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Taxonomy of Snakes (Serpentes) Biodiversity of Snakes (Serpentes)

Bibliography of
Snakes
(Serpentes)

Note: In order to limit redundancy, relevant literature indexed in the related bibliographies in the left column may not have been included in this page. For a comprehensive search of literature, these bibliographies should therefore also be consulted.


Akani, G.C.; Eyo, E.; Odegbune, E.; Eniang, E.A.; Luiselli, L. 2002. Ecological patterns of anthropogenic mortality of suburban snakes in an African tropical region. Israel Journal of Zoology 48(1): 1-11.

Akeret, B. 2004. Grundlagen der Giftschlangenhaltung. Draco 5(1) (17): 37-53.

Aldridge, R.D.; Sever, D.M. (eds.). 2011. Reproductive biology and phylogeny of snakes. Science Publishers. 714 pp.

Alexander, A.A.; Gans, C. 1966. The pattern of dermal-vertebral correlation in snakes and amphisbaenians. Zoologische Mededelingen (Leiden) 41(11): 171-190.

Alfaro, M.E. 2003. Sweeping and striking: A kinematic study of the trunk during prey capture in three thamnophiine snakes. Journal of Experimental Biology 206(14): 2381-2392.

Altimari, W. 1998. Venomous snakes: a safety guide for reptile keepers. SSAR (Society for the Study of Amphibians & Reptiles), Lawrence, Kansas. 24 pp. (Herpetological Circulars no. 26).

Amaral, A. do 1929. Da classificação e conceito de espécie em ophiologia. Pub. Instit. Butantan, Sao Paulo. 11 pp.

Amaral, A. do 1949. Serpentes gigantes. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi (Zoologia) 10: 211-237.

Angelici, F.M.; Capula, M.; Luiselli, L. 1994. Predation of snakes upon birds: a preliminary synthesis. Atti Convegno Italiano di Ornitologia 6: 415-416.

Arani Nunes, C.; Bicca Marques, J.C.; Schacht, K.; Alencar Araripe, A.C. de 1998. Reaction of wild emperor tamarins to the presence of a snake. Neotropical Primates 6(1): 20.

Badger, D. 1999. Snakes. Swan Hill Press, Shrewsbury, Shropshire. 144 pp.

Bauchot, R. (ed.) 1994. Schlangen. Evolution, Anatomie, Physiologie, Ökologie und Verbreitung, Verhalten, Bedrohung und Gefährdung, Haltung und Pflege. Naturbuch Verlag, Augsburg. 240 pp.

Bellairs, A.A. 1972. Comments on the evolution and affinities of snakes. pp. 157-172. In: Studies in vertebrate evolution. Essays presented to Dr F.R. Parrinton, FRS. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh. 284 pp.

Bellosa, H. 2003. Faszination Rekordschlange. 1. Vom Jugendtraum zur Forschung. Reptilia (D) 8(39): 37-39.

Bellosa, H. 2004. Faszination Rekordschlange. 3. Lass dich nicht beissen. Reptilia (D) 9(47): 42-44.

Bhat, R.; Newman, S.A. 2009. Snakes and ladders: the ups and downs of animal segmentation. Journal of Biosciences (Bangalore) 34(2): 163-166.

Boettger, O. 1899. Bau, Lebensweise und Unterscheidung der Schlangen. Bericht über die Senckenbergische Naturforschende Gesellschaft 1899: 75-88.

Boie, F. 1827. Bemerkungen über Merrem's Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien. 1te Lieferung: Ophidier. Isis von Oken 20(6): columns 508-566.

Boulenger, G.A. 1893. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 1. Typhlopidae, Glauconiidae, Boidae, Ilysiidae, Uropeltidae, Xenopeltidae, Colubridae (aglyphae, part). Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 448 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2. Colubridae (aglyphae, conclusion). Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 382 pp.

Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 3. Colubridae (opisthoglyphae and proteroglyphae), Amblycephalidae, Viperidae. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 727 pp.

Boyer, D.M. 1995. Venomous reptiles: an overview of families, handling, restraint techniques, and emergency protocol. Proceedings of the Association of Reptilian & Amphibian Veterinarians 1995: 83-90.

Branch, W.R. 1986. Hemipenial morphology of African snakes: a taxonomic review. 1. Scolecophidia and Boidae Journal of Herpetology 20(3): 285-299.

