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Taxonomy of the family Varanidae
Bibliography of the genus Varanus
Biodiversity of the genus Varanus





Genus
Varanus

Monitor Lizards, Monitors, Goannas (only Australia).

Warane

Varaner

1818 Monitor Lichtenstein [not Monitor Blainville 1816 (Reptilia: Teiidae)] (type species: Lacerta nilotica Linne 1766; syn. Mertens 1963)
1820 Varanus Merrem (type species: Lacerta varia White 1790)
1826 Psammosaurus Fitzinger (type species: Tupinambis griseus Daudin 1803; syn. Mertens 1963)
1827 Dracaena Gray [not Dracaena Daudin 1802 (Reptilia: Teiidae)] (type species: Lacerta dracaena Linnaeus 1766 [nomen rejectum]; syn. Mertens 1963)
1827 Uaranus Gray [emendation of Varanus Merrem 1820]
1830 Hydrosaurus Wagler [not Hydrosaurus Kaup 1828 (Reptilia: Varanidae)] (type species: Tupinambis bivittatus Kuhl 1820; syn. Mertens 1963)
1830 Polydaedalus Wagler (type species: Lacerta capensis Sparrman 1783; syn. Mertens 1963)
1838 Empagusia Gray (type species: Monitor flavescens Hardwicke & Gray 1827; syn. Mertens 1963)
1838 Odatria Gray (type species: Odatria punctata Gray 1838; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Agalmatosaurus Fitzinger (type species: Varanus timoriensis Dumeril & Bibron 1836; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Cylindrurus Fitzinger (type species: Odatria punctata Gray 1838; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Euprepiosaurus Fitzinger (type species: Monitor chlorostigma Gray 1831; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Pachysaurus Fitzinger (type species: Tupinambis albigularis Daudin 1802; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Pantherosaurus Fitzinger (type species: Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray 1838; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Psammoscopus Fitzinger (type species: Varanus picquotii Dumeril & Bibron 1836; syn. Mertens 1963)
1843 Rhinoptyon Fitzinger (type species: Varanus ocellatus Heyden 1830; syn. Mertens 1963)
1845 Regenia Gray (type species: Tupinambis albigularis Daudin 1802; syn. Mertens 1963)
1927 Placovaranus Fejervary (type species: Varanus komodoensis Ouwens 1912; syn. Mertens 1963)
1942 Dendrovaranus Mertens (type species: Uaranus rudicollis Gray 1845; syn. Mertens 1963)
1942 Indovaranus Mertens (type species: Tupinambis bengalensis Daudin 1802; syn. Mertens 1963)
1942 Tectovaranus Mertens (type species: Monitor dumerilii Schlegel 1839; syn. Mertens 1963)
1959 Philippinosaurus Mertens (type species: Varanus grayi Boulenger 1885; syn. Mertens 1963)
1962 Papuasaurus Mertens (type species: Monitor salvadorii Peters & Doria 1878; syn. Mertens 1963)
1984 Worrellisaurus Wells & Wellington (type species: Varanus acanthurus Boulenger 1885; syn. Cogger 1996)
1985 Aspetosaurus Wells & Wellington (type species: Varanus spenceri Lucas & Frost 1903; syn. Cogger 1996)
1985 Titanzius Wells & Wellington (type species: Hydrosaurus giganteus Gray 1845; syn. Cogger 1996)
1997 Soterosaurus Ziegler & Böhme (type species: Stellio salvator Laurenti 1768)
2016 Hapturosaurus Bucklitsch, Böhme & Koch (type species: Varanus indicus spinulosus Mertens 1941)
2016 Solomonsaurus Bucklitsch, Böhme & Koch (type species: Monitor prasinus Schlegel 1839)

Contents: 80 species.
Remarks: In New Caledonia, subfossil remains, probably dating back to the 18th century, along with modern sightings of unknown large lizards, indicate that a species of monitor lizard is present in the island (Bauer & Sadlier 2000).
Distribution: Africa, S. & C. Asia, Malay Archipelago, Australia, W. Pacific.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola (incl. Cabinda), Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island, Torres Strait Islands], South Australia [incl. Kangaroo Island], Victoria, Western Australia), Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Botswana, Brunei, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Yunnan), Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Djibouti, East Timor (incl. Atauro Island), Egypt (incl. Sinai), Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guam, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Alor, Ambon, Anambas Islands, Aru Islands, Bacan, Bali, Banda Islands, Banggai Islands, Bangka, Banyak Islands, Batanta, Batu Islands, Belitung, Biak, Buru, Buton, Enggano, Flores, Halmahera, Haruku, Hoga, Java, Kabaena, Kai Islands, Kalao, Kalimantan, Komodo, Legundi, Lingga Islands, Lombok, Misool, Morotai, Natuna Islands, Nias, Obi, Padar, Panaitan, Penida, Peucang, Riau Islands, Rinca, Rote, Salawati, Sangir Islands [incl. Sangir], Saparua, Sebesi, Sebuku, Selayar, Seram, Sertung, Siberut, Simeulue, Sipura, Sula Islands [incl. Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, Supiori, Talaud Islands, Tanahjampea, Tanimbar Islands, Ternate, Tidore, Tinjil, Togian Islands, Waigeo, Weh, West Timor, Western New Guinea, Wetar, Yapen), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Japan (Bonin Islands), Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Malawi, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Penang Island, Perhentian Islands, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Aur, Pemanggil, Tioman)]), Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago), Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Mariana Islands, Oman, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea (incl. Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (incl. Manus), Duke of York, New Britain, New Ireland, Saint Matthias Islands (Mussau)], d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson, Goodenough, Normanby], Eastern New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago [Misima, Rossel, Sudest], Woodlark, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville, Buka], Trobriand Islands), Philippines (Babuyan Islands [incl. Babuyan Claro, Calayan, Camiguin Norte, Dalupiri, Fuga], Balabac, Bantayan, Batan Islands [Batan, Sabtang], Bohol, Boracay, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Calauit], Camiguin Sur, Candaraman, Catanduanes, Cebu, Dinagat, Dumaran, Guimaras, Leyte, Lubang, Luzon, Malapina, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Polillo, Romblon, Samar, Semirara, Siargao, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Sulu Islands [incl. Basilan, Bongao, Jolo, Sangasanga, Siasi, Sibutu, Tarawakan, Tawi-Tawi], Tablas, Ticao), Qatar, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal, Rennell), Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Zanzibar), Thailand, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island), Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Varanus acanthurus

Common Spiny-tailed Monitor, Ridge-tailed Monitor, Ocellate Ridge-tailed Monitor

Gewöhnlicher Stachelschwanzwaran

Almindelig Tornhalevaran*

1885 Varanus acanthurus Boulenger
Worrellisaurus acanthurus Wells & Wellington 1984
1845 Odatria ocellata Gray [not Varanus ocellatus Heyden 1830] (Mertens 1963)
1919 Varanus acanthurus brachyurus Sternfeld
Worrellisaurus brachyurus Wells & Wellington 1984
1958 Varanus acanthurus insulanicus Mertens
Worrellisaurus insulanicus Wells & Wellington 1984

