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© Rune Midtgaard

Taxonomy of the family Anguidae
Bibliography of the genus Celestus
Biodiversity of the family Anguidae


Lesser Galliwasps

Kleine Ringelschleichen


1839 Celestus Gray (type species: Diploglossus striatus Gray 1845)
1852 Sauresia Gray (type species: Sauresia sepsoides Gray 1852; syn. Powell & Henderson 1996)
1860 Siderolamprus Cope (type species: Siderolamprus enneagrammus Cope 1860; syn. Savage & Lips 1994)
1861 Panolopus Cope (type species: Panolopus costatus Cope 1861; syn. Schwartz & Henderson 1991)
1863 Embryopus Weinland (type species: Embryopus habichii Weinland 1863; syn. Cochran 1941*)
1901 Macrogongylus Werner (type species: Macrogongylus brauni Werner 1901; syn. Boulenger 1901)
1927 Wetmorena Cochran (type species: Wetmorena haetiana Cochran 1927; syn. Powell & Henderson 1996)
Contents: 27 species, of which 24 (88.9%) are endemic. In addition to this, 4 species (anelpistus, microblepharis, molesworthi, occiduus) are considered extinct, all of which were endemic.
Remarks: Some authors regard Celestus as a synonym of Diploglossus (see remarks under Diploglossus). The nominal genus Sauresia has been treated variously as a valid genus (e.g., Strahm & Schwarz 1977) or as a synonym of either Celestus (e.g., Hedges 1996) or Diploglossus (e.g., Underwood 1959*). The phylogeny of Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens (2013) indicated non-monophyly with respect to Diploglossus and Ophiodes.
Distribution: S. Mexico, Central America, West Indies.
Reported from: Belize, Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Little Cayman), Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Haiti (incl. Grande Cayemite, Ile de la Gonâve, Île-à-Vache), Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Veracruz), Navassa, Nicaragua, Panama.

Celestus adercus

Panamanian Galliwasp

Panamaische Ringelschleiche

Panamansk Ringøgle

2008 Celestus adercus Savage, Lips & Ibañez-D.

Distribution: Panama.

Celestus agasepsoides

Serpentine Four-toed Galliwasp



1971 Diploglossus agasepsoides Thomas
Sauresia agasepsoides Strahm & Schwartz 1977
Celestus agasepsoides Hedges 1996

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Celestus anelpistus (extinct)

Altagracia Giant Galliwasp



1979 Diploglossus anelpistus Schwartz, Graham & Duval
Celestus anelpistus Savage & Lips 1994
Celestus warreni anelpistus Hallermann & Böhme 2002

Remarks: Considered extinct (Powell & Henderson [eds.] 2012). Regarded as a subspecies of warreni by Hallermann & Böhme (2002), but Powell & Henderson (2003) disagreed, retaining anelpistus as a separate species.
Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Celestus badius

Navassa Galliwasp



1868 Celestus badius Cope
Diploglossus costatus badius Schwartz 1964
Diploglossus badius Wermuth 1969
Celestus costatus badius Schwartz & Henderson 1988

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Powell (1999).
Distribution: Navassa.

Celestus barbouri

Limestone Forest Galliwasp



1940 Celestus barbouri Grant
Diploglossus barbouri Wermuth 1969

Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus bivittatus

Two-striped Lesser Galliwasp


Tostribet Ringøgle

1895 Diploglossus bivittatus Boulenger
Celestus bivittatus Wilson, Porras & McCranie 1986

Remarks: Previously included atitlanensis.
Distribution: Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua.

Celestus costatus

Hispaniolan Smooth Galliwasp, Haitian Galliwasp

Hispaniolische Glatt-Ringelschleiche

Hispaniolansk Glat Ringøgle

1861 Panolopus costatus Cope
Diploglossus costatus Garman 1887
Celestus costatus Barbour 1937
1868 Celestus phoxinus Cope (Cochran 1941)
Diploglossus phoxinus Boulenger 1885
1886 Diploglossus ohlendorffii Fischer (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1898 Diploglossus nuchalis Boulenger (Cochran 1941)
1964 Diploglossus costatus chalcorhabdus Schwartz
Celestus costatus chalcorhabdus Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus costatus leionotus Schwartz
Celestus costatus leionotus Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus costatus melanochrous Schwartz
Celestus costatus melanochrous Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus costatus neiba Schwartz
Celestus costatus neiba Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus costatus nesobous Schwartz
Celestus costatus nesobous Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus costatus oreistes Schwartz
Celestus costatus oreistes Franz & Cordier 1986
1964 Diploglossus costatus psychonothes Schwartz
Celestus costatus psychonothes Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1971 Diploglossus costatus emys Schwartz
Celestus costatus emys Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1971 Diploglossus costatus saonae Schwartz
Celestus costatus saonae Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1989 Celestus costatus aenetergum Schwartz & Jacobs

Remarks: Previously included badius (e.g., Schwartz & Henderson 1988).
Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti (incl. Île-à-Vache).