Brischoux, F.; Pizzatto, L.; Shine, R. 2010. Insights into the adaptive significance of vertical pupil shape in snakes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 23(9): 1878-1885.

Broadley, D.G. 1965. Serpentine systematics - a review of taxonomic characters. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 1: 7-10.

Broadley, D.G. 1965. The Dowling system of counting ventrals on snakes. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 1: 11.

Brodie, E.D.; Garland, T. 1993. Quantitative genetics of snake populations. pp. 315-362. In: Seigel, R.A. & Collins, J.T. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York & San Francisco, etc. 414 pp.

Bücherl, W.; Buckley, E.E. (eds.) 1971. Venomous animals and their venoms. Vol. 2. Venomous vertebrates (snakes, saurians, batrachians, fishes). Academic Press, New York. 687 pp.

Bücherl, W.; Buckley, E.E.; Deulofeu, V. (eds.) 1968. Venomous animals and their venoms. Vol. 1. Venomous vertebrates (mammals, snakes). Academic Press, New York & London. 707 pp.

Burbrink, F.T.; Crother, B.I. 2011. Evolution and taxonomy of snakes. In: Aldridge, R.D. & Sever, D.M. (eds.). Reproductive biology and phylogeny of snakes. Science Publishers. 714 pp.

Burns, G.; Ramos, A.; Muchlinski, A. 1996. Fever response in North American snakes. Journal of Herpetology 30(2): 133-139.

Burton, J.A. 1991. Snakes: an illustrated guide. Blandford, London: 1-144.

Cadle, J.E. 1983. Problems and approaches in the interpretation of the evolutionary history of venomous snakes. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 46 [1982]: 255-274.

Cadle, J.E. 1987. Geographic distribution: problems in phylogeny and zoogeography. pp. 77-105. In: Seigel, R.A., Collins, J.T. & Novak, S.S. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, Toronto & London. 529 pp.

Cadle, J.E. 1988. Phylogenetic relationships among advanced snakes. A molecular perspective. University of California Publications in Zoology 119: -, 1-77.

Caldwell, M.W. 2007. Snake phylogeny, origins, and evolution: the role, impact, and importance of fossils (1869-2006). pp. 253-302. In: Anderson, J.S. & Sues, H.D. (eds.). Major transitions in vertebrate evolution. [Life of the Past.]. Indiana University Press, Bloomington & Indianapolis. 417 pp.

Caprette, C.L.; Lee, M.S.Y.; Shine, R.; Mokany, A.; Downhower, J.F. 2004. The origin of snakes (Serpentes) as seen through eye anatomy. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 81(4): 469-482.

Carpenter, C.C. 1977. Communication and displays in snakes. American Zoologist 17(1): 217-223.

Carpenter, C.C. 1984. Dominance in snakes. University of Kansas Publications of the Museum of Natural History 10: 195-202.

Carpenter, C.C. 1986. An inventory of combat rituals in snakes. Smithsonian Herpetological Information Service 69: 1-18.

Carr, A. 1971. In praise of snakes. Audubon Magazine 73(4): 18-27.

Chandrasekhar, S. 1993. Piscivorous snakes. Cobra (Madras) 13: 10-11.

Clark, D. (ed.) 1993. Venomous snakes. Thames and Chiltern Herpetological Group Newsletter 136: 12-15.

Clemann, N.; McGee, T.; Odgers, J. 2004. Snake management on private properties in Melbourne, Australia. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(2): 133-142.

Coborn, J. 1991. The atlas of snakes of the world. T.F.H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City: 1-591.

Coborn, J. 1991. The Atlas of Snakes of the World. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 591 pp.

Coborn, J. 1994. The Mini-Atlas of Snakes of the World. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 736 pp.

Cochran, D.A. 1954. Our snake friends and foes. National Geographic Magazine 106(3): 334-364.

Cochran, P.A. 1991. An unusual microhabitat for a fossorial snake in the rainforest of Peru. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 94: 77-78.

Cogger, H.G. 1993. General description and definition of the order Squamata. pp. 157-171. In: Glasby, C.J.; Ross, G.J.B. & Beesley, P.L. (eds.). Fauna of Australia. Vol. 2A. Amphibia & Reptilia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 439 pp.

Cogger, H.G. 2007. Snake ID: An Interactive Identification Guide to Snakes. CSIRO, Collingwood, Victoria. 64 pp.