Other common names:
acanthurus: Northwestern Ridge-tailed Monitor
brachyurus: Common Ridge-tailed Monitor, Inland Ridge-tailed Monitor
insulanicus: Island Ridge-tailed Monitor, Groote Eylandt Ridge-tailed Monitor
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Varanus albigularis

White-throated Monitor, White-throated Savanna Monitor, Southern Savannah Monitor, Southern Rock Monitor, Cape Monitor, (Rock Leguan, Tree Leguaan, Veld Leguaan)

Weißkehlwaran

Hvidstrubet Varan*, Kapvaran

1802 Tupinambis albigularis Daudin
Monitor albogularis Gray 1831 [unjustified emendation]
Varanus exanthematicus albigularis Schmidt 1919
Varanus albigularis Hoesch 1940
1831 Varanus gillii Smith (Böhme 2003)
1844 Monitor exanthematicus capensis Schlegel [not Lacerta capensis Sparrman 1783] (Böhme 2003)
1893 Varanus microstictus Boettger (Böhme 2003)
Varanus exanthematicus microstictus Mertens 1942
1897 Varanus occipitalis Tornier [ex errore] (Mertens 1963)
1933 Varanus albigularis angolensis Schmidt (Böhme 2003)
Varanus exanthematicus angolensis Mertens 1942
1964 Varanus exanthematicus ionidesi Laurent (Broadley & Howell 1991)

Other common names:
albigularis: South African White-throated Monitor
angolensis: Angolan White-throated Monitor
ionidesi: Ionides' White-throated Monitor
microstictus: East African White-throated Monitor, Eastern Savanna Monitor, Black-throated Monitor
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of exanthematicus. Böhme (1988) suggested revalidation as a separate species.
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Angola, Botswana, Congo-Kinshasa, Djibouti, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique (incl. Bazaruto Archipelago), Namibia, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape, Western Cape), South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Varanus auffenbergi

Peacock Monitor

Pfauenaugenwaran*

Påfuglevaran*

1999 Varanus auffenbergi Sprackland

Remarks: Kirschener (1999) questioned the validity of this species, which is closely related to timorensis. If auffenbergi is a valid species, it remains to be seen if both species occur on Roti, or if older records of timorensis from Roti (e.g., Rooij 1915; Mertens 1963) refer to auffenbergi.
Distribution: Indonesia (Rote).


Varanus bangonorum

Mindoro Water Monitor*

Mindoro-Bindenwaran*

Mindoro-båndvaran*

2014 Varanus bangonorum Welton, Travers, Siler & Brown

Distribution: Philippines (Mindoro, Semirara).


Varanus baritji

Black-spotted Spiny-tailed Monitor, Yellow-throated Spiny-tailed Monitor, Lemon-throated Spiny-tailed Monitor, Black-spotted Ridge-tailed Monitor, Baritji, (White's Monitor)

Gelbkehl-Stachelschwanzwaran

Sortplettet Tornhalevaran*

1987 Varanus baritji King & Horner

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory).


Varanus beccarii

Aru Islands Black Tree Monitor, Aru Monitor, Black Emerald Tree Monitor, (Beccari's Tree Monitor)

Indonesischer Schwarzer Baumwaran*

Aru-trævaran*

1874 Monitor beccarii Doria
Monitor kordensis beccarii De Rooij 1915
Varanus kordensis beccarii Roux 1910
Varanus prasinus beccarii Mertens 1941
Varanus beccarii Sprackland 1991

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of prasinus (e.g., Mertens 1941, 1963). Sprackland (1991) regarded beccarii as a separate species, but Ziegler & Böhme (1997) retained it as a subspecies of prasinus. Subsequently, Ziegler, Schmitz, Koch & Böhme (2007) presented genetic evidence that the two forms should be regarded as a separate species. The common name "Black Tree Monitor" has also been used for bogerti.
Distribution: Indonesia (Aru Islands).


Varanus bengalensis

Bengal Monitor, Large Bengal Monitor, (Long-tailed Monitor, Common Monitor, Land Monitor, Indian Monitor)

Bengalwaran

Bengalvaran, Bengalsk Varan

1802 Tupinambis bengalensis Daudin
Varanus bengalensis Dumeril & Bibron 1836
1802 Tupinambis cepedianus Daudin (Böhme 2003)
1820 Varanus punctatus Merrem (Böhme 2003)
1829 Monitor gemmatus Guérin-Méneville (Böhme 2003)
1831 Monitor heraldicus Gray (Böhme 2003)
1839 Monitor inornatus Schlegel (Böhme 2003)
1842 Varanus bibronii Blyth (Böhme 2003)
1845 Uaranus lunatus Gray (Böhme 2003)
1987 Varanus irrawadicus Yang & Li (Böhme & Ziegler 1997)
Varanus bengalensis irrawadicus De Lisle 1996

Other common names:
irrawadicus: Yunnan Monitor
vietnamensis: Vietnam Monitor
Remarks: Previously included nebulosus. The common name "Indian Monitor", sometimes used for bengalensis, has also been used for the Pacific Monitor (indicus), but should be avoided to prevent confusion. Also note that the name "Indian Desert Monitor" is used for a subspecies (koniecznyi) of griseus. This species has occasionally been referred to as Varanus monitor (Linnaeus 1758) in older literature (e.g., Ali 1944). Although recorded from Uzbekistan by several authors (e.g., Minton 1966; Khan & Mirza 1977; Murthy 1985), the species does not occur in the country (Auffenberg 1994).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China (Yunnan), India (Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Iran, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand.


Varanus bennetti

Palau Monitor, (Bennett's Long-tailed Monitor)

Palauwaran

Palau-varan

2020 Varanus bennetti Weijola, Vahtera, Koch, Schmitz & Kraus

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of indicus or a closely related taxon of uncertain status (e.g., Crombie & Pregill 1999; Zug 2013).
Distribution: Northern Mariana Islands, Micronesia, Palau.





Varanus bitatawa

Northern Luzon Forest Monitor*, Northern Sierra Madre Forest Monitor

Nordphilippinischer Waldwaran*

Nordfilippinsk Skovvaran*

2010 Varanus bitatawa Welton, Siler, Bennett, Diesmos, Duya, Dugay, Rico, Van Weerd & Brown

Distribution: Philippines (Luzon).


Varanus boehmei

Golden-speckled Tree Monitor

Goldfleckiger Baumwaran*

Gulspættet Trævaran*

2003 Varanus boehmei Jacobs

Distribution: Indonesia (Waigeo).


Varanus bogerti

Papuan Black Tree Monitor*, (Bogert's Tree Monitor, Black Tree Monitor)

Papuanischer Schwarzer Baumwaran*

Papuansk Sort Trævaran*

1950 Varanus prasinus bogerti Mertens
Varanus bogerti Sprackland 1991

Remarks: A single record from the Papuan mainland is considered doubtful (Koch, Ernst, Eidenmüller & Kraus 2014). The common name "Black Tree Monitor" has also been used for beccarii.
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson, Normanby], Louisiade Archipelago (incl. Misima), Trobriand Islands).


