notes on the reproductive biology of the rusty Desert Monitor, Varanus eremius, the sand monitor, Varanus gouldii, and the black-tailed monitor, Varanus tristis, (Squamata: Varanidae) from Western Australia. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 42(3): 47-49.

Hoerenberg, T. 2008. Erfahrungen mit Pflege und Nachzucht von Varanus (Odatria) tristis orientalis. Mit Anmerkungen zu Varanus (Odatria) tristis tristis. Reptilia (D) 13(73): 64-73.

Hoerenberg, T. 2013. Erfahrungen bei der Pflege und Nachzucht des Schwarzkopfwarans, Varanus tristis tristis. Draco 14(53): 69-77.

MacDonald, S. 2007. Observations on the stomach contents of a road-killed perentie, Varanus giganteus in western Queensland. Biawak 1(1): 21-23.

Maryan, B. 1989. Varanus tristis at Peak Charles. Western Australian Naturalist 17(8): 233.

Mertens, R. 1950. Notes on some Indo-Australian monitors (Sauria, Varanidae). American Museum Novitates 1456: 1-7.

Mertens, R. 1957. Two new goannas from Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 5(7): 183-187.

O'Dell, J. 2001. Successful captive propagation of the freckled monitor (Varanus tristis orientalis). Boydii 2001 (unnumbered): 18-20.

Peterson, M.; Metcalfe, D.C. 2004. Observations of potential predation of Lophognathus longirostris Boulenger, 1883 (Agamidae) by Varanus tristis tristis (Schlegel, 1839) (Varanidae). Herpetofauna (Sydney) 34(2): 123.

Pianka, E.R. 1971. Notes on the biology of Varanus tristis. Western Australian Naturalist 11(8): 180-183.

Pianka, E.R. 1982. Observations on the ecology of Varanus in the Great Victoria Desert. Western Australian Naturalist 15(2): 1-8.

Schardt, M. 2001. Haltung und Zucht von Varanus (Odatria) tristis orientalis Fry, 1913. Draco 2(3) (7): 62-66.

Shannon, R. 2008. Observations on three species of Varanus in Ilfracombe, Queensland. Biawak 2(2): 80-86.

Stammer, D. 1983. Letter to the editor. Varanus tristis orientalis. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 14(1-2): 91.

Sweet, S.S. 2007. Comparative spatial ecology of two small arboreal monitors in northern Australia. Mertensiella 16: 378-402.

Thompson, G.G.; Boer, M. de; Pianka, E.R. 1999. Activity areas and daily movements of an arboreal monitor lizard, Varanus tristis (Squamata: Varanidae) during the breeding season. Australian Journal of Ecology 24(2): 117-122.

Thompson, G.G.; Pianka, E.R. 1999. Reproductive ecology of the black-headed goanna Varanus tristis (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia 82(1): 27-31.

Thompson, G.G.; Pianka, E.R.; Boer, M. de 1999. Body temperatures of an arboreal monitor lizard, Varanus tristis (Squamata: Varanidae), during the breeding season. Amphibia-Reptilia 20(1): 82-88.

Wesiak, K. 2007. Die Nachzucht des Getüpfelten Baumwarans Varanus (Odatria) tristis orientalis Fry, 1913, als Resultat einer konstruktiven. Sauria (Berlin) 29(4): 49-52.

Varanus varius

Amir, Z. 2018. Relative abundance and risk assessment of Lace Monitors (Varanus varius) on Fraser Island, Queensland: Are monitors habituated to human presence? Biawak 12(1): 23-33.

Anson, J.R.; Dickman, C.R. 2013. Behavioral responses of native prey to disparate predators: naivet, and predator recognition. Oecologia (Berlin) 171(2): 367-377.

Anson, J.R.; Dickman, C.R.; Boonstra, R.; Jessop, T.S. 2013. Stress triangle: do introduced predators exert indirect costs on native predators and prey. PLoS ONE 8(4): e60916, 1-9.

Anson, J.R.; Dickman, C.R.; Handasyde, K.; Jessop, T.S. 2014. Effects of multiple disturbance processes on arboreal vertebrates in eastern Australia: implications for management. Ecography 37(4): 357-366.

Berg, A. 1913. Unser Buntwaran (Varanus varius). Blätter für Aquarien- und Terrarienkunde 24: 717-719.

Boylan, T. 1995. Field observations, captive breeding and growth rates of the lace monitor, Varanus varius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25(1): 10-14.

Brattstrom, B.H. 1973. Rate of heat loss by large Australian monitor lizards. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 72(1): 52-54.

Bredl, J.; Schwaner, T.D. 1984. First record of captive propagation of the lace monitor, Varanus varius (Sauria: Varanidae). Herpetofauna (Sydney) 15(1): 20-21.