Celestus crusculus

Jamaican Galliwasp

Gewöhnliche Jamaika-Ringelschleiche

Almindelig Jamaica-ringøgle

1887 Diploglossus crusculus Garman
Celestus crusculus Barbour 1914
1900 Diploglossus bakeri Boulenger (Barbour 1910)
1940 Diploglossus crusculus cundalli Grant
Celestus crusculus cundalli Grant 1951

Remarks: Previously included maculatus and molesworthy.
Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus curtissi

Hispaniolan Khaki Galliwasp

Hispaniolische Khaki-Ringelschleiche


1951 Celestus curtissi Grant
Diploglossus curtissi Schwartz 1964
1964 Diploglossus curtissi aporus Schwartz
Celestus curtissi aporus Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus curtissi diastatus Schwartz
Celestus curtissi diastatus Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus curtissi hylonomus Schwartz
Celestus curtissi hylonomus Schwartz & Henderson 1988

Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti (incl. Ile de la Gonâve).

Celestus cyanochloris

Irazú Galliwasp



1894 Celestus cyanochloris Cope
Diploglossus cyanochloris Wermuth 1969

Distribution: Costa Rica.

Celestus darlingtoni

Hispaniolan Striped Galliwasp

Hispaniolische Streifen-Ringelschleiche

Hispaniolansk Stribet Ringøgle

1939 Celestus darlingtoni Cochran
Diploglossus darlingtoni Wermuth 1969

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Celestus duquesneyi

Blue-tailed Galliwasp


Blåhalet Ringøgle

1940 Celestus duquesneyi Grant
Diploglossus duquesneyi Wermuth 1969

Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus enneagrammus

Huasteca Lesser Galliwasp, Mexican False Skink



1860 Siderolamprus enneagrammus Cope
Celestus enneagrammus Cope 1887
Diploglossus enneagrammus Wermuth 1969
1864 Diploglossus steindachneri Cope (Smith & Taylor 1950)
1866 Diploglossus chalybaeus Cope (Smith & Taylor 1950)

Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz).

Celestus fowleri

Bromeliad Galliwasp



1971 Diploglossus fowleri Schwartz
Celestus fowleri Strahm & Schwartz 1977

Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus haetianus

Earless Galliwasp


Øreløs Ringøgle

1927 Wetmorena haetiana Cochran
Celestus haetianus Hedges, Hass & Maxson 1992
1965 Wetmorena haetiana mylica Schwartz
Celestus haetianus mylicus Hedges, Hass & Maxson 1992 (by implication)
1965 Wetmorena haetiana surda Schwartz
Celestus haetianus surdus Hedges, Hass & Maxson 1992 (by implication)

Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti.

Celestus hewardii

Red-spotted Galliwasp

Rotgefleckte Ringelschleiche

Rødplettet Ringøgle

1845 Celestus hewardii Gray
Diploglossus hewardii Boulenger 1885
Celestus occiduus hewardii Grant 1951
Celestus hewardii Savage & Lips 1994
1868 Celestus impressus Cope (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Diploglossus impressus Boulenger 1885
1874 Diploglossus variegatus Peters (Boulenger 1885)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of occiduus (e.g., Wermuth 1969).
Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus hylaius

Rainforest Galliwasp, Rainforest Celestus



1994 Celestus hylaius Savage & Lips

Distribution: Costa Rica.

Celestus laf

Chiriqui Galliwasp



2016 Celestus laf Lotzkat, Hertz & Köhler

Distribution: Panama.

Celestus macrotus

La Selle Galliwasp

La Selle-Ringelschleiche

La Selle-ringøgle

1989 Celestus macrotus Thomas & Hedges

Distribution: Haiti.

Celestus maculatus

Lesser Cayman Galliwasp



1888 Diploglossus maculatus Garman
Celestus maculatus Barbour 1914
Celestus crusculus maculatus Cousens 1956

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of crusculus (e.g., Schwartz & Henderson 1988). Revalidated by Henderson & Powell (2009), although without discussion, followed by Edgar (2010).
Distribution: Cayman Islands (Cayman Brac, Little Cayman).

Celestus marcanoi

Pico Duarte Galliwasp

Pico Duarte-Ringelschleiche

Pico Duarte-ringøgle

1976 Diploglossus marcanoi Schwartz & Inchaustegui
Celestus marcanoi Strahm & Schwartz 1977

Distribution: Dominican Republic.