Varanus brevicaudus

Short-tailed Pygmy Monitor, Short-tailed Monitor

Kurzschwanzwaran

Korthalet Varan

1898 Varanus brevicauda Boulenger
Worrellisaurus brevicauda Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia).


Varanus bushi

Pilbara Pygmy Monitor*, (Bush's Pygmy Monitor)

Pilbara-Zwergwaran*

Pilbara-dværgvaran*

2006 Varanus bushi Aplin, Fitch & King

Distribution: Australia (Western Australia).


Varanus caerulivirens

Turquoise Monitor

Türkiswaran

Turkisvaran*

1999 Varanus caerulivirens Ziegler, Böhme & Philipp

Distribution: Indonesia (Bacan, Halmahera, Morotai, Obi).


Varanus caudolineatus

Stripe-tailed Pygmy Monitor, Stripe-tailed Monitor, Line-tailed Pygmy Monitor

Streifenschwanzwaran, Schwanzstrichwaran

Stribehalet Dværgvaran*

1885 Varanus caudolineatus Boulenger
Worrellisaurus caudolineatus Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (Western Australia).


Varanus cerambonensis

Banded Pacific Monitor, Ambon Monitor, Ambon Mangrove Monitor

Ambonwaran

Ambonvaran*

1999 Varanus cerambonensis Philipp, Böhme & Ziegler

Distribution: Indonesia (Ambon, Banda Islands, Buru, Obi, Saparua, Seram).


Varanus colei

Kei Islands Monitor

Kei-Mangrovenwaran*

Kei-mangrovevaran*

2019 Varanus colei Böhme, Jacobs, Koppetsch & Schmitz

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of indicus or, more recently, of finschi (Böhme, Jacobs, Koppetsch & Schmitz 2019).
Distribution: Indonesia (Kei Islands).





Varanus cumingi

Mindanao Water Monitor, (Cuming's Water Monitor)

Mindanao-Bindenwaran

Mindanao-båndvaran*

1838 Varanus cumingi Martin
Varanus salvator cumingi Mertens 1942

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Koch, Auliya, Schmitz, Kuch & Böhme (2007). Previously included samarensis. Taxonomic status of the populations in Dinagat, Siargao, and the Sulu Islands (Basilan and Jolo) is uncertain (Koch, Gaulke & Böhme 2010), but they are tentatively included herein as cumingi, pending further studies.
Distribution: Philippines (Camiguin Sur, Dinagat, Mindanao, Siargao, Sulu Islands [Basilan, Jolo]).


Varanus dalubhasa

Bicol Water Monitor*

Bicol-Bindenwaran*

Bicol-båndvaran*

2014 Varanus dalubhasa Welton, Travers, Siler & Brown

Distribution: Philippines (Catanduanes, Luzon, Polillo).


Varanus doreanus

Blue-tailed Monitor

Blauschwanzwaran

Blåhalet Varan*

1874 Monitor doreanus Meyer
Euprepiosaurus doreanus Wells & Wellington 1985
Varanus doreanus Böhme, Horn & Ziegler 1994

Remarks: Prevously regarded as a synonym of indicus (e.g., Mertens 1963). Revalidated by Böhme, Horn & Ziegler (1994). Lisle's (1996) inclusion of Halmahera in the species' distribution seems to be undocumented (Harvey & Barker 1998). According to Wilson & Swan (2010), doreanus has not been verified for Queensland, although reported by several authors (e.g., Böhme 2003; Ziegler, Philipp & Böhme 1999; Böhme, Philipp & Ziegler in Pianka & King 2004).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Australia (Queensland), Indonesia (Aru Islands, Biak, Salawati, Waigeo, Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Varanus douarrha

New Ireland Mangrove Monitor*

New-Ireland-Mangrovenwaran

New Ireland-mangrovevaran*

1830 Monitor douarrha Lesson
Varanus indicus douarrha Mertens 1926
Varanus douarrha Weijola, Kraus, Vahtera, Lindqvist & Donnellan 2017

Remarks: Previously regarded as a name of uncertain status (e.g., Böhme, Horn & Ziegler 1994). Resurrected as a valid species by Weijola, Kraus, Vahtera, Lindqvist & Donnellan (2017).
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago: New Hanover, New Ireland [incl. Dyaul Island]).


Varanus dumerilii

Harlequin Monitor, (Dumeril's Monitor, Forest Monitor)

Harlekinwaran, (Dumerilwaran)

Harlekinvaran*, (Dumerils Varan)

1839 Monitor dumerilii Schlegel
Varanus dumerilii Bleeker 1858
1881 Varanus macrolepis Blanford (Böhme 2003)
1892 Varanus heteropholis Boulenger (Böhme 2003)
Varanus dumerilii heteropholis Mertens 1942
1912 Varanus heterolepis Barbour [ex errore] (Mertens 1963)

Other common names:
heteropholis: Sarawak Forest Monitor
Remarks: Older records from Java (e.g., Boettger 1892, 1893; Roiij 1915; Brongersma in Dammerman 1929) are based on misidentified nebulosus (Mertens 1937; Auffenberg 1994). Auffenberg (1976) lists dumerilii for the Philippines, but later (Auffenberg 1988) corrects this as an erroneous report.
Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Bangka, Batu Islands, Belitung, Kalimantan, Riau Islands, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Penang Island]), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand.


Varanus eremius

Rusty Desert Monitor, Pygmy Desert Monitor

Einsiedelwaran

Rustfarvet Ørkenvaran*

1895 Varanius eremius Lucas & Frost
Worrellisaurus eremius Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia).


Varanus exanthematicus

Western Savanna Monitor, Northern Savanna Monitor, African Rock Monitor, (Bosc's Monitor)

Steppenwaran

Steppevaran

1792 Lacerta exanthematica Bosc
Varanus exanthematicus Merrem 1820
1830 Varanus ocellatus Heyden (Böhme 2003)

Remarks: Listed to occur in Morocco by Trape, Trape & Chirio (2012), presumably in error. A single record, probably an introduced specimen, from Cape Verde (Mertens 1956).
Introduced to: Cape Verde, Mexico (Jalisco), Turks & Caicos Islands (Caicos Islands), USA (Florida).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Sudan, Togo, Uganda.


Varanus finschi

New Britain Mangrove Monitor*, (Bismarck Mangrove Monitor, Finsch's Monitor)

New-Britain-Mangrovenwaran*

New Britain-mangrovevaran*

1994 Varanus doreanus finschi Böhme, Horn & Ziegler
Varanus finschi Sprackland 1995

Remarks: Although recognised as a separate species (without discussion) already by Sprackland (1995), the validity of the species was first confirmed by Ziegler, Philipp & Böhme (1999). Currently considered endemic to New Britain. Reports from Queensland and mainland New Guinea are considered unreliable, as they are based on museum vouchers which most likely have wrong locality information, except for some Milne Bay (Papua New Guinea) records (e.g., Ziegler, Schmitz, Koch & Böhme 2007), which have subsequently been reidentified as cf. jobiensis (Weijola, Donnellan & Lindquist 2016). Records from New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) refer to douarrha (Weijola, Kraus, Vahtera, Lindqvist & Donnellan 2017). Records from Kei Islands (Indonesia) refer to colei (Böhme, Jacobs, Koppetsch & Schmitz 2019).
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago: New Britain).