Brown, O.J.F.; Field, J.; Letnic, M. 2006. Variation in the taphonomic effect of scavengers in semi-arid Australia linked to rainfall and the El Nino Southern Oscillation. International Journal of Osteoarchaeology 16(2): 165-176.

Carter, D.B. 1990. Courtship and mating in wild Varanus varius (Varanidae: Australia). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 29(2): 333-338.

Carter, D.B. 1999. Nesting and evidence of parental care by the lace monitor Varanus varius. Mertensiella 11: 137-147.

Carter, D.B. 1999. Reproductive cycle of the lace monitor Varanus varius. Mertensiella 11: 129-135.

Christie, W. 1983. Successful introduction technique of three incompatible male lace monitors at the Indianapolis Zoo. Annual Reptile Symposium on Captive Propagation and Husbandry Proceedings 6: 206-210.

Dow, D.D. 1980. Primitive weaponry in birds: the Australian brush-turkey's defence. Emu 80(2): 91-92.

Gillett, A.; Jackson, R. 2010. Human food scrap ingestion in two wild Lace Monitors Varanus varius. Biawak 4(3): 99-102.

Grundke, F.D.; Grundke, B. 1992. Feldherpetologische Beiträge zur Fauna Australiens. Teil 2: Beobachtungen an Varanus varius in New South Wales und Queensland, unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der gebänderten Farbphase. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 14(80): 11-22.

Guarino, F. 2001. Diet of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus varius. Wildlife Research 28(6): 627-630.

Guarino, F. 2002. Spatial ecology of a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus varius (Squamata: Varanidae). Journal of Zoology (London) 258(4): 449-457.

Guarino, F. 2007. Habitat selection by a large carnivorous lizard, Varanus varius. Mertensiella 16: 247-254.

Hamon, B. 2000. Observations of a black snake swallowing prey. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 30(2): 51.

Hawkeswood, T.J.; Metcalfe, D.C. 2016. Natural history notes: Varanus varius (Lace Monitor). Harassment by birds. Herpetological Review 47(3): 470-471.

Horn, H.G. 1980. Bisher unbekannte Details zur Kenntnis von Varanus varius auf Grund von feldherpetologischen und terraristischen Beobachtungen (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Salamandra 16(1): 1-18.

Horn, H.G. 1991. Breeding of the lace monitor (Varanus varius) for the 1st time outside of Australia (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Mertensiella 2: 168-175.

Horn, H.G.; Visser, G.J.; Stirnberg, E. 1997. Über die erstmalige F2-Nachzucht des Buntwarans Varanus varius Shaw, 1790. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 19(108): 5-10.

Hoser, R. 1986. Varanus varius in captivity. ASRA (Association for the Study of Reptilia and Amphibia) Journal 3(1): 23-29.

Hoser, R. 1998. Lace monitors (Varanus varius) in the wild and in captivity in Australia, with reference to a collection of seven adults held in captivity for eight years. Monitor (Journal of the Victorian Herpetological Society) 10(1): 22-30, 35-36.

Hoser, R.T. 2003. Incubation of Lace Monitor (Varanus varius) eggs. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 33(1): 26-28.

Jessop, T.S.; Gillespie, G.R.; Letnic, M. 2016. Examining multi-scale effects of the invasive fox on a large varanid (Varanus varius White, 1790) mesopredator. Pp. 221-236. In: Cota, M. (ed.). Proceedings of the 2015 Interdisciplinary World Conference on Monitor Lizards. Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, Bangkok, Thailand. 247 pp.

Jessop, T.S.; Kearney, M.R.; Moore, J.L.; Lockwood, T.; Johnston, M. 2013. Evaluating and predicting risk to a large reptile (Varanus varius) from feral cat baiting protocols. Biological Invasions 15(8): 1653-1663.

Jessop, T.S.; Smissen, P.; Scheelings, F.; Dempster, T. 2012. Demographic and phenotypic effects of human mediated trophic subsidy on a large Australian lizard (Varanus varius): meal ticket or last supper. PLoS ONE 7(4): e34069, 1-8.

Jessop, T.S.; Urlus, J.; Lockwood, T.; Gillespie, G. 2010. Preying possum: assessment of the diet of Lace Monitors (Varanus varius) from coastal forests in southeastern Victoria. Biawak 4(2): 59-63.

Jones, A. 1998. Nocturnal activity in captive varanid lizards. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 28(2): 50-51.

Jones, A.A.; Metcalfe, D.C. 2013. Shelter from the storm: an unconventional refuge for a wild Varanus varius (White, 1790) (Reptilia: Sauria: Varanidae). Biawak 7(2): 54-55.

Kennerson, K. 1980. Carrion diet in the lace monitor Varanus varius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 12(1): 36.

Kennerson, K.J. 1979. Remarks on the longevity of Varanus varius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 10(2): 32.

