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Taxonomy of the genus Philodryas Biodiversity of the family Colubridae

Bibliography of the genus
Philodryas (South American Bush Racers)

(Reptilia: Serpentes: Colubridae)

Note: In order to limit redundancy, relevant literature indexed in the related bibliographies in the left column may not have been included in this page. For a comprehensive search of literature, these bibliographies should therefore also be consulted.


Philodryas in general

Amaral, A. do 1923. New genera and species of snakes. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 8: 85-105.

Cadle, J.E. 1984. Molecular systematics of Neotropical xenodontine snakes. 1. South American xenodontines. Herpetologica 40(1): 8-20.

Dowling, H.G. 1969. The hemipenis of Philodryas Gunther: a correction (Serpentes, Colubridae). American Museum Novitates 2375: 1-6.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G. 1994. A study of sexual dimorphism in six species from the colubrid snake genus Philodryas. The Snake 26(2): 117-122.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G. 1994. Activity patterns in the colubrid snake genus Philodryas and their relationship to reproduction and snakebite. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 29(10): 229-232.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G. 1995. A new technique to distinguish between immature and adult snakes and between males and females in six species of the Neotropical colubrid snakes Philodryas. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment 30(3): 149-157.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G.; Santos-Jordao, R. dos 1998. A description of the female reproductive cycle in four species from the Neotropical colubrid snake Philodryas (Colubridae, Xenodontinae). The Snake 28(1-2): 71-78.

Grazziotin, F.G.; Zaher, H.; Murphy, R.W.; Scrocchi, G.J.; Benavides, M.A.; Zhang, Y.P.; Bonatto, S.L. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics 28(5): 437-459.

Hohmeister, A. 1999. Bemerkungen zur Biologie und Pflege südamerikanischer Strauchnattern der Gattung Philodryas Wagler, 1830 im Terrarium. Sauria (Berlin) 21(2): 9-21.

Junqueira, L.C.U. 1944. Nota sobre a morfologia das adrenais dos ofdios. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 4(1): 63-67.

Lobo, F.; Scrocchi, G. 1994. Osteologia craneal del genero Philodryas (Serpentes: Colubridae). Cuadernos de Herpetologia 8(1): 104-111.

Machado, S.R. 1993. A new genus of Amazonian vine snake. Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 15(2): 99-108.

Orejas-Miranda, B.R. 1961. El genero Philodryas en el Uruguay. Actas y Trabajos del Primer Congreso Sudamericano de Zoologia (La Plata, 12.-24.10.1959) 4: 103-112.

Smith, M.A. 1928. The status of some recently described genera and species of snakes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 10) 1: 494-497.

Thomas, R.A. 1976. A revision of the South American colubrid snake genus Philodryas Wagler, 1930. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 324 pp.

Thomas, R.A. 1977. A new generic arrangement for Incaspis and mainland South American Alsophis and the status of two additional Peruvian species. Copeia 1977(4): 648-652.

Vitt, L.J. 1980. Ecological observations on sympatric Philodryas (Colubridae) in northeastern Brazil. Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia (Sao Paulo) 34(5): 87-98.

Werner, F. 1903. Über Reptilien und Batrachier aus Guatemala und China in der zoologischen Staats-Sammlung in München, nebst einem Anhang über seltene Formen aus anderen Gebieten. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 22(2): 343-384.

Philodryas aestiva

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Argôlo, A.J.S.; Freitas, M.A. de 2002. Geographic distribution: Philodryas aestivus (Common Green Racer). Herpetological Review 33(3): 229.

Avila, L.J. 1996. Geographic distribution: Philodryas aestivus subcarinatus (Brazilian Green Racer). Herpetological Review 27(3): 154.

Banci, K.R.S.; Souza Cunha, A.L.; Marques, O.A.V. 2018. Natural history notes: Philodryas aestiva (Brazilian Green Racer). Habitat use and defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 49(1): 137-138.

Barrio, A.; Laurent, R.F.; Thomas, R.A. 1977. The status of Philodryas subcarinatus Boulenger (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 11(2): 230-231.

Celsi, C.E.; Monserrat, A.L.; Kacoliris, F.P. 2008. Reptilia, Colubridae, Philodryas aestivus: distribution extension. Check List 4(1): 12-14.

Corbella, C.E. 1989. Nueva localidad para Philodryas aestivus subcarinatus Boulenger, 1902 (Reptilia: Colubridae). Boletin Asociacion Herpetologica Argentina 5(1-2): 11-12.

D'Agostini, F.M. 1998. Variacao da folidose de Philodryas aestivus (Dumeril, Bibron et Dumeril, 1854) e a invalidacao das subespecies (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae, Philodryadini). Biociencias 6(1): 169-182.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G.; Santos-Jordao, R. dos 1998. A description of the female reproductive cycle in four species from the Neotropical colubrid snake Philodryas (Colubridae, Xenodontinae). The Snake 28(1-2): 71-78.

Huertas, M.D. 1982. Despliegue defensivo-ofensivo cefalico en Philodryas aestivus subcarinatus (Serpentes, Colubridae). Contribuciones en Biologia Centro Educativo Don Orione 3: 7-12.

Johnson, M.L. 1952. Herpetological notes from northeastern Brazil. Copeia 1952: 283-284.

Orejas-Miranda, B.R. 1959. Una nueva subespecie del genero Philodryas del Uruguay. Comunicaciones Zoologicas del Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo 4(82): 1-3.

Smith, M.A. 1928. The status of some recently described genera and species of snakes. Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Ser. 10) 1: 494-497.

Williams, J.D.; Wichmann, S.I. 1989. Nueva localidad para Anops kingii Bell (Reptilia: Amphisbaenidae) y Phylodrias aestivus (Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril) (Reptilia: Colubridae) en el este de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Boletin Asociacion Herpetologica Argentina 5(1-2): 12-13.

Philodryas agassizii

Carvalho-Junior, R.R. de; Schettino Canelas, M.A.; Cordeiro-Malta, M.C. 2006. Natural history notes: Pseudablabes agassizii (Burrowing Night Snake). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 37(3): 354-355.