Varanus flavescens

Yellow Monitor, Indian Yellow Monitor, Golden Monitor, Barred Monitor, Oval Monitor, (Clouded Monitor)

Gelbwaran

Gul Varan*

1827 Monitor flavescens Hardwicke & Gray
Empagusia flavescens Gray 1838
Varanus flavescens Cantor 1847
1830 Varanus russelii Heyden (Böhme 2003)
1836 Varanus picquotii Dumeril & Bibron (Böhme 2003)
1844 Monitor exanthematicus indicus Schlegel [not Tupinambis indicus Daudin 1802] (Böhme 2003)
1856 Varanus diardii Hallowell [nomen nudum] (Mertens 1963)

Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan.


Varanus giganteus

Perentie, (Laced Lizard)

Australischer Riesenwaran

Australsk Kæmpevaran*, Perentie

1845 Hydrosaurus giganteus Gray
Varanus giganteus Boulenger 1885
Titanzius giganteus Wells & Wellington 1985

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia).


Varanus gilleni

Pygmy Mulga Monitor, (Gillen's Monitor, Gillen's Pygmy Monitor)

Mulga-Zwergwaran*

Mulga-dværgvaran*

1895 Varanus gilleni Lucas & Frost
Worrellisaurus gilleni Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia).


Varanus glauerti

Kimberley Rock Monitor, Glauert's Monitor, (Long-tailed Monitor)

Kimberley-Felsenwaran

Kimberley-klippevaran*

1957 Varanus timorensis glauerti Mertens
Varanus glauerti Mertens 1958
Odatria glauerti Wells & Wellington 1985

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia).


Varanus glebopalma

Black-palmed Rock Monitor, Black-footed Rock Monitor, Twilight Monitor, Glebo, (Long-tailed Rock Monitor)

Polsterhandwaran

Sortfodet Klippevaran*

1955 Varanus glebopalma Mitchell
Odatria glebopalma Wells & Wellington 1985
2014 Odatria glebopalma funki Hoser
2014 Odatria glebopalma maderi Hoser

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Varanus gouldii

Sand Monitor, Bungarra, Sand Goanna, Racehorse Goanna, (Gould's Monitor, Gould’s Goanna, Gould's Racehorse)

Sandwaran*, (Goulds Waran)

Sandvaran*

1838 Hydrosaurus gouldii Gray
Varanus gouldii Dumeril & Dumeril 1851
Pantherosaurus gouldii Wells & Wellington 1985
1958 Varanus gouldii flavirufus Mertens (Böhme 2003)
Varanus flavirufus Böhme 1997
Odatria flavirufus Wells & Wellington 1985
1985 Pantherosaurus barryjonesi Wells & Wellington (Shea & Sadlier 1999)

Remarks: For a period, this species was referred to as flavirufus (see remarks under panoptes). Although listed for the Australian Capitol Territory by Cogger, Cameron & Cogger (1983), there seems to be no confirmed records there of this species (Bennett 1997). Records from New Guinea refer to panoptes (Böhme 1988).
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island], South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia).


Varanus griseus

Desert Monitor, Grey Monitor

Wüstenwaran

Ørkenvaran

1803 Tupinambis griseus Daudin
Varanus griseus Boulenger 1885
1803 ? Varanus striatus Daudin (Mertens 1963)
1820 Varanus scincus Merrem (Böhme 2003)
1827 ? Tupinambis arenarius Geoffroy (Böhme 2003)
Varanus arenaceus [lapsus] Gervais 1848 (Mertens 1963)
1831 Psammosaurus caspius Eichwald (Böhme 2003)
Varanus griseus caspius Mertens 1954
1834 Varanus terrestris Schinz (Böhme 2003)
1869 ? Varanus ornatus Carlleyle [not Tupinambis ornatus Daudin 1803, not Uaranus ornatus Gray 1845] (Mertens 1963)
1899 Psammosaurus arabicus Hemprich & Ehrenberg (Böhme 2003)
1954 Varanus koniecznyi Mertens (Böhme 2003)
Varanus griseus koniecznyi Mertens 1963

Other common names:
caspius: Central Asian Desert Monitor, Eastern Desert Monitor, Transcaspian Desert Monitor, Caspian Desert Monitor
griseus: Western Desert Monitor
koniecznyi: Indian Desert Monitor, Pakistan Desert Monitor, Indo-Pakistan Desert Monitor, Thar Desert Monitor, Agra Monitor
Remarks: Claimed presence in Lebanon (e.g., Mertens 1959, 1963; Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992; Lisle 1996) remains unconfirmed and unlikely (Martens & Koch 1992).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chad, Egypt (incl. Sinai), India (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen.


Varanus hamersleyensis

Southern Pilbara Rock Monitor

Südlicher Pilbara-Felsenwaran*

Sydlig Pilbara-klippevaran*

2014 Varanus hamersleyensis Maryan, Oliver, Fitch & O'Connell

Distribution: Australia (Western Australia).


Varanus indicus

Pacific Monitor, Mangrove Monitor, (Indian Monitor)

Pazifikwaran

Pacifisk Mangrovevaran*, Pacifisk Varan

1802 Tupinambis indicus Daudin
Varanus indicus Boulenger 1883
Euprepiosaurus indicus Wells & Wellington 1985
1820 Varanus guttatus Merrem [substitute name for Tupinambis indicus Daudin 1802] (Böhme 2003)
1830 Monitor kalabeck Lesson (nomen nudum; Böhme, Horn & Ziegler 1994)
Varanus indicus kalabeck Mertens 1942
1831 Monitor chlorostigma Gray (Böhme, Horn & Ziegler 1994)
1926 Varanus indicus rouxi Mertens (Böhme, Horn & Ziegler 1994)
1929 Varanus tsukamotoi Kishida (Böhme, Horn & Ziegler 1994)
1934 Varanus leucostigma Hediger [ex errore] (Mertens 1963)