Kingston, T.J. 1980. Predation by the lace monitor on chicks of the tawny frogmouth. Corella 4(1): 20.

Kirshner, D.S. 2007. Multiclutching in captive Lace Monitors (Varanus varius). Mertensiella 16: 403-421.

Krauss, P.; Horn, H.G. 2004. Lebensfähige Drillinge des Buntwarans, Varanus varius (White, 1790). Sauria (Berlin) 26(3): 3-6.

Longley, G. 1945. Notes on the lace monitor (Varanus varius). Proceedings of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales 1944-1945: 20-22.

Mansergh, I.; Huxley, L. 1985. Gould's wattled bat as a food item of the lace monitor. Victorian Naturalist 102(3): 93. (Incorrectly numbered as 103(3)).

Markwell, K. 1984. The artificial incubation of lace monitor Varanus varius eggs. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 15(1): 16-17.

McIlroy, J.C.; King, D.R.; Oliver, A.J. 1985. The sensitivity of Australian animals to 1080 poison. 8. Amphibians and reptiles. Australian Wildlife Research 12(1): 113-118.

Mckay, J.L. 2007. Notes on the mating and courtship of wild Lace Monitors (Varanus varius) in southeast Queensland. Queensland Naturalist 45(1-3): 20-25.

Meek, P.D. 2008. Tracking down the predator of radio-tagged bell miners Manorina melanophrys. Australian Field Ornithology 25(3): 153-155.

Menkhorst, P.W. 1984. Use of nest boxes by forest vertebrates in Gippsland: acceptance, preference and demand. Australian Wildlife Research 11(2): 255-264.

Metcalfe, D.C.; Jones, A.A. 2012. Varanus varius (Lace Monitor, Conmmon Goanna). Diet. Herpetological Bulletin 122: 40-41.

Metcalfe, D.C.; Richards, J. 2009. Natural history notes: Varanus varius (Lace Monitor). Predation. Herpetological Review 40(1): 92-93.

Midtgaard, R. 2003. Broget varan (Varanus varius) i Eungella-nationalparken i Queensland, Australien [The Lace Monitor (Varanus varius) in Eungella National Park in Queensland, Australia.] (In Danish, English summary). Nordisk Herpetologisk Forening 46(6): 162-177.

Newsome, A.E.; Corbett, L.K.; Catling, P.C.; Burt, R.J. 1983. The feeding ecology of the dingo 1. Stomach contents from trapping in south-eastern Australia, and the non-target wildlife also caught in dingo traps. Australian Wildlife Research 10(3): 477-486.

Oakwood, M.; Marquart, L. 2007. Observations of diet of Lace Monitors (Varanus varius) in Gosford, New South Wales. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 37(1): 42-44.

Pascoe, J.H.; Mulley, R.C.; Spencer, R.; Chapple, R. 2011. Diet analysis of mammals, raptors and reptiles in a complex predator assemblage in the Blue Mountains, eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Zoology 59(5): 295-301.

Peters, U. 1967. Beobachtungen an Varanus varius (Shaw) in der Natur. DATZ (Die Aquarien- und Terrarien-Zeitschrift) 20: 120-121.

Poiani, A. 1991. Anti-predator behaviour in the bell miner Manorina melanophrys. Emu 91(3): 164-171.

Seebacher, F. 2000. Heat transfer in a microvascular network: the effect of heart rate on heating and cooling in reptiles (Pogona barbata and Varanus varius). Journal of Theoretical Biology 203(2): 97-109.

Seebacher, F.; Grigg, G.C.; Eckstein, L.U.; Clauss, W. 2001. Changes in heart rate are important for thermoregulation in the varanid lizard Varanus varius. Journal of Comparative Physiology B Biochemical Systemic and Environmental Physiology 171(5): 395-400.

Shea, G. 1994. Three species of goanna occur in the Sydney Basin. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 24(2): 14-18.

Simpson, K.N.G. 1973. Amphibians, reptiles and mammals of the Murray River region between Mildura and Renmark, Australia. Mitteilungen Naturhist. Mus. Hamburg 34: 275-279.

Standen, R. 2001. Kingfisher thwarts goanna. Bird Observer (Nunawading) 811: 3.

Stebbins, R.C.; Barwick, R.E. 1968. Radiotelemetric study of thermoregulation in a lace monitor Varanus varius. Copeia 1968(3): 541-547.

Stirnberg, E. 1997. Die Haltung und Zucht des Australischen Buntwarans (Varanus varius) im Bochumer Tierpark. Zeitschrift des Kölner Zoo 40(2): 63-67.

Tasoulis, T. 1984. Observations on the lace monitor Varanus varius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 15(1): 25.

Tasoulis, T. 1992. Nesting observations on the lace monitor Varanus varius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 22(2): 46-47.