Etchepare, E.G.; Rosario, I.M. del 2008. Pseudablabes agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Serpentes: Colubridae). Primer registro para la provincia de Corrientes (Republica Argentina). Cuadernos de Herpetologia 22(1): 51.

Hamdan, B.S.; Lira da Silva, R.M. 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48(1): 31-50.

Kiefer, M.C. 1998. Geographic distribution: Pseudablabes agassizii. Herpetological Review 29(1): 54.

Marques, O.A.V.; Sawaya, R.J.; Stender-Oliveira, F.; Franca, F.G.R. 2006. Ecology of the colubrid snake Pseudablabes agassizii in south-eastern South America. Herpetological Journal 16(1): 37-45.

Pérez, C.H.F.; Morando, M.; Ávila, L.J. 2012. Philodryas agassizi (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae): distribution extension. Check List 8(1): 143-144.

Pietro, D.O. di; Christie, M.I.; Williams, J.D. 2013. Nuevos registros de Philodryas agassizii (Serpentes: Dipsadidae: Xenodontinae) en la Argentina. Cuadernos de Herpetologia 27(1-2): 59-62.

Souza Filho, G.A. de; Plombon, L.L. 2014. Rediscovery and geographic distribution of Philodryas agassizii (Jan, 1863) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) in the state of Parana, southern Brazil. Biotemas 27(1): 155-158.

Winck, G.R.; Santos, T.G. dos; Cechin, S.Z. 2007. Snake assemblage in a disturbed grassland environment in Rio Grande do Sul State, southern Brazil: population fluctuations of Liophis poecilogyrus and Pseudablabes agassizii. Annales Zoologici Fennici 44(5): 321-332.

Philodryas amaru

Zaher, H.; Arredondo, J.C.; Valencia, J.H.; Arbeláez, E.; Rodrigues, M.T.; Altamirano-Benavides, M. 2014. A new Andean species of Philodryas (Dipsadidae, Xenodontinae) from Ecuador. Zootaxa 3785(3): 469–480.

Philodryas argenteus

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Cisneros-Heredia, D.F.; Touzet, J.M. 2007. Ecuadorian distribution of snakes of the genera Oxybelis Wagler, 1830 and Xenoxybelis Machado, 1993. Herpetozoa 19(3-4): 188-189.

Menin, M. 2005. Natural history notes: Bufo proboscideus (NCN). Predation. Herpetological Review 36(3): 299.

Procter, J.B. 1924. Unrecorded characters seen in living snakes and description of a new tree-frog. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1924: 1125-1129.

Rodrigues, G.M.; Maschio, G.F.; Prudente, A.L.C. 2016. Snake assemblages of Marajo Island, Para state, Brazil. Zoologia 33(1): e20150020.

Philodryas arnaldoi

Amaral, A. do 1932. Contribuição ao conhecimento dos ophidios do Brasil. V. Uma nova raca de Bothrops neuwiedi. VI. Uma nova espécie de colubrideo opisthoglypho, do gênero Chlorosoma Wagler, 1930. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 7: 97-101.

Lema, T. de 1962. Ocorrencia de Philodryas arnaldoi (Amaral, 1932) no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia (Zoologia) 22: 1-4.

Philodryas baroni

Arzamendia, V. 1999. Geographic distribution: Philodryas baroni (Baron's Racer). Herpetological Review 30(1): 55.

Berg, C. 1895. Dos reptiles nuevos. An. Mus. Buenos Aires 4: 189-194.

Berkunsky, I.; Kacoliris, F.P.; Faegre, S.I.K.; Ruggera, R.A.; Carrera, J.; Aramburu, R.M. 2011. Nest predation by arboreal snakes on cavity-nesting birds in dry chaco woodlands. Ornitologia Neotropical 22(3): 459-464.

Golder, F. 1973. Eine ungewöhnliche Eiablage der braunen Farbvariante von Philodryas baroni, sowie Daten über eine Eiablage von Philodryas olfersii. Salamandra 9(1): 22-26.

Halloy, M.; Scrocchi, G. 2003. Natural history notes: Philodryas baroni (Green Snake). Courtship behavior. Herpetological Review 34(2): 153.

Kuch, U.; Jesberger, U. 1993. Human envenomation from the bite of the South American colubrid snake species Philodryas baroni Berg, 1895. The Snake 25(1): 63-65.

Martinez, M.D.; Ibargüengoytía, N.R. 2004. Care and breeding of Baron's Green Racer Philodryas baroni. Reptilia (GB) 32: 35-38.

Serie, P. 1915. Description d'une variete de Philodryas baroni Berg. Ann. Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 26: 227-230.

Werner, F. 1903. Über Reptilien und Batrachier aus Guatemala und China in der zoologischen Staats-Sammlung in München, nebst einem Anhang über seltene Formen aus anderen Gebieten. Abhandlungen der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften 22(2): 343-384.

Williams, J.D. 1982. Observaciones sobre la reproduccion en cautiverio de Philodryas baroni Berg, 1895 (Serpentes Colubridae). Neotropica (La Plata) 28(79): 61-70.

Philodryas boliviana

Amaral, A. do 1926. Notas de ophiologia. 1a. Nota de ophiologia. Sôbre a invalidez de um gênero e algunas espécies de ophidios sul-americanos. Revista do Museu Paulista (São Paulo) 14: 17-33.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Werner, F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Hamburg Jahrb. wiss. Anst. 26 [1908-1909]: 205-247.

Philodryas chamissonis

Barros, R.D.; Herrera, S.C. 1950. Reptiles de la Provincia de Santiago. Revista de la Academia Colombiana de Ciencias Exactas Fisicas y Naturales 7(28): 482-489.

Blanco, J.P.; Altamirano, T.A.; Rojas, N.; Arellano, E.; Bonacic, C. 2018. Uso de cajas-nidos por la culebra Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann 1835) (Squamata, Dipsadidae) y la lagartija Liolaemus tenuis (Duméril Y Bibron 1837) (Squamata, Liolaemidae) en viñedos de Chile central. Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 5: 29-30.