Colston, T.J.; Costa, G.C.; Vitt, L.J. 2010. Snake diets and the deep history hypothesis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101(2): 476-486.

Conant, R. 1961. Snakes. Audubon Nature Bulletin 16(5): 4.

Conner, R.N.; Prather, I.D. 1974. Snakes - friend or foe. Maryland Conserv. 50(2): 27-31.

Cooper, P. 1999. 277 Secrets Your Snake and Lizard Wants You to Know: Unusual and Useful Information for Snake Owners and Snake Lovers. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California. 182 pp.

Cope, E.D. 1886. An analytical table of the genera of snakes. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 23: 479-499.

Cope, E.D. 1893. Prodromus of a new system of the non-venomous snakes. American Naturalist 27: 477-483.

Cope, E.D. 1895. The classification of the Ophidia. Transactions Amer. Phil. Soc. 18: 186-219.

Cote, I.M.; Sutherland, W.J. 1995. The scientific basis for predator control for bird conservation. English Nature Research Reports 144: 1-65.

Cousin, X.; Bon, C. 1997. L'acetylcholinesterase des venins de serpents. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societe de Biologie et de Ses Filiales 191(3): 381-400.

Crompton, J. 1963. The snake. Faber & Faber, London. 152 pp.

Cundall, D. 1995. Feeding behaviour in Cylindrophis and its bearing on the evolution of alethinophidian snakes. Journal of Zoology (London) 237(3): 353-376.

Cundall, D.; Deufel, A. 2006. Influence of the venom delivery system on intraoral prey transport in snakes. Zoologischer Anzeiger 245(3-4): 193-210.

Curran, C.H.; Kauffeld, C.F. 1937. Snakes and their ways. Publisher unknown, New York & London 285(1937) 1937: Unpaginated.

Cyrén, O. 1934. Ormar i fantasi och verklighet. Natur och Kultur, Stockholm. 249 pp.

Datta, S. 2008. Snakes. Vigyan Prasar, Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. 95 pp.

Daufresne, S. 1986. La girafe et le serpent: un meme combat contre la pesanteur. Recherche (Paris) 17(182): 1437-1438.

David, P.; Ineich, I. 1999. Les serpents venimeux du monde: systématique et répartition. Dumerilia 3: 1-499.

Deufel, A.; Cundall, D. 2006. Functional plasticity of the venom delivery system in snakes with a focus on the poststrike prey release behavior. Zoologischer Anzeiger 245(3-4): 249-267.

DeVault, T.L.; Krochmal, A.R. 2002. Scavenging by snakes: An examination of the literature. Herpetologica 58(4): 429-436.

Ditmars, R.L. 1931. Snakes of the world. MacMillan, New York. 207 pp.

Ditmars, R.L. 1970. Snakes of the world. The Macmillan Company, New York (17th printing). 207 pp.

Dmi'el, R. 1986. Intra- and interspecific allometry of oxygen consumption in snakes. Journal of Herpetology 20(2): 265-267.

Dodd, C.K. 1987. Status, conservation, and management. pp. 478-513. In: Seigel, R.A., Collins, J.T. & Novak, S.S. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, Toronto & London. 529 pp.

Dodd, C.K. 1993. Strategies for snake conservation. pp. 363-393. In: Seigel, R.A. & Collins, J.T. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York & San Francisco, etc. 414 pp.

Domergue, C.A. 1954. La formula caudale chez les ophidiens. Bull. Soc. Sci. nat. Tunis 7: 31-30.

Donahue, J.C.; Shaw-Draves, C. 2018. Snakes in American Culture. A Hisstory. McFarland & Co., Jefferson, North Carolina. 228 pp.

Douglas, D.A.; Gower, D.J. 2010. Snake mitochondrial genomes: phylogenetic relationships and implications of extended taxon sampling for interpretations of mitogenomic evolution. BMC Genomics 11(14): 1-16.

Dowling, H.G. 1951. A proposed method of expressing scale reduction in snakes. Copeia 1951: 131-134.

Dowling, H.G. 1951. A proposed standard system of counting ventrals in snakes. British Journal of Herpetology 1(5): 97-99.

Dowling, H.G. 1959. Classification of the Serpentes: a critical review. Copeia 1953(1): 38-52.

Dowling, H.G. 1977. A provisional classification of snakes. Publications Herpet. 8 [1975]: 167-171.