Remarks: A previously more broadly defined indicus has subsequently led to the description of many new species or the separation or revalidation of others. This includes caerulivirens, cerambonensis, colei, doreanus, douarrha, finschi, jobiensis, juxtindicus, lirungensis, obor, rainerguentheri, semotus, spinulosus, yuwonoi, and zugorum.
Some Western Pacific populations may have been introduced by humans, but the question of which remains unanswered (Zug 2013). More specifically, the Bonin Islands population may be the result of an introduction (Philipp, Böhme & Ziegler 1999). This is presumably also the case with the Micronesian population (Buden & Taborosi 2016). Both are provisionally treated as such herein. So is the Marshall Islands population, which seems unlikely to be native, if the above mentioned populations are introduced. The Palau population might be native (Zug 2013). Records from New Ireland (Papua New Guinea) refer to douarrha (Weijola, Kraus, Vahtera, Lindqvist & Donnellan 2017). Presence of indicus in northern Queensland (Torres Strait Islands and mainland) has been confirmed, and is expected to extend across into Northern Territory, from where it has previously been reported (e.g., Cogger, Cameron & Cogger 1983; Cogger 1996). These previous reports are included in the distribution map, however, presence there needs confirmation, since older reports of indicus, dating back before the recognition of doreanus as a separate species, may refer to either of these species. Presence in Sulawesi is unlikely and needs confirmation, since the few voucher specimens available may have been accidental introductions (Ziegler, Schmitz, Koch & Böhme 2007). Records from Maluku (the Moluccas) refer to other species (Böhme & Ziegler 2005; Weijola & Sweet 2015). Taxonomic status of the populations in Aru, Kai, and Tanimbar Islands (Indonesia) is uncertain (Weijola & Sweet 2015). Rennell Island (Solomon Islands) populations of indicus refer to juxtindicus. McCoy (2006) regarded juxtindicus as a synonym of indicus.
Introduced to: Japan (Bonin Islands), Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Northern Mariana Islands.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands]), Guam, Indonesia (Aru Islands, Biak, Haruku, Kai Islands, Salawati, Supiori, Tanimbar Islands, Waigeo, Western New Guinea, Yapen), Palau, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (incl. Manus), Duke of York, New Britain], d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Fergusson, Normanby], Eastern New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago [Misima, Rossel, Sudest], Woodlark, North Solomon Islands [Buka], Trobriand Islands), Solomon Islands (incl. Guadalcanal).


Varanus jobiensis

Sepik Monitor, Peach-throated Monitor

Rotkehlwaran

Sepikvaran*

1932 Varanus indicus jobiensis Ahl
Euprepiosaurus jobiensis Wells & Wellington 1985
Varanus jobiensis Böhme 1991
1951 Varanus karlschmidti Mertens (Böhme 2003)

Other common names:
karlschmidti: Schmidt's Monitor
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of indicus (e.g., Mertens 1963).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Indonesia (Biak, Salawati, Waigeo, Western New Guinea, Yapen), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Varanus juxtindicus

Rennell Island Mangrove Monitor*

Salomonen-Mangrovenwaran*

Salomon-mangrovevaran*

2002 Varanus juxtindicus Böhme, Philipp & Ziegler

Remarks: McCoy (2006) regarded juxtindicus as a synonym of indicus.
Distribution: Solomon Islands (Rennell).


Varanus keithhornei

Cape York Tree Monitor, Queensland Tree Monitor, Blue-nosed Monitor, Canopy Goanna

Australischer Baumwaran

Trækronevaran*

1985 Odatria keithhornei Wells & Wellington
Varanus keithhornei Bennett 1997
1991 Varanus teriae Sprackland (Böhme 2003)

Distribution: Australia (Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands]).


Varanus kingorum

Pygmy Rock Monitor, (Long-tailed Rock Monitor, King's Monitor, King’s Rock Monitor)

Zwerg-Felsenwaran*

Dværg-klippevaran*

1980 Varanus kingorum Storr
Worrellisaurus kingorum Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia).


Varanus komodoensis

Komodo Monitor, Komodo Dragon Lizard, Ora

Komodowaran

Komodovaran

1912 Varanus komodoensis Ouwens

Distribution: Indonesia (Flores, Komodo, Padar, Rinca).


Varanus kordensis

Biak Emerald Tree Monitor

Biak-Smaragswaran

Biak-smaragdvaran*

1874 Monitor kordensis Meyer
Varanus prasinus kordensis Mertens 1942
Varanus kordensis Jacobs 2002

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of prasinus (e.g., Mertens 1942; Böhme 1997; Ziegler & Böhme 1997), or merely a colour morph of same (e.g., Sprackland 1991). Following Jacobs (2002) it is here treated as a separate species.
Distribution: Indonesia (Biak).


Varanus lirungensis

Talaud Mangrove Monitor

Talaud-Mangrovenwaran*

Talaud-mangrovevaran*

2009 Varanus lirungensis Koch, Arida, Schmitz, Böhme & Ziegler

Distribution: Indonesia (Talaud Islands).


Varanus mabitang

Panay Monitor

Panaywaran

Panayvaran*

2001 Varanus mabitang Gaulke & Curio

Distribution: Philippines (Panay).


Varanus macraei

Blue-spotted Tree Monitor, Blue Speckled Tree Monitor

Blaufleckiger Baumwaran*

Blåplettet Trævaran*

2001 Varanus macraei Böhme & Jacobs

Distribution: Indonesia (Batanta).


Varanus marmoratus

Marbled Water Monitor

Marmorierter Bindenwaran*

Marmoreret Båndvaran*

1829 Monitor marmoratus Wiegmann
Hydrosaurus marmoratus Wiegmann 1834
Varanus salvator marmoratus Mertens 1942
Varanus marmoratus Koch, Auliya, Schmitz, Kuch & Böhme 2007
1844 Monitor bivittatus var. philippensis Schlegel (Böhme 2003)
1944 Varanus salvator philippinensis Deraniyagala 1944 (Böhme 2003)

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to dalubhasa, bangonorum, palawanensis, and rasmusseni.
Distribution: Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Babuyan Claro, Calayan, Camiguin Norte, Dalupiri, Fuga], Batan Islands [Batan, Sabtang], Lubang, Luzon).


Varanus melinus

Quince Monitor

Quittenwaran

Sulavaran*

1997 Varanus melinus Böhme & Ziegler

Remarks: Records from Sanana refer to obor. The type locality, Obi Island, is probably just the place from where the specimens were shipped. If present in the island, confirmation is needed (Böhme 2003). Presence in Banggai Islands (incl. Bowokan Islands) is also considered doubtful (Koch & Böhme 2005; Weijola & Sweet 2010).
Distribution: Indonesia (Sula Islands [Mangole, Taliabu]).


Varanus mertensi

Kimberley Water Monitor*, (Mertens' Water Monitor)

Kimberley-Wasserwaran*

Kimberley-vandvaran*

1951 Varanus mertensi Glauert
Pantherosaurus mertensi Wells & Wellington 1985
1956 Varanus bulliwallah Worrell (Böhme 2003)

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Varanus mitchelli

Arnhem Land Water Monitor*, (Mitchell's Water Monitor)

Arnhemland-Wasserwaran*

Arnhemland-vandvaran*

1958 Varanus mitchelli Mertens
Odatria mitchelli Wells & Wellington 1985

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Varanus nebulosus

Clouded Monitor, South East Asian Monitor

Nebelwaran, Malaienwaran

Javavaran*

1831 Monitor nebulosus Gray
Varanus nebulosus Dumeril & Bibron 1836
Varanus bengalensis nebulosus Mertens 1963
1994 Varanus vietnamensis Yang & Liu (Böhme & Ziegler 1997)
Varanus bengalensis vietnamensis Lisle 1996

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of bengalensis (e.g., Mertens 1963). Böhme & Ziegler (1997) suggested to treat the two forms as separate species, which has been followed by most authors. The presence of the species in Sumatra is documented by several museum specimens, dating back to the 19th century, but apparently there are no recent confirmations (Auffenberg 1994). Reports from the Andaman Islands are considered erroneous, since no voucher specimens exist (Das 1999). Listed for China by Bain & Hurley (2011), but no records have been found to verify this.
Distribution: Cambodia, Indonesia (Anambas Islands, Java, Lingga Islands, Natuna Islands, Riau Islands), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Penang Island, Perhentian Islands, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Aur, Tioman)]), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.