Bozinovic, F.; Rosenmann, M. 1988. Energetics and food requirements of the female snake Phillodryas chamissonis during the breeding season. Oecologia (Berlin) 5(2): 282-284.

Codoceo, M. 1950. Reptiles de Tarapaca. (Nota preliminar). Invest. Zool. Chilenas 1: 15.

Escobar, M.A.H.; Vukasovic, M.A. 2003. Depredacion de Philodryas chamissonis (Serpentes: Colubridae) sobre polluelos de Aphrasthura [Aphrastura] spinicauda (Passeriformes: Furnariidae): una culebra arboricola? Noticiario Mensual Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (Santiago) 352: 18-20.

Greene, H.W.; Jaksic, F.M. 1992. The feeding behavior and natural history of two Chilean snakes, Philodryas chamissonis and Tachymenis chilensis (Colubridae). Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 65(4): 485-493.

Habit, E.; Ortiz, J.C.; Victoriano, P. 1992. Osteologia craneana de Philodryas chamissonis (Weigmann, 1834) (Colubridae, Serpentes). Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepcion 63: 83-92.

Hoare, M.; Labra, A. 2013. Searching for the audience of the weeping lizard's distress call. Ethology 119(10): 860-868.

Housse, E. 1939. Les couleuvres du Chili. Leur chasse aux petits rongeurs. Nature (Paris) 1939: 38-39.

Jaksic, F.; Nunez, H.; Yanez, J. 1981. Nuevo cambio taxonomico para la culebra de cola larga (Reptilia, Ophidia, Colubridae). MNHN (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural) Noticiario Mensual 293: 12.

Jara, M.; Pincheira-Donoso, D. 2015. The neck flattening defensive behaviour in snakes: first record of hooding in the South American colubrid genus Philodryas. Animal Biology (Leiden) 65(1): 73-79.

Kuch, U. 1999. Notes on two cases of human envenomation by the South America colubrid snakes Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862 and Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann, 1834) (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetozoa 12(1-2): 11-16.

Labra, A.; Hoare, M. 2015. Chemical recognition in a snake-lizard predator-prey system. Acta Ethologica 18(2): 173-179.

Labra, A.; Niemeyer, H.M. 2004. Variability in the assessment of snake predation risk by Liolaemus lizards. Ethology 110(8): 649-662.

Medel, R.G.; Jiminez, J.E.; Fox, S.F.; Jaksic, F.M. 1988. Experimental evidence that high population frequencies of lizard tail autotomy indicate inefficient predation. Oikos 53(3): 321-324.

Muñoz-Leal, S.; Ardiles, K.; Figueroa, R.A.; González-Acuna, D. 2013. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology 73(1): 15-17.

Pflaumer, C. 1945. Un segundo hallazzo de una culebra con dos cabezas, en Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 48: 97-102.

Reyes-Olivares, C.; Sepulveda-Luna, E.; Labra, A. 2017. Natural history notes: Philodryas chamissonis (Chilean Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 48(4): 865-866.

Sallaberry-Pincheira, N.; Garín, C.F.; González-Acuna, D.; Sallaberry, M.A.; Vianna, J.A. 2011. Genetic divergence of Chilean long-tailed snake (Philodryas chamissonis) across latitudes: conservation threats for different lineages. Diversity and Distributions 17(1): 152-162.

Sepulveda, M.; Vidal, M.A.; Farina, J.M. 2006. Natural history notes: Microlophus atacamensis (Atacama Desert Runner). Predation. Herpetological Review 37(2): 224-225.

Torres, F. 2017. Observación de culebra de cola larga, Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann 1835) (Squamata: Dipsadidae) depredando sobre un polluelo de yal (Phrygilus fruticeti). Boletín Chileno de Herpetología 4: 21.

Uribe, S.V.; Estades, C.F. 2014. Reptiles in Monterey pine plantations of the coastal range of Central Chile. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 87: 25.

Philodryas cordata

Donnelly, M.A.; Myers, C.W. 1991. Herpetological results of the 1990 Venezuelan Expedition to the summit of Cerro Guaiquinima, with new tepui reptiles. American Museum Novitates 3017: 1-54.

Philodryas erlandi

Cacciali, P.; Cabral, H.; Ferreira, V.L.; Köhler, G. 2016. Revision of Philodryas mattogrossensis with the revalidation of P. erlandi (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae). Salamandra 52(4): 293-305.

Müller, L. 1928. Herpetologische Mitteilungen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 77: 61-84.

Philodryas georgeboulengeri

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Prudente, A.L.C.; Silva, M.A.A. da; Rocha, W.A. da; Franco, F.L. 2008. Morphological variation in Xenoxybelis boulengeri (Procter, 1923) (Serpentes, Xenodontinae, Philodryadini). Zootaxa 1743: 53-61.

Grazziotin, F.G.; Zaher, H.; Murphy, R.W.; Scrocchi, G.J.; Benavides, M.A.; Zhang, Y.P.; Bonatto, S.L. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the New World Dipsadidae (Serpentes: Colubroidea): a reappraisal. Cladistics 28(5): 437-459.

Keiser, E.D. 1989. Oxybelis boulengeri Procter, a valid species of vine snake from South America. Copeia 1989(3): 764-768.

Philodryas laticeps

Amaral, A. do 1921. Duas novas espécies de Colubrideos opisthoglyphos Brasileiros (Philodryas oligolepis e Apostolepis longicaudata). Anais Paulistas de Medicina e Cirurgia (Sao Paulo) 9: 1-6.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Müller, L. 1928. Herpetologische Mitteilungen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 77: 61-84.

Werner, F. 1900. Beschreibung einiger noch unbekannter neotropischer und indischer Reptilien. Zoologischer Anzeiger 23: 196-198.