Dowling, H.G. 2004. On the structure of snake hemipenes with comments on their proper preparation for analysis: a reply to Cadle, Myers, Prudente, and Zaher. Herpetological Review 35(4): 320-328.

Dowling, H.G.; Hass, C.A.; Hedges, S.B.; Highton, R. 1996. Snake relationships revealed by slow-evolving proteins: a preliminary survey. Journal of Zoology (London) 240(1): 1-28.

Dowling, H.G.; Minton, S.A.; Russell, F.E. (eds.) 1968. Poisonous snakes of the world. Department of the Navy, Bureau of Medicine and Surgery. United States Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 185 pp.

Dunn, E.R. 1942. Survival value of varietal characters in snakes. American Naturalist 76: 104-109.

Duvall, D.; Schuett, G.W.; Arnold, S.J. 1993. Ecology and evolution of snake mating systems. pp. 165-200. In: Seigel, R.A. & Collins, J.T. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York & San Francisco, etc. 414 pp.

Emerling, C.A. 2017. Genomic regression of claw keratin, taste receptor and light-associated genes provides insights into biology and evolutionary origins of snakes. Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution 115: 40-49

Engel, T.R. 1997. Seed dispersal and plant regeneration by snakes?. Ecotropica 3(1): 33-41.

Engelmann, W.E.; Obst, F.J. 1981. Mit gespaltener Zunge. Aus der Biologie und Kulturgeschichte der Schlangen. Herder, Freiburg, Basel & Wien: 1-217.

Engelmann, W.E.; Obst, F.J. 1981. Snakes. Biology, behavior and relationship to man. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig. 222 Pp.

Erickson, D. 1991. Near-infrared and near-ultraviolet reflectivity in selected amphibians and reptiles. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 26(1): 1-9.

Ernst, C.H.; Zug, G.R. 1996. Snakes in question: the Smithsonian answer book. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C. & London. 203 pp.

Feldman, A.; Meiri, S. 2013. Length-mass allometry in snakes. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 108(1): 161-172.

Feldman, A.; Sabath, N.; Pyron, R.A.; Mayrose, I.; Meiri, S. 2016. Body sizes and diversification rates of lizards, snakes, amphisbaenians and the tuatara. Global Ecology and Biogeography 25(2): 187-197.

Ferrarezzi, H. 1994. Uma sinopse dos gêneros e classificação das Serpentes (Squamata): 1. Scolecophidia e Alethinophidia não colubrídeos. Herpetologia no Brasil 1: 69-80.

Ferrarezzi, H. 1994. Uma sinopse dos gêneros e classificação das Serpentes (Squamata): 2. Família Colubridae. Herpetologia no Brasil 1: 81-91.

Fitch, H.S. 1987. Collecting and life-history techniques. pp. 143-164. In: Seigel, R.A., Collins, J.T. & Novak, S.S. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, Toronto & London. 529 pp.

FitzSimons, F.W. 1928. New facts about snakes. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 2: 42-43.

FitzSimons, F.W. 1932. Snakes. Hutchinson & Company, London. 286 pp.

FitzSimons, F.W. 1932. Snakes. Hutchinson, London. 286 pp.

Flachsenberger, W.; Mirtschin, P. 1995. Digestive properties of snake venoms. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 25(2): 28-31.

Ford, N.B. 1995. Experimental design in studies of snake behavior. Herpetological Monographs 9: 130-139.

Ford, N.B.; Burghardt, G.M. 1993. Perceptual mechanisms and the behavioural ecology of snakes. pp. 117-164. In: Seigel, R.A. & Collins, J.T. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and behavior. McGraw-Hill, New York & San Francisco, etc. 414 pp.

Ford, N.B.; Holland, D. 1990. The role of pheromones in the spacing behaviour of snakes. Chemical Signals in Vertebrates 5: 465-472.

Forsman, A. 1995. Opposing fitness consequences of colour pattern in male and female snakes. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 8(1): 53-70.

Forsman, A.; Lindell, L.E. 1996. Resource dependent growth and body condition dynamics in juvenile snakes: an experiment. Oecologia (Heidelberg) 108(4): 669-675.

Forstner, M.R.J.; Davis, S.K.; Arevalo, E. 1995. Support for the hypothesis of anguimorph ancestry for the suborder Serpentes from phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 4(1): 93-102.

