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Taxonomy of the family Teiidae
Bibliography of the genus Cnemidophorus
Biodiversity of the family Teiidae








Genus
Cnemidophorus

Southern Whiptails, Southern Racerunners, South American Whiptails

Südliche Rennechsen

Sydlige Piskehaletejuer*, Sydlige Væddeløbere

1830 Cnemidophorus Wagler (type species: Seps murinus Laurenti 1768)
Contents: 19 species, of which 14 (73.7%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included the species now placed in Ameivula, Aspidoscelis, Aurivela, and Contomastix.
Distribution: Central America, N. South America, West Indies.
Reported from: Aruba, Bonaire, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Roraima), Colombia (incl. Providencia, San Andres], Curacao, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Roatan, Utila], Islas del Cisne), Nicaragua, Panama, Saint Lucia (incl. Maria Islands), Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela (incl. Blanquilla, Los Frailes, Margarita, Tortuga).

Cnemidophorus arenivagus

Green Rainbow Whiptail*

Grüne Rennechse*

Grøn Piskehaleteju*

1997 Cnemidophorus arenivagus Markezich, Cole & Dessauer

Remarks: Markezich, Cole & Dessauer (1997) suspected records from Aruba (e.g., Lammeree 1970; Schall 1973) to refer to arenivagus, however, that species was not included for the island by Buurt (2005, 2006), who instead confirmed lemniscatus in the island as an introduced species.
Distribution: Colombia, Venezuela.


Cnemidophorus arubensis

Aruba Whiptail

Aruba-Rennechse*

Aruba-piskehaleteju*

1887 Cnemidophorus arubensis Van Lidth
Cnemidophorus murinus arubensis Burt 1931
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus arubensis Hummelinck 1940

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Schall (1973).
Distribution: Aruba.


Cnemidophorus cryptus

Bolivar Whiptail*, Cryptic Whiptail

Bolivar-Rennechse*

Bolivar-piskehaleteju*

1993 Cnemidophorus cryptus Cole & Dessauer

Remarks: A unisexual species of hybrid origin (Ugueto, Harvey & Rivas 2009).
Introduced to: Brazil (Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro).
Distribution: Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Para, Rondonia), French Guiana, Surinam, Venezuela.


Cnemidophorus duellmani

Panamanian Rainbow Whiptail*

Panamaische-Rennechse*

Panamansk Piskehaleteju*

2013 Cnemidophorus duellmani McCranie & Hedges

Distribution: Panama.


Cnemidophorus espeuti

Providencia Rainbow Whiptail*

Providencia-Rennechse*

Providencia-piskehaleteju*

1885 Cnemidophorus espeuti Boulenger
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus espeuti Harvey, Ugueto & Gutberlet 2012

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies or synonym of lemniscatus (e.g., Maslin & Secoy 1986). Revalidated as a separate species by McCranie & Hedges (2013). Not listed by Goicoechea, Frost, Riva, Pellegrino, Sites, Rodrigues & Padial (2016).
Distribution: Colombia (Providencia, San Andres).


Cnemidophorus flavissimus

Yellow Whiptail*

Gelbe Rennechse*

Gul Piskehaleteju*

2009 Cnemidophorus flavissimus Ugueto, Harvey & Rivas

Distribution: Venezuela (Los Frailes).


Cnemidophorus gaigei

Colombian Rainbow Whiptail*

Kolumbianische Rennechse*

Colombiansk Piskehaleteju*

1915 Cnemidophorus lemniscatus gaigei Ruthven
Cnemidophorus gaigei McCranie & Hedges 2013

Distribution: Colombia.


Cnemidophorus gramivagus

Llanos Whiptail*

Llanos-Rennechse*

Llanos-piskehaleteju*

1987 Cnemidophorus gramivagus McCrystal & Dixon

Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas), Colombia, Venezuela.


Cnemidophorus lemniscatus

Rainbow Whiptail, Dotted Whiptail, Strand Whiptail, Striped Jungle Runner, Strand Racerunner, Tropical Racerunner, Beach Racerunner

Südliche Tüpfel-Rennechse*

Sydlig Regnbue-piskehaleteju*

1758 Lacerta lemniscata Linnaeus
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus Duméril & Bibron 1839
1802 Lacerta coeruleo-cephala Sonnini & Latreille (Maslin & Secoy 1986)
1825 Teius cyanomelas Wied (Maslin & Secoy 1986)
1845 Cnemidophorus scutata Gray (Markezich, Cole & Dessauer 1997)