Zaher, H.; Scrocchi, G.J.; Masiero, R. 2008. Rediscovery and redescription of the type of Philodryas laticeps Werner, 1900 and the taxonomic status of P. oligolepis Gomes, 1921 (Serpentes, Colubridae). Zootaxa 1940: 25-40.

Philodryas livida

Amaral, A. do 1923. New genera and species of snakes. Proceedings of the New England Zoological Club 8: 85-105.

Thomas, R.A.; Fernandes, R. 1996. The systematic status of Platyinion lividum Amaral, 1923 (Serpentes: Colubridae: Xenodontinae). Herpetologica 52(2): 271-275.

Valdujo, P.H.; Nogueira, C. 1999. Geographic distribution: Philodryas livida. Herpetological Review 30(1): 55.

Philodryas mattogrossensis

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Cacciali, P.; Cabral, H.; Ferreira, V.L.; Köhler, G. 2016. Revision of Philodryas mattogrossensis with the revalidation of P. erlandi (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae). Salamandra 52(4): 293-305.

Müller, L. 1928. Herpetologische Mitteilungen. Zoologischer Anzeiger 77: 61-84.

Schalk, C.M. 2010. Natural history notes: Philodryas mattogrossensis (Two-colored Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 41(3): 372.

Weiler, A.; Núñez, K. 2015. Powerful venom in Philodryas mattogrossensis (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) feeding on a Teius teyou (Sauria: Teiidae). Herpetology Notes 8: 545-547.

Werner, F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Hamburg Jahrb. wiss. Anst. 26 [1908-1909]: 205-247.

Philodryas nattereri

Braga, G.L.; Ribeiro Moura, M.; Peixoto, M.A.; Feio, R.N. 2012. Notes on the diet of Philodryas nattereri (Squamata: Colubridae) in southeastern Brazil. Salamandra 48(4): 233-234.

Dourado de Mesquita, P.C.M.; Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2009. Philodryas nattereri (Paraguay Green Racer): ophiophagy. Herpetological Bulletin 108: 36-37.

Dourado de Mesquita, P.C.M.; Borges-Nojosa, D.M.; Monteiro, F.A.C. 2010. Natural history notes: Philodryas nattereri (Paraguay Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 41(1): 96.

Dourado de Mesquita, P.C.M.; Borges-Nojosa, D.M.; Passos, D.C.; Bezerra, C.H. 2011. Ecology of Philodryas nattereri in the Brazilian semi-arid region. Herpetological Journal 21(3): 193-198.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G.; Santos-Jordao, R. dos 1998. A description of the female reproductive cycle in four species from the Neotropical colubrid snake Philodryas (Colubridae, Xenodontinae). The Snake 28(1-2): 71-78.

Guedes, T.B. 2017. Natural history notes: Philodryas nattereri (Paraguay Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 48(3): 679-680.

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1982. Opinion 1211. Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 (Reptilia, Serpentes): conserved. Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature 39(2): 117-118.

Melo-Araujo, S.C.; Lira Sousa, G. de; Barroso de Andrade, E. 2013. Natural history notes: Philodryas nattereri (Paraguay Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 44(3): 526.

Menezes, L.M.N.; Reis, P.M.; Souza, K. de; Urias, I.C.; Walker, F.M.; Barros Ribeiro, L. 2013. Death of a snake Philodryas nattereri (Squamata: Dipsadidae) after predation on a large-sized lizard Tropidurus hispidus (Squamata: Tropiduridae). Herpetology Notes 6: 55-57.

Nery, M.D.A.; Alves, M.A.O.; Aquino, H.D.; Nery, E.A.; Bezerra, L.B.M.; Ribeiro, R.T.M.; Monteiro, H.S.A. 2015. Karyotype of Philodryas nattereri and Philodryas olfersii with a comparative analysis of the Dipsadidae family. Genetics and Molecular Research 14(2): 6297-6302.

Passos, D.C.; Dourado de Mesquita, P.C.M.; Rocha Brandao, A.L.; Borges-Nojosa, D.M. 2014. Dissimilar ab ovo: sexual dimorphism of Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870 hatchlings and juveniles. Herpetozoa 26(3-4): 178-180.

Smith, P.; Scott, N.J.; Cacciali, P.; Atkinson, K.; Pheasey, H. 2013. Confirmation of the presence of Philodryas nattereri Steindachner, 1870, in Paraguay. Herpetozoa 26(1-2): 91-94.

Sobral, R.; Mendes, D.M.M. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas nattereri (Paraguay Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 47(4): 686-687.

Vitt, L.J.; Vangilder, L.D. 1984. Ecology of a snake community in northeastern Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 4(2-4) [1983]: 273-296.

Philodryas olfersii

Abegg, A.D.; Mario-Darosa, C. 2018. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Defensive behavior. Herpetological Review 49(2): 349-350.

Almeida Gleymerson, V.L. de; Santos, E.M. dos 2011. Notes on a predation event of Passer domesticus (Birds, Passeridae) by Philodryas olfersii (Squamata, Dipsadidae) in an urban area of the Zona da Mata of Pernambuco, Brazil. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Ciencias Naturais 6(3): 351-354.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Araujo, M.E. de; Santos, A.C.M.C.A. dos 1997. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 30(6): 517-519.

Assis, C.L.; Folly, H.S.G.; Guedes, J.J.M.; Dominato, R.; Feio, R.N. 2016. Herpetoculture notes: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Feeding behavior. Herpetological Review 47(3): 411-412.

Avila, R.W.; Ferreira, V.L. 2007. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (NCN). Natural history. Herpetological Review 38(1): 91-92.

Aximoff, I.; Carvalho, S.; Rajäo, H. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 47(1): 152.

Braz, H.B.P.; Teixeira da Rocha, M.M.; Furtado, M.F.D. 2012. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases 18(2): 164-172.

Brongersma, L.D. 1957. On two species of the genus Philodryas (Serpentes) from Surinam. Proceedings ned. Akad. Amst. 60C(4): 458-462.

Carreira, S.; Lombardo, I.; Achaval-Coppes, F. 2012. Nuevos registros de ofidios poco conocidos en Uruguay (Reptilia: Squamata: Serpentes). Boletin de la Sociedad Zoologica del Uruguay Segunda Epoca 21: 70-74.

