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Citation: Midtgaard, Rune. RepFocus - A Survey of the Reptiles of the World. (www.repfocus.dk).
Latest update: December 31st, 2022.

Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Hypsiglena
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae


North American Night Snakes

Nachtnattern, Nachtschlangen

Nordamerikanske Natsnoge

1860 Hypsiglena Cope (type species: Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha Cope 1860)
1860 Pseudodipsas Peters (type species: Pseudodipsas fallax Peters 1860)
1863 Comastes Jan (type species: Comastes quincunciatus Jan 1871)
1960 Eridiphas Leviton & Tanner (type species: Hypsiglena slevini Tanner 1943; syn. Mulcahy 2008)
Contents: 10 species, of which 7 (70.0%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Includes an unnamed species (refered to as the "Cochise clade" or Hooded Night Snake by Mulcahy 2008).
Distribution: W. North America.
Reported from: Canada (British Columbia), Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros, Isla Partida Norte, Islas Coronados (Isla Coronado Sur)], Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo, Isla San Marcos, Isla Santa Catalina, Isla Tortuga], Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima [incl. Revillagigedo Islands (Clarion)], Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Magdalena)], Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora [incl. Isla San Esteban], Tamaulipas, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, California [incl. Channel Islands], Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington).

Hypsiglena affinis

Rio Grande de Santiago Night Snake, (Boulenger's Night Snake)


Rio Grande de Santiago-natsnog

1894 Hypsiglena affinis Boulenger
Hypsiglena torquata affinis Tanner & Robison 1960

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Mulcahy (2008).
Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Zacatecas).

Hypsiglena catalinae

Santa Catalina Night Snake


Santa Catalina-natsnog

1966 Hypsiglena torquata catalinae Tanner
Hypsiglena chlorophaea catalinae Liner 2007
Hypsiglena catalinae Mulcahy, Martínez-Gómez, Aguirre-León, Cervantes-Pasqualli & Zug 2014

Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur: Isla Santa Catalina).

Hypsiglena chlorophaea

Desert Night Snake



1860 Hypsiglena chlorophaea Cope
Hypsiglena torquata chlorophaea Liner 1994
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha chlorophaea Schulte, Smith, Lemos-Espinal & Dayer 2007
1945 Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha deserticola Tanner (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena torquata deserticola Schmidt 1953
Hypsiglena chlorophaea deserticola Liner 2007
1945 Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha lorealus Tanner (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena torquata loreala Schmidt 1953
Hypsiglena chlorophaea loreala Mulcahy 2008
1981 Hypsiglena torquata tiburonensis Tanner
Hypsiglena chlorophaea tiburonensis Mulcahy 2008

Other common names:
chlorophaea: Sonoran Night Snake, Dusky-green Night Snake
deserticola: Northern Desert Night Snake, Great Basin Night Snake
loreala: Mesa Verde Night Snake
tiburonensis: Tiburon Night Snake
Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Mulcahy (2008), but listed as such already by Liner (2007). Previously included catalinae.
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia), Mexico (Baja California Norte, Sinaloa, Sonora [Isla San Esteban]), USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah).

Hypsiglena gularis

Partida Norte Island Night Snake


Partida Norte-natsnog

1954 Hypsiglena torquata gularis Tanner
Hypsiglena gularis Grismer 1999
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha gularis Liner 2007

Remarks: Treated as a subspecies or a synonym of ochrorhyncha by Mulcahy (2008) and Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014). The distribution of this species has been confused by some sources with Isla Partida Sur, off the northern tip of Isla Espirito Santo, Baja California Sur.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte: Isla Partida Norte).

Hypsiglena janii

Chihuahuan Night Snake



1865 Liophis janii Duges
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus janii Smith 1943
Hypsiglena torquata jani Zweifel 1954
Hypsiglena janii Mulcahy 2008
1893 Hypsiglena texana Stejneger (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena torquata texana Schmidt 1953
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus texana Tanner 1946
Hypsiglena jani texana Liner 2007
1938 Hypsiglena torquata dunklei Taylor (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena dunklei Smith & Taylor 1945
Hypsiglena jani dunklei Liner 2007

Other common names:
dunklei: Tamaulipas Night Snake, (Dunkle's Night Snake)
jani: San Luis Potosi Night Snake, Jan's Night Snake
texana: Texas Night Snake
Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of chlorophaea by Lemos-Espinal & Smith (2007). Revalidated as a separate species by Mulcahy (2008), but listed as such already by Liner (2007).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).

Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha

Coast Night Snake



1860 Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha Cope
Hypsiglena torquata ochrorhyncha Bogert & Oliver 1945
1899 Hypsiglena venusta Mocquard (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena torquata venusta Zweifel 1958
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha venusta Liner 2007
1943 Hypsiglena nuchalata Tanner (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena torquata nuchalata Schmidt 1953
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha nuchalata Mulcahy 2008
1944 Hypsiglena torquata tortugensis Tanner (Grismer 2002)
Hypsiglena ochrorhynchus tortugensis Tanner 1946
1945 Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha klauberi Tanner (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena torquata klauberi Schmidt 1953
1958 Hypsiglena torquata baueri Zweifel (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha baueri Liner 2007
1962 Hypsiglena torquata martinensis Tanner & Banta (Mulcahy 2008)
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha martinensis Liner 2007

Other common names:
baueri: Cedros Night Snake, (Bauer's Night Snake)
klauberi: San Diego Night Snake
martinensis: San Martin Island Night Snake
nuchalata: California Night Snake
ochrorhyncha: Cape Night Snake, Spotted Night Snake
tortugensis: Tortuga Night Snake
venusta: Magdalena Night Snake, (Islands Night Snake)
Remarks: Previously included chlorophaea, gularis, and unaocularis. Previously regarded as a subspecies of torquata. Revalidated as a separate species by Mulcahy (2008), although listed as such already by Liner (2007). Liner's (1964) record from Nuevo Leon refer to janii (Liner 1966). A record from Clarion Island in the Revillagigedo Islands (Colima) (Bogert & Oliver 1945) is considered erroneous (Brattstrom 1955).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros, Islas Coronados (Isla Coronado Sur)], Baja California Sur [incl. Isla San Marcos, Isla Tortuga], Michoacan), USA (California [incl. Channel Islands], Oregon, Texas, Washington).

Hypsiglena slevini

Baja California Night Snake, (Slevin's Night Snake)

Niederkalifornische Nachtnatter

Baja California-natsnog

1943 Hypsiglena slevini Tanner
Eridiphas slevini Leviton & Tanner 1960
1978 Eridiphas slevini marcosensis Ottley & Tanner (Mulcahy & Archibald 2003)
Eridiphas marcosensis Grismer 1999
Hypsiglena marcosensis Anonymous 2015 [Herpetological Review 46(2): 225]

Other common names:
marcosensis: San Marcos Night Snake
slevini: Slevin's Night Snake
Remarks: Reassigned to Hypsiglena by Mulcahy (2008).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo, Isla San Marcos]).

Hypsiglena tanzeri

Rio Verde Night Snake, (Tanzer's Night Snake)


Rio Verde-natsnog

1972 Hypsiglena tanzeri Dixon & Lieb
Hypsiglena torquata tanzeri Tanner 1981

Remarks: Regarded as a subspecies of torquata by Tanner (1981), however, some authors (e.g., Dixon & Dean 1986, Liner 1993) continued regarding it as a valid species. Revalidated as a separate species by Mulcahy (2008). Not mentioned for Queretaro by Cruz-Elizalde, Ramírez-Bautista, Hernández-Salinas, Berriozabal-Islas & Wilson (2019).
Distribution: Mexico (Guanajuato, Hidalgo, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas).

Hypsiglena torquata

Sinaloan Night Snake, (Collared Night Snake, Common Night Snake)



1860 Leptodeira torquata Günther
Hypsiglena torquata Boulenger 1894
1871 Comastes quincunciatus Jan (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Remarks: Previously included affinis, chlorophaea, gularis, janii, ochrorhyncha, and tanzeri. Not mentioned for Chihuahua by Lemos-Espinal, Smith, Woolrich-Piña & Cruz (2017). Records from Costa Rica refer to Leptodeira septentrionalis (Savage & Bolaños 2009). Presence in Sonora needs confirmation, although reported by Lemos-Espinal & Smith (2007). Listed as likely to occur in the state by Lemos-Espinal, Smith & Rorabaugh (2019).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Magdalena)], Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa).

Hypsiglena unaocularis

Revillagigedo Islands Night Snake



1944 Hypsiglena torquata unaocularis Tanner
Hypsiglena ochrorhyncha unaocularis Liner 2007
Hypsiglena unaocularis Mulcahy, Martínez-Gómez, Aguirre-León, Cervantes-Pasqualli & Zug 2014

Distribution: Mexico (Colima: Revillagigedo Islands: Clarion).