Remarks: Previously included arubensis, espeuti, gaigei, nigricolor, ruatanus, and splendidus, as well as populations now assigned to arenivagus, cryptus, duellmani, flavissimus, gramivagus, leucopsammus, pseudolemniscatus, rostralis, and senectus. Records of lemniscatus from Central America and some from Colombia, Venezuela and coastal islands refer to these species. Due to uncertainty in the identification of some populations in the lemniscatus complex (lemniscatus, cryptus, gramivagus, pseudolemniscatus), the distribution listed below should be regarded as tentative, since part of it may refer to other species than lemniscatus in the strict sense. The list includes all Avila-Pires's (1995) records of the lemniscatus complex. Markezich, Cole & Dessauer (1997) suspected records from Aruba (e.g., Lammeree 1970; Schall 1973) to refer to arenivagus, however, that species was not included for the island by Buurt (2005, 2006), who instead confirmed lemniscatus in the island as an introduced species. Records from the Venezuelan islands Coche, Cubagua, Los Frailes, and Margarita (e.g., Hummelinck 1940; Maslin & Secoy 1986; Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970; Rivas-Fuenmayor, Ugueto, Rivero & Miralles 2005) have recently been described as two new species, flavissimus and senectus, thus restricting lemniscatus to the Venezuelan mainland, although the status of the population in the Los Testigos Archipelago is unresolved (Ugueto, Harvey & Rivas 2009).
Introduced to: Aruba, Brazil (Minas Gerais), USA (Florida).
Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Roraima), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela.


Cnemidophorus leucopsammus

Blanquilla Whiptail*

Blanquilla-Rennechse*

Blanquilla-piskehaleteju*

2010 Cnemidophorus leucopsammus Ugueto & Harvey

Distribution: Venezuela (Blanquilla).


Cnemidophorus murinus

Curacao Whiptail

Curacao-Rennechse*

Curacao-piskehaleteju*

1768 Seps murinus Laurenti
Cnemidophorus murinus Wagler 1830
1838 Ameiva guttata Gray [not Cnemidophorus guttatus Wiegmann 1834] (Maslin & Secoy 1986)
1899 Cnemidophorus minimus Cope [lapsus for murinus] (Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970)

Remarks: Previously included ruthveni. Records from Bonaire and Klein Bonaire refer to ruthveni.
Distribution: Curacao.


Cnemidophorus nigricolor

Black Whiptail*

Schwarze Rennechse*

Sort Piskehaleteju*

1873 Cnemidophorus nigricolor Peters
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus nigricolor Burt 1931

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Sites, Peccinini-Seale, Moritz, Wright & Brown (1990). Although previously recorded from Margarita (e.g., Maslin & Secoy 1986), the species does not occur there (Rivas-Fuenmayor, Ugueto, Rivero & Miralles 2005).
Distribution: Venezuela.


Cnemidophorus pseudolemniscatus

Surinam Whiptail*

Surinam-Rennechse*

Surinam-piskehaleteju*

1993 Cnemidophorus pseudolemniscatus Cole & Dessauer

Remarks: A unisexual species of hybrid origin (Ugueto, Harvey & Rivas 2009).
Distribution: Surinam.


Cnemidophorus rostralis

Tortuga Whiptail*

Tortuga-Rennechse*

Tortuga-piskehaleteju*

2010 Cnemidophorus rostralis Ugueto & Harvey

Distribution: Venezuela (Tortuga).


Cnemidophorus ruatanus

Northern Rainbow Whiptail*

Nördliche Tüpfel-Rennechse*

Nordlig Regnbue-piskehaleteju*

1928 Cnemidophorus ruatanus Barbour
Cnemidophorus lemniscatus ruatanus Maslin & Secoy 1986

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies or synonym of lemniscatus (e.g., Maslin & Secoy 1986). Revalidated as a separate species by McCranie & Hedges (2013). The presence of ruatanus in Belize may represent either a recent range expansion or an introduction (McCranie & Hedges 2013).
Introduced to: Belize.
Distribution: Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Roatan, Utila], Islas del Cisne), Nicaragua.


Cnemidophorus ruthveni

Bonaire Whiptail

Bonaire-Rennechse*

Bonaire-piskehaleteju*

1935 Cnemidophorus murinus ruthveni Burt
Cnemidophorus ruthveni Ugueto & Harvey 2010

Distribution: Bonaire.


Cnemidophorus senectus

Grey-headed Whiptail

Graukopf-Rennechse*

Gråhovedet Piskehaleteju*

2009 Cnemidophorus senectus Ugueto, Harvey & Rivas

Distribution: Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita).


Cnemidophorus splendidus

Blue Rainbow Whiptail*

Blaue Rennechse*

Blå Piskehaleteju*

1997 Cnemidophorus lemniscatus splendidus Markezich, Cole & Dessauer
Cnemidophorus splendidus McCranie & Hedges 2013

Distribution: Venezuela.


Cnemidophorus vanzoi

Maria Islands Whiptail

Saint Lucia-Rennechse*

Saint Lucia-piskehaleteju*

1966 Ameiva vanzoi Baskin & Williams
Cnemidophorus vanzoi Presch 1971

Introduced to: Saint Lucia (Praslin Island).
Distribution: Saint Lucia (Maria Islands [Maria Major, Maria Minor]).