Towerton, A.; Lemckert, F. 2001. A note on two predation events of the Giant Burrowing Frog, Heleioporus australicus. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 31(1): 34-36.

Twigg, L.E. 1988. A note on agonistic behaviour in lace monitors Varanus varius. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 18(1): 23-25.

Vestjens, W.J.M. 1977. Reptilian predation on birds and eggs at Lake Cowal, N.S.W. Emu 77(1): 36-37.

Ward, D.L.; Carter, D.B. 1988. Carrion feeding in Varanus varius - notes from a field study. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 18(2): 22.

Weavers, B. 1984. A day in the life of Varanus varius. (Abstract). Newsletter of the Australian Society of Herpetologists 25: 55.

Weavers, B.W. 1988. Vital statistics of the lace monitor lizard (Varanus varius) in south-eastern Australia. Victorian Naturalist 105(6): 142-145.

Weavers, B.W. 1989. Diet of the lace monitor lizard (Varanus varius) in south-east Australia. Australian Zoologist 25(3): 83-85.

Weavers, B.W. 1993. Home range of male lace monitors, Varanus varius (Reptilia: Varanidae), in south-eastern Australia. Wildlife Research 20(3): 303-313.

Weavers, B.W. 2011. Solar absorptance, reflectance and emissivity of the skin of lace monitors (Varanus varius) in south-eastern Australia. Biawak 5(1-2): 10-16.

Webb, J.K. 1996. Observation of three dingoes killing a large lace monitor (Varanus varius). Australian Mammalogy 19(1): 55-56.

Webber, P. 1993. Miscellaneous herpetological field notes from north Queensland. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 23(2): 37-38.

Woodford, L.P.; Robley, A.; Maloney, P.; Reside, J. 2012. The impact of 1080 bait removal by Lace Monitors (Varanus varius) on a Red Fox (Vulpes vulpes) control programme. Ecological Management & Restoration 13(3): 306-308.

Varanus yemenensis

Bayless, M.K. 1997. The distribution of African monitor lizards (Sauria: Varanidae). African Journal of Ecology 35(4): 374-377.

Becker, H.O. 1991. The lung morphology of Varanus yemenensis Bohme, Joger & Schätti, 1989, and its bearing on the systematics of the Afro-Asian monitor radiation. Mertensiella 2: 29-37.

Böhme, W. 1999. New records of SW Arabian monitor lizards, with notes on the juvenile dress of Varanus yemenensis Bohme, Joger & Schätti, 1989. Mertensiella 11: 267-276.

Böhme, W.; Fritz, J.P.; Schutte, F. 1987. Neuentdeckung einer Grossechse (Sauria: Varanus) aus der Arabischen Republik Jemen. Herpetofauna (Weinstadt) 9(46): 13-20.

Böhme, W.; Joger, U.; Schätti, B. 1989. A new monitor lizard (Reptilia: Varanidae) from Yemen, with notes on ecology, phylogeny and zoogeography. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 10: 433-448.

Fritz, J.P.; Fritz, B. 1991. Karyotypic characterization of Varanus yemenensis. Mertensiella 2: 136-142.

Portik, D.M.; Papenfuss, T.J. 2012. Monitors cross the Red Sea: the biogeographic history of Varanus yemenensis. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 62(1): 561-565.

Sindaco, R.; Busais, S.M.S.; Al Jumaily, M.M.; Böhme, W.; Sweet, S.S.; Bennett, D. 2012. Varanus yemenensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T178647A1540624. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2012.RLTS.T178647A1540624.en.

Varanus yuwonoi

Harvey, M.B.; Barker, D.G. 1998. A new species of blue-tailed monitor lizard (genus Varanus) from Halmahera Island, Indonesia. Herpetologica 54(1): 34-44.

Milenkaya, O.; Mckay, J.L. 2016. Observation in the wild of the poorly-known Varanus yuwonoi. Biawak 10(1): 13-17.

Weijola, V.S.A. 2010. Geographical distribution and habitat use of monitor lizards of the North Moluccas. Biawak 4(1): 7-23.

Ziegler, T.; Böhme, W. 1999. Genital morphology and systematics of two recently described monitor lizards of the Varanus (Euprepiosaurus) indicus group. Mertensiella 11: 121-128.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.

Varanus zugorum

Böhme, W.; Ziegler, T. 2005. A new monitor lizard from Halmahera, Moluccas, Indonesia (Reptilia: Squamata: Varanidae). Salamandra 41(1-2): 51-59.

Ziegler, T.; Schmitz, A.; Koch, A.; Böhme, W. 2007. A review of the subgenus Euprepiosaurus of Varanus (Squamata: Varanidae): morphological and molecular phylogeny, distribution and zoogeography, with an identification key for the members of the V. indicus and the V. prasinus species groups. Zootaxa 1472: 1-28.