Varanus nesterovi

Zagros Desert Monitor*, (Nesterov's Desert Monitor)

Zagros-Waran*

Zagros-varan*

2015 Varanus nesterovi Böhme, Ehrlich, Milto, Orlov & Scholz

Distribution: Iran, Iraq.


Varanus niloticus

Nile Monitor, African Water Monitor, (Water Leguaan)

Nilwaran

Nilvaran

1766 Lacerta nilotica Linnaeus
Varanus niloticus Fitzinger 1826
1768 Stellio saurus Laurenti (Böhme 2003)
1783 Lacerta capensis Sparrman (Böhme 2003)
1803 Tupinambis ornatus Daudin
Varanus niloticus ornatus Mertens 1942
Varanus ornatus Böhme & Ziegler 1997
1819 Monitor pulcher Leach (Böhme 2003)
1844 Monitor elegans senegalensis Schlegel (Böhme 2003)

Remarks: The African Forest Monitor (stellatus) was previously referred to as ornatus, until Dowell, Buffrenil, Kolokotronis & Hekkala (2015) showed that the latter name is a synonym of niloticus. Presence in Rwanda is based on a single sight record (Spawls, Howell, Drewes & Ashe 2002).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Angola (incl. Cabinda), Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau (incl. Bijagos Archipelago), Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa (Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West Province, Northern Cape), South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania (incl. Mafia, Zanzibar), Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Varanus nuchalis

Rough-necked Water Monitor, Negros Water Monitor

Rauhnacken-Bindenwaran

Visaya-båndvaran*

1872 Hydrosaurus nuchalis Gunther
Varanus salvator nuchalis Mertens 1942
Varanus nuchalis Koch, Auliya, Schmitz, Kuch & Böhme 2007

Distribution: Philippines (Bantayan, Boracay, Cebu, Guimaras, Masbate, Negros, Panay, Romblon, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Tablas, Ticao).


Varanus obor

Sago Monitor

Sagowaran*

Sagovaran*

2010 Varanus obor Weijola & Sweet

Distribution: Indonesia (Sula Islands: Sanana).


Varanus olivaceus

Olive Monitor*, (Gray's Monitor)

Olivfarbiger Waran*, (Philippinenwaran)

Olivengrøn Varan*

1856 Varanus olivaceus Hallowell
1845 Uaranus ornatus Gray [not Tupinambis ornatus Daudin 1803] (Auffenberg 1988)
1885 Varanus grayi Boulenger (Auffenberg 1988)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of bengalensis (e.g., Mertens 1963), however, olivaceus is the name currently used for the species previously referred to as grayi.
Distribution: Philippines (Catanduanes, Luzon, Polillo).


Varanus palawanensis

Palawan Monitor*

Palawanwaran*

Palawanvaran*

2010 Varanus palawanensis Koch, Gaulke & Böhme

Distribution: Philippines (Balabac, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Calauit], Candaraman, Dumaran, Malapina, Palawan, Sulu Islands [Sibutu]).


Varanus panoptes

Yellow-spotted Monitor, Northern Sand Monitor, Argus Monitor, Flood-plains Goanna

Arguswaran

Gulplettet Varan*

1980 Varanus panoptes Storr
Pantherosaurus panoptes Wells & Wellington 1985
1980 Varanus panoptes rubidus Storr
Varanus gouldii rubidus Böhme 1991*
Pantherosaurus rubidus Wells & Wellington 1985
1988 Varanus panoptes horni Böhme
Varanus gouldii horni Böhme 1991*

Other common names:
horni: Horn's Yellow-spotted Monitor
panoptes: Northern Yellow-spotted Monitor
rubidus: Western Yellow-spotted Monitor
Remarks: For a period (since Böhme 1991), this species was referred to as gouldii, after it was realised that the lectotype of gouldii was conspecific with panoptes, making the latter a junior synonym of the former. During that period, the species formerly - and now again, known as gouldii was referred to as flavirufus, the next available name for that species. However, for the sake of nomenclatural stability a decision was made to set aside the lectotype and designate a neotype for gouldii, thus securing this name for the species known as gouldii through decades in numerous publications (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 2000: Opinion 1948).
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands], Western Australia), Indonesia (Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Varanus pilbarensis

Northern Pilbara Rock Monitor

Nördlicher Pilbara-Felsenwaran*

Nordlig Pilbara-klippevaran*

1980 Varanus pilbarensis Storr
Odatria pilbarensis Wells & Wellington 1985

Distribution: Australia (Western Australia).


Varanus prasinus

Green Tree Monitor, Emerald Tree Monitor, Emerald Monitor, Common Green Tree Monitor, Green Lace Lizard, Wyniss

Gewöhnlicher Smaragdwaran

Almindelig Smaragdvaran*

1839 Monitor prasinus Schlegel
Varanus prasinus Bleeker 1856
Odatria prasinus Wells & Wellington 1985
2005 Varanus reisingeri Eidenmüller & Wicker (Bucklitsch, Böhme & Koch 2016)
Varanus prasinus reisingeri Bucklitsch, Böhme & Koch 2016

Other common names:
reisingeri: Yellow Tree Monitor, (Reisinger's Tree Monitor)
Remarks: Previously included beccarii, bogerti and kordensis, now regarded as separate species. There is a doubtful record from Yapen (Jacobs 2002). Records from Biak (Indonesia) refer to kordensis.
Distribution: Australia (Queensland: Torres Strait Islands), Indonesia (Misool, Salawati, Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (d'Entrecasteaux Islands [Goodenough], Eastern New Guinea).


Varanus primordius

Northern Ridge-tailed Monitor, Northern Blunt-spined Monitor, Northern Blunt-nosed Monitor

Nördlicher Stachelschwanzwaran*

Nordlig Tornhalevaran*

1942 Varanus acanthurus primordius Mertens
Varanus primordius Storr 1966
Worrellisaurus primordius Wells & Wellington 1984

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory).


Varanus rainerguentheri

Moluccan Mangrove Monitor*, (Günther's Mangrove Monitor)

Molukkanische Mangrovenwaran*

Molukkansk Mangrovevaran*

2007 Varanus rainerguentheri Ziegler, Böhme & Schmitz

Remarks: Records from Buru (Somma & Koch 2012) are based on misidentified ceramboensis (Weijola & Sweet 2015).
Distribution: Indonesia (Bacan, Halmahera, Morotai, Obi, Ternate, Tidore).