Fouin, C. 1969. Le crane d'Elapsoidea guntheri Bocage contribution a la phylogenese des Colubroidea. Publs. Univ. off. Congo 19: 61-91.

Frank, W. 1979. Boas and other non-venomous snakes. T.F.H. Publications Inc. Ltd, Neptune, New Jersey, Reigate, Surrey etc.: 1-93.

Freed, P. 2003. Of golden toads and serpents' roads. Louise Lindsey Merrick Natural Environment Series 34: 1-190.

Fry, B.G.; Wüster, W. 2004. Assembling an arsenal: origin and evolution of the snake venom proteome inferred from phylogenetic analysis of toxin sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21: 870-883.

Gadd, L. 1980. Deadly beautiful: the world's most poisonous animals and plants. Macmillan, London & New York. 208 pp.

Gans, C. 1983. Snake feeding strategies and adaptations - conclusion and prognosis. American Zoologist 23(2): 455-460.

Gardner, R. 1987. By fang and coil: snakes are specialized for feeding. Explorer 29(2): 8-11.

Gartner, G.E.A.; Hicks, J.W.; Andrade, D.V.; Secor, S.M.; Garland, T. 2011. Reply to 'Heart position in snakes'. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 84(1): 102-106.

Gartner, G.E.A.; Hicks, J.W.; Manzani, P.R.; Andrade, D.V.; Abe, A.S.; Wang, T.; Secor, S.M.; Garland, T. 2010. Phylogeny, ecology, and heart position in snakes. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 83(1): 43-54.

Gasc, J.P. 1977. Morphologie vertébrale et mode de locomotion chez les squamates: superiorité de l'analyse morpho-fonctionelle sur la morphologie descriptive. Bulletin biol. Fr. Belg. 111(1): 29-36.

Gasc, J.P. 1984. Especes menacees et exploitees dans le monde. Guide pratique pour leur connaissance et leur identification. 30. Serpents les plus courants. Inventaires de Faune et de Flore 24: 1-3.

Gaywood, M.; Spellerberg, I. 1999. Snakes. Colin Baxter Photography, Grantown-on-Spey. 72 pp.

Geiger, J.; Buchter, F. 2014. Sonnenschutz bei Schlangen. Untersuchung zur UV-Lichtdurchlässigkeit der Augenschuppen und der Haut einiger Arten. Terraria-Elaphe 2014(45): 52-55.

Gibbons, J.W.; Semlitsch, R.D. 1987. Activity patterns. pp. 396-421. In: Seigel, R.A., Collins, J.T. & Novak, S.S. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, Toronto & London. 529 pp.

Gibbs, H.L.; Prior, K.A.; Weatherhead, P.J. 1994. Genetic analysis of populations of threatened snake species using RAPD markers. Molecular Ecology 3(4): 329-337.

Gillingham, J.C. 1987. Social behavior. pp. 184-209. In: Seigel, R.A., Collins, J.T. & Novak, S.S. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, Toronto & London. 529 pp.

Golay, P.; Smith, H.M.; Broadley, D.G.; Dixon, J.R.; McCarthy, C.; Rage, J.C.; Schätti, B.; Toriba, M. 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world: a checklist. Azemiops, Geneva, Switzerland. 478 pp.

Gonwouo, N.L.; LeBreton, M.; Chirio, L.; Ngassam, P.; Ngoa, L.E.; Dzikouk, G. 2005. Repartition biogeographique des serpents venimeux au Cameroun. Bulletin de la Societe de Pathologie Exotique 98(4): 297-301.

Gopalakrishnakone, P.; Chou, L.M. (eds.) 1990. Snakes of medical importance (Asia-Pacific region). Venom and Toxin Group, National University of Singapore & International Society on Toxinology. 676 pp.

Gourmelen, L. 2012. Le serpent barbu: réalités, croyances et représentations. L’exemple de Zeus Meilichios à Athènes. Anthropozoologica 47(1): 323-343.

Gower, D.; Garrett, K.; Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo. 144 pp.

Gravlund, P. 2001. Radiation within the advanced snakes (Caenophidia) with special emphasis on African opistoglyph colubrids, based on mitochondrial sequence data. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 72(1): 99-114.