Cechin, S.Z.; Hartmann, P.A. 2001. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (NCN). Courtship. Herpetological Review 32(3): 187.

Costa, R.N.; Bauer, A.G.; Macedo, I.E.L.; André, A.B.F.; Santos, V.J. 2017. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 48(2): 457-458.

Cunha, F.A.G.; Araújo, C.P. 2018. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 49(1): 138-139.

Dourado de Mesquita, P.C.M.; Passos, D.C.; Rodrigues, J.F.M. 2012. Philodryas olfersii (Squamata, Serpentes, Dipsadidae): nocturnal mating behavior. Herpetologia Brasileira 1(1): 41-42.

Dourado de Mesquita, P.C.M.; Sa-Polidoro, G.L.; Cechin, S.Z. 2013. Reproductive biology of Philodryas olfersii (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) in a subtropical region of Brazil. Herpetological Journal 23(1): 39-44.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G.; Santos-Jordao, R. dos 1998. A description of the female reproductive cycle in four species from the Neotropical colubrid snake Philodryas (Colubridae, Xenodontinae). The Snake 28(1-2): 71-78.

Golder, F. 1973. Eine ungewöhnliche Eiablage der braunen Farbvariante von Philodryas baroni, sowie Daten über eine Eiablage von Philodryas olfersii. Salamandra 9(1): 22-26.

Hartmann, P.A.; Marques, O.A.V. 2005. Diet and habitat use of two sympatric species of Philodryas (Colubridae), in south Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 26(1): 25-31.

Kuch, U. 1999. Notes on two cases of human envenomation by the South America colubrid snakes Philodryas olfersii latirostris Cope, 1862 and Philodryas chamissonis (Wiegmann, 1834) (Squamata: Serpentes: Colubridae). Herpetozoa 12(1-2): 11-16.

Lauvers, W.D.; Koski, D.A.; Mônico, A.T. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (Cobra-cipó; Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 47(4): 687.

Leite, P.T.; Kaefer, I.L.; Cechin, S.Z. 2009. Diet of Philodryas olfersii (Serpentes, Colubridae) during hydroelectric dam flooding in southern Brazil. North-Western Journal of Zoology 5(1): 53-60.

Marques, R.; Tinoco, M.S.; Browne-Ribeiro, H.C.; Coelho, H.E.A.; Travassos, M.L.O. 2012. Philodryas olfersii predation by Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae) in the restinga ecosystem, north coast of Bahia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 5: 315-317.

Melani, E. 2008. Philodryas olfersii captive care and breeding. Reptilia (GB) 60: 48-53.

Molina, F.B.; Rocha, M.B. da 1996. Observacoes sobre a biologia reprodutiva de Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823) em cativeiro (Ophidia, Colubridae). pp. 185-199. In: Pefaur, J.E. (ed.). Herpetologia Neotropical. Actas del II Congreso Latinoamericano de Herpetologia. II volumen. Universidad de los Andes, Consejo de Publicaciones, Merida. 451 pp.

Morton, G.F.; Gouveia, R.V. de; Neto-Silva, D.A.; Novell, I.A. 2012. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 43(2): 349.

Natera-Mumaw, M.; Manzanilla, J. 2001. Nuevos registros geograficos y notas bioecologicas de Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein, 1823) (Serpentes: Colubridae) en Venezuela. Memoria de la Fundacion la Salle de Ciencias Naturales 60(153): 51-59.

Nery, M.D.A.; Alves, M.A.O.; Aquino, H.D.; Nery, E.A.; Bezerra, L.B.M.; Ribeiro, R.T.M.; Monteiro, H.S.A. 2015. Karyotype of Philodryas nattereri and Philodryas olfersii with a comparative analysis of the Dipsadidae family. Genetics and Molecular Research 14(2): 6297-6302.

Nickerson, M.A.; Henderson, R.W. 1976. A case of envenomation by the South American colubrid, Philodryas olfersi. Herpetologica 32(2): 197-198.

Oliveira, M.A. de; Lucia, T.M.C. della 1993. Inquilinismo de Phylodrias olfersii (Reptilia, Squamata, Colubridae) em ninhos de Acromyrmex subterraneus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Attini). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 37(1): 113-115.

Perez, O.A. de; Leiva de Vila, L.; Peichoto, M.E.; Marunak, S.; Ruiz, R.; Teibler, P.; Gay, C.; Rey, L. 2003. Edematogenic and myotoxic activities of the Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas olfersii from the north-east region of Argentina. Biocell 27(3): 363-370.

Prado, A.; Hoge, A.R. 1947. Observações sobre serpentes do Peru, com a descrição de uma nova especie. Ciencia (Mexico) 8(6-9): 180.

Quaini, R.O.; Arzamendia, V. 1998. Geographic distribution: Philodryas olfersii (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Herpetological Review 29(1): 54.

Sazima, I. 2015. Predation attempts on birds by the snake Philodryas olfersii prevented by mobbing mockingbirds. Herpetology Notes 8: 231-233.

Sazima, I.; Hipolito, J.V. 2017. Peaceless doves: predators of two columbid species at an urban park in southeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia 25(1): 67-70

Sazima, I.; Marques, O.A.V. 2007. A reliable customer: hunting site fidelity by an actively foraging neotropical colubrid snake. Herpetological Bulletin 99: 36-38.

Schaefer, E.F.; Dure, M.I. 2011. Natural history notes: Liophis dilepis (Lema's Ground Snake) and Philodryas olfersii latirostris (Lichtenstein's Green Racer). Bromeliad refugia. Herpetological Review 42(4): 616-617.

Schmitt, P.; Hofstadler Deiques, C. 2009. Estudo da regiao etmoidal de Liophis jaegeri jaegeri, Philodryas olfersii e Thamnodynastes strigatus, a partir da reconstrucao de modelos tridimensionais digitais e as adaptacoes morfologicas ao habitat utilizado. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 4(1): 57-65.