Celestus microblepharis (extinct)

Small-eyed Galliwasp


Småøjet Ringøgle

1959 Diploglossus microblepharis Underwood
Celestus microblepharis Strahm & Schwartz 1977

Remarks: Considered extinct (Powell & Henderson [eds.] 2012).
Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus molesworthi (extinct)

Portland Coast Galliwasp

Nordöstliche Jamaika-Ringelschleiche

Nordøstlig Jamaica-ringøgle

1940 Diploglossus crusculus molesworthi Grant
Celestus crusculus molesworthi Grant 1951
Celestus molesworthi Henderson & Powell 2009

Remarks: Considered extinct (Powell & Henderson [eds.] 2012). Previously regarded as a subspecies of crusculus. Treated as a separate species by Henderson & Powell (2009), although without discussion.
Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus montanus

Mountain Lesser Galliwasp

Zentralamerikanische Gebirgs-Ringelschleiche

Lille Bjerg-ringøgle

1933 Celestus montanus Schmidt
Diploglossus montanus Wermuth 1969

Distribution: Guatemala, Honduras.

Celestus occiduus (extinct)

Jamaican Giant Galliwasp

Große Jamaika-Ringelschleiche

Jamaicansk Kæmperingøgle

1802 Lacerta occidua Shaw
Celestus occiduus Gray 1845
Diploglossus occiduus Boulenger 1885
1802 Scincus gallivasp Daudin (Boulenger 1885)
1820 Scincus fossor Merrem (Boulenger 1885)
1839 Diploglossus shawii Duméril & Bibron [substitute name for Lacerta occidua Shaw 1802] (Wermuth 1969)
1839 Diploglossus striatus Gray (Wermuth 1969)
1839 Diploglossus cliftii Duméril & Bibron (Wermuth 1969)
1845 Celestus macrolepis Gray (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
1845 Scincus galliwasp Gray [substitute name for Scincus gallivasp Daudin 1802] (Wermuth 1969)
1901 Macrogongylus brauni Werner (Boulenger 1901)

Remarks: Considered extinct (Schwartz & Henderson 1991; Powell & Henderson [eds.] 2012).
Distribution: Jamaica.

Celestus orobius

Hortensia Galliwasp



1994 Celestus orobius Savage & Lips

Distribution: Costa Rica.

Celestus rozellae

Palenque Galliwasp, (Rozella's Lesser Galliwasp, Rozella's Canopy Lizard)



1942 Celestus rozellae Smith
Diploglossus rozellae Wermuth 1969

Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Veracruz).

Celestus scansorius

Yoro Galliwasp



1996 Celestus scansorius McCranie & Wilson
Diploglossus scansorius McCranie 2015

Distribution: Honduras.

Celestus sepsoides

Hispaniolan Four-toed Galliwasp

Hispaniolische Vierzehen-Ringelschleiche

Hispaniolansk Firtået Ringøgle

1852 Sauresia sepsoides Gray
Diploglossus sepsoides Underwood 1959
Celestus sepsoides Hedges 1996
1863 Embryopus habichii Weinland 1863 (Cochran 1941)
1885 Sauresia sepoides Boulenger [substitute name for Sauresia sepsoides Gray 1852] (Wermuth 1969)

Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti (incl. Grande Cayemite, Ile de la Gonâve).

Celestus stenurus

Hispaniolan Keeled Galliwasp

Hispaniolische Kiel-Ringelschleiche

Hispaniolansk Kølet Ringøgle

1862 Diploglossus stenurus Cope
Celestus stenurus Savage & Lips 1994
1868 Celestus weinlandii Cope (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Diploglossus stenurus weinlandii Schwartz 1964
Celestus stenurus weinlandii Franz & Cordier 1986
1879 Celestus rugosus Cope (Schwartz & Henderson 1988)
Diploglossus rugosus Boulenger 1885
Diploglossus stenurus rugosus Schwartz 1964
Celestus stenurus rugosus Schwartz & Henderson 1988
1964 Diploglossus stenurus alloeides Schwartz
Celestus stenurus alloeides Schwartz & Henderson 1988

Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti (incl. Grande Cayemite, Île-à-Vache).

Celestus warreni

Hispaniolan Giant Galliwasp, Haitian Giant Galliwasp

Hispaniolische Riesen-Ringelschleiche

Hispaniolansk Kæmperingøgle

1970 Diploglossus warreni Schwartz
Celestus warreni Savage & Lips 1994
1985 Diploglossus carraui Inchaustegui, Schwartz & Henderson (Hallermann & Böhme 2002; Powell & Henderson 2003)
Celestus carraui Savage & Lips 1994
Celestus warreni carraui Hallermann & Böhme 2002

Remarks: Previously included anelpistus. Hallermann & Böhme (2002) regarded carraui as a subspecies of warreni, Powell & Henderson (2003) as a synonym.
Distribution: Dominican Republic, Haiti.