Varanus rasmusseni

Sulu Islands Monitor

Sulu-Waran

Sulu-varan

2010 Varanus rasmusseni Koch, Gaulke & Böhme

Distribution: Philippines (Sulu Islands [Bongao, Jolo, Sangasanga, Siasi, Tarawakan, Tawi-Tawi]).


Varanus rosenbergi

Heath Monitor, Southern Heath Monitor, Black Sand Monitor, (Rosenberg’s Heath Monitor, Rosenberg's Monitor, Sydney Gould’s Monitor)

Heidewaran*

Hedevaran*

1957 Varanus gouldii rosenbergi Mertens
Varanus rosenbergi Storr 1980
Pantherosaurus rosenbergi Wells & Wellington 1985
1985 Pantherosaurus kuringai Wells & Wellington (Shea & Sadlier 1999)

Distribution: Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, South Australia [incl. Kangaroo Island], Victoria, Western Australia).


Varanus rudicollis

Rough-necked Monitor, Wattle-necked Monitor, Bird Monitor

Rauhnackenwaran

Ruhalset Varan

1845 Uaranus rudicollis Gray
Varanus rudicollis Boulenger 1885
1932 Varanus scutigerulus Barbour (Böhme 2003)
Varanus salvator scutigerulus Mertens 1942
1962 Varanus swarti Mangili (Böhme 2003)

Distribution: Indonesia (Bangka, Kalimantan, Riau Islands, Sumatra), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand.


Varanus salvadorii

Papuan Tree Monitor, Papuan Monitor, Giant Monitor, Crocodile Monitor, Tree Crocodile, (Salvador's Monitor)

Papuawaran

Papuansk Kæmpevaran*

1878 Monitor salvadorii Peters & Doria
Varanus salvadorii Boulenger 1885

Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Indonesia (Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Varanus salvator

Asian Water Monitor, Banded Monitor, Common Water Monitor, Malayan Water Monitor, Variable Malay Monitor, Indian Water Monitor

Asiatischer Bindenwaran

Båndvaran

1768 Stellio salvator Laurenti
Varanus salvator Cantor 1847
1820 Tupinambis bivittatus Kuhl (Böhme 2003)
Varanus salvator bivittatus Mertens 1959
1829 Monitor nigricans Cuvier (Böhme 2003)
1831 Monitor exilis Gray (Böhme 2003)
1834 Varanus vittatus Lesson (Böhme 2003)
1842 Varanus binotatus Blyth [ex errore] (Mertens 1963)
1844 Monitor bivittatus var. celebensis Schlegel (Böhme 2003)
1844 Monitor bivittatus var. javanica Schlegel (Böhme 2003)
1845 Varanus crocodilinus Owen (Böhme 2003)
1944 Varanus salvator andamanensis Deraniyagala
1944 Varanus salvator macromaculatus Deraniyagala (Mertens 1963)
1947 Varanus salvator kabaragoya Deraniyagala (Böhme 2003)
1947 Varanus salvator nicobariensis Deraniyagala (Böhme 2003)
1987 Varanus salvator komaini Nutphand
2010 Varanus salvator ziegleri Koch & Böhme

Other common names:
andamanensis: Andaman Islands Water Monitor
bivittatus: Two-banded Water Monitor, Two-striped Water Monitor
komaini: Black Water Monitor
salvator: Common Asian Water Monitor
ziegleri: Obi Water Monitor*, (Ziegler's Water Monitor)
Remarks: Previously included cumingi, marmoratus, nuchalis, and togianus. Presence in the Indonesian islands Bacan, Halmahera, and Seram needs confirmation (Koch & Böhme 2010), although listed from these islands in earlier publications (e.g., Harvey & Barker 1998; Mertens 1930, 1963; Rooij 1915). Records from New Guinea and Australia are regarded as erroneous (Koch & Böhme 2010). Records from Taiwan are believed to represent accidental introductions.
Introduced to: Taiwan, USA (Florida, Hawaii).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Yunnan), East Timor, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Tripura, West Bengal), Indonesia (Alor, Anambas Islands, Bali, Banggai Islands, Bangka, Banyak Islands, Batu Islands, Belitung, Buton, Enggano, Flores, Hoga, Java, Kabaena, Kalao, Kalimantan, Komodo, Legundi, Lombok, Natuna Islands, Nias, Obi, Panaitan, Penida, Peucang, Sangir Islands [Sangir], Sebesi, Sebuku, Selayar, Sertung, Siberut, Simeulue, Sipura, Sula Islands [incl. Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, Tanahjampea, Tinjil, Weh, Wetar), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Penang Island, Perhentian Islands, Seribuat Archipelago (incl. Aur, Pemanggil, Tioman)]), Myanmar, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Varanus samarensis

Samar Water Monitor*

Samar-Bindenwaran*

Samar-båndvaran*

2010 Varanus cumingi samarensis Koch, Gaulke & Böhme
Varanus samarensis Welton, Travers, Siler & Brown 2014

Distribution: Philippines (Bohol, Leyte, Samar).


Varanus scalaris

Australian Spotted Tree Monitor, Banded Tree Monitor

Gebänderter Baumwaran

Australsk Plettet Trævaran*

1941 Varanus timorensis scalaris Mertens
Varanus scalaris Storr 1983
Odatria scalaris Wells & Wellington 1985
1985 Odatria kuranda Wells & Wellington (Shea & Sadlier 1999)
1985 Odatria pengilleyi Wells & Wellington (Shea & Sadlier 1999)

Remarks: See under similis. New Guinean records are here referred to similis, following Eidenmüller (2007). Includes several undescribed species (Wilson & Swan 2010). The latter authors did not list similis for Australia, which they presumably regarded as a part of the scalaris group.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Western Australia).


Varanus semiremex

Rusty Monitor

Rostkopfwaran

Rusthovedet Varan*

1869 Varanus semiremex Peters
Odatria semiremex Wells & Wellington 1985
1923 Varanus boulengeri Kinghorn (Böhme 2003)
Varanus semiremex boulengeri Mertens 1942

Distribution: Australia (Queensland).


Varanus semotus

Mussau Mangrove Monitor*

Mussau-Mangrovenwaran*

Mussau-mangrovevaran*

2016 Varanus semotus Weijola, Donnellan & Lindquist

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago: Saint Matthias Islands: Mussau).