Silva, C.F.; Alcantara, E.P.; Ribeiro, S.C.; Ávila, R.W. 2014. Natural history notes: Polychrus acutirostris (Brazilian Bush Anole). Predation. Herpetological Review 45(1): 133.

Teixeira Rocha, M.M.; Paixao Cavalcante, D.; Tarabourgi, D.V.; Furtado, M.F.D. 2006. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Colubridae): Neutralization of local and systemic effects by commercial bothropic antivenom (Bothrops genus). Toxicon 47(1): 95-103.

Thomas, R.A.; Dixon, J.R. 1975. Philodryas olfersi (Lichtenstein) new to Colombia and Venezuela. Herpetological Review 6(4): 108-109.

Vitt, L.J.; Vangilder, L.D. 1984. Ecology of a snake community in northeastern Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 4(2-4) [1983]: 273-296.

Winck, G.R.; Dantas, L.F.; Almeida-Santos, M.; Silva Telles, F.B. da; Magalhaes, L.; Pereira, M.R.; Rocha, C.F.D. 2012. Natural history notes: Philodryas olfersii. Diet. Herpetological Review 43(1): 151.

Zaracho, V.H.; Alvarez, B.B. 2005. Nuevos registros de herpetozoos para el Parque Nacional Mburucuya, Corrientes, Argentina. Facena 21: 135-136.

Philodryas patagoniensis

Albuquerque, N.R. de; Piatti, L.; Wallach, V. 2013. Dicephalism in the green racer snake, Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes, Colubridae), from southeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 6: 85-87.

Araujo, M.E. de; Santos, A.C.M.C.A. dos 1997. Cases of human envenoming caused by Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae). Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 30(6): 517-519.

Ariani, C.V.; Siqueira, C.C.; Rocha, C.F.D. 2006. Natural history notes: Liolaemus lutzae (Sand Lizard). Predation. Herpetological Review 37(4): 467.

Ballestrin Outeiral, A.; Zanini-Cechin, S.T. 2003. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (NCN). Diet. Herpetological Review 34(2): 153.

Braz, H.B.; Marques, O.A.V. 2016. Tail-first ingestion of prey by the false coral snake, Erythrolamprus aesculapii: does it know where the tail is. Salamandra 52(2): 211-214.

Braz, H.B.P.; Teixeira da Rocha, M.M.; Furtado, M.F.D. 2012. Maintaining rear-fanged snakes for venom production: an evaluation of mortality and survival rates for Philodryas olfersii and P. patagoniensis in captivity. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases 18(2): 164-172.

Campbell, J.A.; Murphy, J.E. 1984. Reproduction in five species of Paraguayan colubrids. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 87(1-2): 63-65.

Carreiro da Costa, R.S.; Prudencio, L.; Fonseca Ferrari, E.; Souza, G.H.M.F.; Mello, S.M. de; Guimaraes-Prianti, A.C.; Ribeiro, W.; Zamuner, S.R.; Hyslop, S.; Cogo, J.C. 2008. Neuromuscular action of venom from the South American colubrid snake Philodryas patagoniensis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 148(1): 31-38.

Carvalho e Silva, S.P. de; Barros Filho, J.D. de 1999. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (NCN). Predation. Herpetological Review 30(3): 170.

Clara, M. 1980. Los cariotipos de dos especies de ofidios de la Rep. O. del Uruguay Philodryas patagoniensis y Thamnodynastes strigatus (Ophidia: Colubridae). Resumenes y Comunicaciones de las Jornadas de Ciencias Naturales (Montevideo) 1: 61.

Duarte, M.R. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonian Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 47(3): 481.

Entiauspe-Neto, O.M.; Marques Quintela, F.; Rodrigues Pino, S.; Loebmann, D. 2018. Natural history notes: Ophiodes striatus (Brazilian Glass Lizard). Predation. Herpetological Review 49(2): 331.

Fowler, I.R.; Salomao, M. da G.; Santos-Jordao, R. dos 1998. A description of the female reproductive cycle in four species from the Neotropical colubrid snake Philodryas (Colubridae, Xenodontinae). The Snake 28(1-2): 71-78.

Funk Pontes, G.M.; Oliveira, R.B. de; Di-Bernardo, M.; Borges-Martins, M. 2003. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Papa-pinto). Cannibalism. Herpetological Review 34(2): 154.

Goda Perroni, L.P.; Travaglia-Cardoso, S.R. 2007. Philodryas patagoniensis (Parelheira): venomous snake (crotalid) as prey. Herpetological Bulletin 101: 37-39.

Gonzaga, L.A.P.; Castiglioni, G.D.A.; Alves, M.A.S. 1997. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (NCN). Diet. Herpetological Review 28(3): 154.

Gouveia, R.V.; Novelli, I.A.; Vieira, F.M.; Sousa, B.M. 2017. Morphological variation of Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858) (Serpentes, Dipsadidae) from Brazil, based on the study of pholidosis, coloration and morphometric features. Biota Neotropica 17(1): e20160237.

Guimaraes, M.; Sawaya, R.J. 2011. Pretending to be venomous: is a snake's head shape a trustworthy signal to a predator? Journal of Tropical Ecology 27(4): 437-439.

Hartmann, P.A.; Marques, O.A.V. 2005. Diet and habitat use of two sympatric species of Philodryas (Colubridae), in south Brazil. Amphibia-Reptilia 26(1): 25-31.

Laurindo, T.F.S.; Vrcibradic, D.; Alves, M.A.S.; Guimaraes-Chaves, F.; Silva, P.A. da; Carvalho, S.X.M. de 2010. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Parelheira). Feeding behavior. Herpetological Review 41(2): 237-238.

Leitao de Araujo, M.L.; Ely, L.A.M. 1980. Incidencia sazonal de Helicops carinicaudus infrataeniatus (Jan, 1865) e Philodryas patagoniensis patagoniensis (Girard, 1857) no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (Ophidia-Colubridae). Iheringia Serie Zoologia 55: 87-106.