Grazziotin, F.G.; Zaher, H.; Ferrarezzi, H.; Klaczko, J.; Bonatto, S.L.; Wilkinson, M. 2007. Higher-level phylogeny of snakes: conflicts and congruence. Darwiniana 45(suplemento): 17-19.

Greenbaum, E. 2003. A practical and safe method of the capture and restraint of venomous snakes in the field. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society 38(1): 1-3.

Greene, H.W. 1973. Defensive tail display by snakes and amphisbaenians. Journal of Herpetology 7(3): 143-161.

Greene, H.W. 1979. Behavioral convergence in the defensive displays of snakes. Experientia (Basel) 35(6): 747-748.

Greene, H.W. 1997. Snakes: the evolution of mystery in nature. University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles & London. I-Xiii, 1-351.

Gregory, P.T. 2004. Analysis of patterns of aggregation under cover objects in an assemblage of six species of snakes. Herpetologica 60(2): 178-186.

Gregory, P.T.; Macartney, J.M.; Larsen, K.W. 1987. Spatial patterns and movements. pp. 366-395. In: Seigel, R.A., Collins, J.T. & Novak, S.S. (eds.). Snakes: ecology and evolutionary biology. Macmillan, New York, Toronto & London. 529 pp.

Groombridge, B.C. 1979. A previously unreported throat muscle in Scolecophidia (Reptilia: Serpentes), with comments on other scolecophidian throat muscles. Journal of Natural History 13(6): 661-680.

Groombridge, B.C. 1979. Comments on the intermandibular muscles of snakes. Journal of Natural History 13(4): 477-498.

Groombridge, B.C. 1979. Variations in morphology of the superficial palate of henophidian snakes and some possible systematic implications. Journal of Natural History 13(4): 447-475.

Groombridge, B.C. 1984. The facial carotid artery in snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes): variations and possible cladistic significance. Amphibia-Reptilia 5(2): 145-155.

Grundler, M.C.; Rabosky, D.L. 2014. Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes. Proceedings of the Royal Society Biological Sciences Series B 281(1787): 20140413.

Haas, G. 1938. A note on the origin of solenoglyph snakes. Copeia 1938: 73-78.

Habermehl, G.G. 1981. Venomous animals and their toxins. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg & New York. 195 pp. (Based on the translation of the 2nd German edition published 1977).

Hakhverdian, L.A. 2000. [The snakes - bioindicators before earthquakes]. (In Russian). Doklady Natsional'noi Akademii Nauk Armenii 100(3): 253-257.

Hallmen, M. 2009. 10 Jahre. Freilandterrarium für Schlangen - ein Erfahrungsbericht. Reptilia (D) 14(78): 52-61.

Hamilton, B. 2007. Rarity as an ecological paradigm. Journal of Kansas Herpetology 22: 7-8.

Hardaway, T.E.; Williams, K.L. 1976. Costal cartilages in snakes and their phylogenetic significance. Herpetologica 32(4): 378-387.

Hardy, D.L. 1994. A re-evaluation of suffocation as the cause of death during constriction by snakes. Herpetological Review 25(2): 45-47.

Harrison, H.H. 1971. The world of the snake. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia & New York. 160 pp.

Harrison, T.; Blissett, D. 2014. Snake Catcher: True Stories and Reptile Facts. Melbourne Books, Melbourne. 148 pp.

Hayes, F.E. 2002. Predation on birds by snakes in Trinidad and Tobago. Living World 2002: 59-61.

Hayes, W.K.; Herbert, S.S.; Rehling, G.C.; Gennaro, J.F. 2002. Factors that influence venom expenditure in viperids and other snake species during predatory and defensive contexts. pp. 207-233. In: Schuett, G.W.; Höggren, M.; Douglas, M.E.; Greene, H.W. (eds.). Biology of the vipers. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain. 580 pp.

Heald, W.F. 1963. Snakes are interesting. Audubon Magazine 65: 218-221.

Heatwole, H.; Pianka, E.R. 1993. Natural history of the Squamata. pp. 197-209. In: Glasby, C.J.; Ross, G.J.B. & Beesley, P.L. (eds.). Fauna of Australia. Vol. 2A. Amphibia & Reptilia. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. 439 pp.

Hecht, B.M. 1956. All about snakes. Random House, New York. 143 pp.

Heise, P.J.; Maxson, L.R.; Dowling, H.G.; Hedges, S.B. 1995. Higher-level snake phylogeny inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12(2): 259-265.

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