Varanus similis

Papuan Spotted Tree Monitor

Gefleckter Baumwaran

Papuansk Plettet Trævaran*

1958 Varanus timorensis similis Mertens
Varanus similis Branch 1982
Odatria similis Wells & Wellington 1985

Remarks: Status of scalaris and similis is uncertain, however, neither of them are conspecific with timorensis (Storr 1983; Wilson & Knowles 1988; Eidenmüller 2007; Vincent & Wilson 1999; Böhme 2003), as previously believed (e.g., Cogger 1996). Regarded as a synonym of scalaris by some authors (e.g., Storr 1980; Wilson & Swan 2010 [by implication]; Cogger 2014 [by implication]), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Böhme 2003; Allison & Kraus 2006; Allison 2007; Eidenmüller 2007; Philipp & Philipp 2007), although Böhme (2003) stressed the unresolved relationship between scalaris and similis.
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands]), Indonesia (Western New Guinea), Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Varanus sparnus

Dampier Peninsula Monitor

Dampier-Waran*

Dampier-varan*

2014 Varanus sparnus Doughty, Kealley, Fitch & Donnellan

Distribution: Australia (Western Australia).


Varanus spenceri

Plains Goanna, (Spencer's Monitor, Spencer’s Goanna)

Australischer Bodenwaran*, (Spencerwaran)

Australsk Jordvaran*

1903 Varanus spenceri Lucas & Frost
Aspetosaurus spenceri Wells & Wellington 1985
1906 Varanus ingrami Boulenger (Böhme 2003)

Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland).


Varanus spinulosus

Solomon Islands Keeled Monitor, Isabel Monitor, Spiny-necked Monitor

Stachelnackenwaran

Pignakkevaran*

1941 Varanus indicus spinulosus Mertens
Euprepiosaurus spinulosus Wells & Wellington 1985
Varanus spinulosus Sprackland 1994

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (North Solomon Islands [Bougainville]), Solomon Islands.


Varanus stellatus

African Forest Monitor*, Ornate Monitor, (Forest Monitor, Forest Nile Monitor)

Regenwaldwaran

Afrikansk Skovvaran*

1802 Tupinambis stellatus Daudin
Varanus stellatus Dowell, Buffrenil, Kolokotronis & Hekkala 2015

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of niloticus (e.g., Böhme 2003). Dowell, Buffrenil, Kolokotronis & Hekkala (2015) revived the name stellatus as the valid name for the species until then known as ornatus (now a synonym of niloticus). According to Bayless (2002, as ornatus), stellatus also occurs in Angola (Cabinda), Chad, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Senegal, and on Principe, but these countries are outside the distribution given by Eidenmüller & Philippen (2008) and by Trape, Trape & Chirio (2012). Presence in these areas needs confirmation.
Distribution: Benin, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Congo-Brazzaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko, Rio Muni), Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Togo.


Varanus storri

Dwarf Monitor, (Storr's Monitor, Spiny-tailed Monitor, Ridge-tailed Monitor)

Gewöhnlicher Zwergwaran

Almindelig Dværgvaran*

1966 Varanus storri Mertens
Worrellisaurus storri Wells & Wellington 1984
1980 Varanus storri ocreatus Storr
Worrellisaurus ocreatus Wells & Wellington 1984

Other common names:
ocreatus: Western Dwarf Monitor, Western Storr’s Monitor
storri: Eastern Dwarf Monitor, Eastern Storr’s Monitor
Distribution: Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia).


Varanus telenesetes

Rossel Island Tree Monitor, Rossel Island Monitor

Rosselwaran

Rossel-trævaran*

1991 Varanus telenesetes Sprackland

Remarks: The origin of the only known specimen of telenesetes is uncertain, but has been assumed to be Rossel Island (Koch, Ernst, Eidenmüller & Kraus 2014).
Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Louisiade Archipelago: Rossel).


Varanus timorensis

Timor Spotted Tree Monitor, Timor Monitor, Wangu

Timorwaran

Timorvaran

1831 Monitor timorensis Gray
Varanus timoriensis Dumeril & Bibron 1836 [invalid emendation]
Hydrosaurus timorensis Gray 1838
Odatria timorensis Gray 1843
Psammosaurus timorensis Lichtenstein & v. Martens 1856

Remarks: See remarks under auffenbergi and scalaris. Restricted to Timor, according to Böhme (2003). Records from Australia and New Guinea refer to scalaris and similis.
Distribution: East Timor, Indonesia (West Timor).


Varanus togianus

Togian Water Monitor

Togianischer Bindenwaran*

Togiansk Båndvaran*

1872 Monitor togianus Peters
Varanus salvator togianus Mertens 1941
Varanus togianus Koch, Auliya, Schmitz, Kuch & Böhme 2007

Remarks: Iskandar & Tjan (1996) erroneously reported togianus from northern Sulawesi, based on a misidentification. Although found in the island, records do not include the northern part (Koch 2012).
Distribution: Indonesia (Buton, Selayar, Sulawesi, Togian Islands).


Varanus tristis

Freckled Monitor & Black-headed Monitor, Black-tailed Monitor, Mourning Monitor, Mournful Goanna, (Racehorse Goanna)

Trauerwaran

Sørgevaran*

1839 Monitor tristis Schlegel
Varanus timorensis tristis Mertens 1942
Varanus tristis Mertens 1958
Odatria tristis Wells & Wellington 1984
1838 Odatria punctata Gray [not Varanus punctatus Merrem 1820] (Böhme 2003)
1913 Varanus punctatus var. orientalis Fry (Cogger 1996)
Varanus timorensis orientalis Mertens 1942
Odatria orientalis Wells & Wellington 1984
1957 Varanus tristis centralis Mertens (Mertens 1963)
Odatria centralis Wells & Wellington 1985

Other common names:
orientalis: Freckled Monitor
tristis: Black-headed Monitor
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia).


Varanus tsukamotoi

Mariana Monitor, Saipan Monitor

Marianen-Waran

Mariansk Varan

1929 Varanus tsukamotoi Kishida

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of indicus (e.g., Philipp, Böhme & Ziegler 1999).
Distribution: Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands.





Varanus varius

Lace Monitor, Variegated Monitor, Common Tree Monitor, Tree Goanna, Goanna, Lacey

Buntwaran

Broget Varan

1790 Lacerta varia White
Varanus varius Merrem 1820
1802 Tupinambis variegatus Daudin (Böhme 2003)
1836 Varanus bellii Dumeril & Bibron (Böhme 2003)
1870 Varanus mustelinus De Borre (Böhme 2003)

Distribution: Australia (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Queensland [incl. Fraser Island], South Australia, Victoria).


Varanus yemenensis

Yemen Monitor

Jemenwaran

Yemenvaran*

1989 Varanus yemenensis Böhme, Joger & Schätti

Remarks: According to Sindaco & Jeremchenko (2008) this species also occurs in Oman, but no other sources seem to confirm this.
Distribution: Saudi Arabia, Yemen.


Varanus yuwonoi

Black-backed Mangrove Monitor, Tri-coloured Monitor

Dreifarbwaran

Sortrygget Mangrovevaran*

1998 Varanus yuwonoi Harvey & Barker

Distribution: Indonesia (Halmahera).


Varanus zugorum

Halmahera Mangrove Monitor*, (Zug's Mangrove Monitor)

Halmahera-Mangrovenwaran*

Halmahera-mangrovevaran*

2005 Varanus zugorum Böhme & Ziegler

Distribution: Indonesia (Halmahera).