Liébana, M.S.; Santillán, M.A.; Mallet, J.; Sarasola, J.H. 2015. Predation on Philodryas patagoniensis (Squamata, Colubridae) by Aplomado falcon (Falconidae: Falco femoralis) in central Argentina. Herpetology Notes 8: 411-412.

Loebens, L.; Cechin, S.Z.; Theis, T.F.; Moura, L.B.; Almeida-Santos, S.M. 2017. Reproductive biology of Philodryas patagoniensis (Snakes: Dipsadidae) in south Brazil: male reproductive cycle. Acta Zoologica (Copenhagen) 98(4): 329-339

Lopez, M.S.; Giraudo, A.R. 2008. Ecology of the snake Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes, Colubridae) from northeast Argentina. Journal of Herpetology 42(3): 474-480.

Marques, R.; Tinoco, M.S.; Browne-Ribeiro, H.C.; Coelho, H.E.A.; Travassos, M.L.O. 2012. Philodryas olfersii predation by Philodryas patagoniensis (Serpentes: Colubridae) in the restinga ecosystem, north coast of Bahia, Brazil. Herpetology Notes 5: 315-317.

Miranda, B.O.; Garcia, D. 1967. Observaciones sobre una puesta de Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1857) = P. schotti (Schlegel, 1837). Neotropica 13(40): 41-46.

Motta-Junior, J.C.; Granzinolli, M.A.M.; Monteiro, A.R. 2010. Miscellaneous ecological notes on Brazilian birds of prey and owls. Biota Neotropica 10(4): 355-360.

Neto-Silva, D.A.; Gouveia, R.V. de; Novelli, I.A. 2012. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonian Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 43(2): 349.

Otani, M.; Oliveira Carniatto, C.H. de; Lourenco de Moraes, R. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonian Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 47(2): 314-315.

Passos, P.; Fernandes, D.S. 2002. Geographic distribution: Philodryas patagoniensis. Herpetological Review 33(1): 69.

Peichoto, M.E.; Leiva, L.C.; Guaimas Moya, L.E.; Rey, L.; Acosta, O. 2005. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas patagoniensis from the northeast of Argentina: its effects on blood coagulation. Toxicon 45(4): 527-534.

Peloso, P.L.; Pavan, S.E. 2007. Natural history notes: Cnemidophorus nativo (NCN). Predation. Herpetological Review 38(4): 451-452.

Regnet, R.A.; Quintela, F.M.; Entiauspe-Neto, O.M.; Teixeira, V.H.; Silveira, F.L.; Loebmann, D. 2017. Remarkable aggregation of squamates and caecilians associated with flood events during El Niño in southern Brazil Salamandra 53(4): 537-540.

Reis Martins, A. dos; Bruno, S.F.; Vecchi, M.B. 2010. Natural history notes: Oxyrhopus petola digitalis (NCN). Predation. Herpetological Review 41(3): 370-371.

Soledad-Lopez, M. 2003. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis. Diet. Herpetological Review 34(1): 71-72.

Sousa, P.A.G. de; Freire, E.M.X. 2008. Geographic distribution: Philodryas patagoniensis. Herpetological Review 39(2): 243.

Teixeira Rocha, M.M.; Paixao Cavalcante, D.; Tarabourgi, D.V.; Furtado, M.F.D. 2006. Duvernoy's gland secretion of Philodryas olfersii and Philodryas patagoniensis (Colubridae): Neutralization of local and systemic effects by commercial bothropic antivenom (Bothrops genus). Toxicon 47(1): 95-103.

Teixeira, V.H.S.; Quintela, F.M.; Loebmann, D. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonia Green Racer). Diet / ophidiophagy. Herpetological Review 47(4): 687.

Theis, T.F. 2018. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 49(4): 761.

Tozetti, A.M.; Oliveira, R.B.; Pontes, G.M.F. 2012. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis. Defensive behavior / thanatosis. Herpetological Review 43(4): 661.

Travaglia-Cardoso, S.R.; Almeida-Santos, S.M. 2012. Observacões sobre predacão da serpente Phylodryas patagoniensis por aves. Biologia Geral e Experimental 12(2): 7-9.

Ucha, J.L.; Gomes dos Santos, T. 2017. Death and life on the roadway: scavenging behavior of the green racer snake Philodryas patagoniensis (Girard, 1858) (Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 10: 439-441.

Zanella, N.; Cechin, S.Z. 2009. Influencia dos fatores abioticos e da disponibilidade de presas sobre comunidade de Serpentes do Planalto Medio do Rio Grande do Sul. Iheringia Serie Zoologia 99(1): 111-114.

Zocche, J.J.; Zocche, N.M.; Carvalho, F.; Mendonca, R.A.; Ceron, K.; Peres, P.B.; Cruz Neto, A.P. da 2017. Natural history notes: Philodryas patagoniensis (Patagonian Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 48(1): 217-218.

Philodryas psammophidea

Amaral, A. do 1926. Notas de ophiologia. 1a. Nota de ophiologia. Sôbre a invalidez de um gênero e algunas espécies de ophidios sul-americanos. Revista do Museu Paulista (São Paulo) 14: 17-33.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Ávila, L.J.; Pérez, C.H.F. 2011. Natural history notes: Liolaemus goetschi. Predation. Herpetological Review 42(4): 605-606.

Bonino, N.A. 1987. Aspectos morfologicos de Philodryas psammophideus (Serpentes, Colubridae) de la Prov. de Cordoba, Rep. Argentina. Anales del Museo de Historia Natural de Valparaiso 18: 123-130.

Franca, F.G.R. 2003. Geographic distribution: Philodryas psammophideus (Striped Racer). Herpetological Review 34(2): 170.

Kozykariski, M.L.; Feltrin, N.; Ávila, L.J. 2010. Natural history notes: Liolaemus gracilis (Striped Slender Lizard). Predation. Herpetological Review 41(1): 80-81.

Pereyra, L.C.; Akmentins, M.S. 2013. A case of predation of Chacophrys pierottii (Anura: Ceratophryidae) by Philodryas psammophidea (Squamata: Dipsadinae) in the chacoan saltflats of central Argentina. Herpetology Notes 6: 245-246.

Robles, C.I.; Gallardo, G.; Halloy, M.; Abdala, C.S. 2012. Natural history notes: Liolaemus espinozai predation. Herpetological Review 43(1): 135-136.

Sosa, R.; Braga, L.; Schalk, C.M.; Pinto Ledezma, J.N. 2013. Philodryas psammophidea (Guenther's green racer). Diet. Herpetological Bulletin 124: 24.

Sosa, R.; Braga, L.; Schalk, C.M.; Pinto-Ledezma, J.N. 2012. Natural history notes: Clelia langeri. Diet. Herpetological Review 43(4): 657.

Werner, F. 1910. Über neue oder seltene Reptilien des Naturhistorischen Museums in Hamburg. Hamburg Jahrb. wiss. Anst. 26 [1908-1909]: 205-247.

Philodryas simonsii

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Barboza, A.C.; Pradel, R.; Aybar, D.; Muñoz, J.M.; Venegas, P.J. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas simonsii (Schmidt's Racer) and Philodryas tachymenoides (Schmidt's Green Racer). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 47(4): 688.

Donoso-Barros, R. 1974. Description de una culebra del Peru. Neotropica 20(61): 14-16.

Nunez, H.; Jaksic, F. 1992. Lista comentada de los reptiles terrestres de Chile continental. Museo Nacional de Historia Natural Boletin (Santiago) 43: 63-91.

Pincheira-Donoso, D. 2003. Record of the colubrid snake Philodryas simonsii Boulenger from Chile. Herpetological Bulletin 84: 20.

Schmidt, K.P.; Walker, W.F. 1943. Three new snakes from the Peruvian Andes. Field Museum of Natural History Zoological Series 24(28): 325-329.

Thomas, R.A. 1977. A new generic arrangement for Incaspis and mainland South American Alsophis and the status of two additional Peruvian species. Copeia 1977(4): 648-652.

Philodryas tachymenoides

Aguilar, C.; Lundberg, M.; Siu-Ting, K.; Jimenez, M.E. 2007. Nuevos registros para la herpetofauna del departamento de Lima, descripcion del renacuajo de Telmatobius rimac Schmidt, 1954 (Anura: Ceratophrydae) y una clave de los anfibios. Revista Peruana de Biologia 14(2): 209-216.

Barboza, A.C.; Pradel, R.; Aybar, D.; Muñoz, J.M.; Venegas, P.J. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas simonsii (Schmidt's Racer) and Philodryas tachymenoides (Schmidt's Green Racer). Reproduction. Herpetological Review 47(4): 688.

Philodryas trilineata

Gómez Alés, R.; Sisterna, N.; Galdeano, A.P.; Acosta, J.C. 2016. Natural history notes: Philodryas trilineata (Mousehole Snake). Reproduction / clutch size. Herpetological Review 47(1): 152.

Laspiur, A.; Acosta, J.C.; Fava, G.A. 2012. Natural history notes: Philodryas trilineata (Argentine Mousehole Snake). Diet. Herpetological Review 43(1): 151-152.

Minoli, I.; Pérez, C.H.F.; Alvares, D.J.; Ávila, L.J. 2013. Natural history notes: Philodryas trilineata (Argentina Mousehole Snake). Diet. Herpetological Review 44(4): 696.

Pietro, D.O. di; Nenda, S.J.; Gómez, S.E. 2016. Geographic distribution: Philodryas trilineata. Herpetological Review 47(3): 428.

Philodryas varia

Amaral, A. do 1926. Notas de ophiologia. 1a. Nota de ophiologia. Sôbre a invalidez de um gênero e algunas espécies de ophidios sul-americanos. Revista do Museu Paulista (São Paulo) 14: 17-33.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Laurent, R.F. 1973. Una nueva subespecies de culebra del noroeste Argentino y de Bolivia. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 26(20): 291-298.

Müller, L. 1925. Über eine neue opisthoglyphe Schlange aus Argentinien. Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin 12: 101-104.

Thomas, R.A.; Johnson, J.D. 1984. Philodryas varius (Jan, 1863), a senior synonym of Philodryas borellii Peracca (Serpentes: Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 18(1): 80-81.

Thomas, R.A.; Laurent, R.F.; Barrio, A. 1977. Philodryas borellii Peracca (Serpentes: Colubridae), a distinct species. Herpetologica 33(1): 82-86.

Philodryas viridissima

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Brongersma, L.D. 1957. On two species of the genus Philodryas (Serpentes) from Surinam. Proceedings ned. Akad. Amst. 60C(4): 458-462.

Chávez-Arribasplata, J.C.; Almora, C.E.; Pellón, J.J.; Venegas, P.J. 2016. Bat consumption by Philodryas viridissima (Serpentes: Colubridae) in the Amazon Basin of southeastern Peru. Phyllomedusa 15(2): 195-197.

Entiauspe-Neto, O.M.; Abegg, A.D.; Rocha, A.M.; Loebmann, D. 2018. Connect the dots: Filling distribution gaps of Philodryas viridissima (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) in Brazil, with a new state record to Roraima. Herpetology Notes 11: 697-702.

Freitas, M.A. de; França, D.P.F. de; Bernarde, P.S. 2012. Squamata, Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Philodryas viridissima (Linnaeus, 1758): first record in the state of Acre, northern Brazil. Check List 8(2): 258-259.

Jorge, R.F.; Simões, P.I. 2018. Natural history notes: Philodryas viridissima (Common Green Racer). Diet. Herpetological Review 49(4): 761-762.

Marques, O.A.V. 1999. Defensive behavior of the green snake Philodryas viridissimus (Linnaeus) (Colubridae, Reptilia) from the Atlantic Forest in northeastern Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 16(1): 265-266.

Marques, O.A.V.; Franco, F.L. 1998. Geographic distribution: Philodryas viridissimus (Common Green Racer). Herpetological Review 29(1): 54.

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