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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Philodryas
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Philodryas

South American Bush Racers & allies

Südamerikanische Strauchnattern und Verwandten

Sydamerikanske Kratpilsnoge* og slægtninge

1830 Philodryas Wagler (type species: Coluber olfersii Lichtenstein 1823)
1830 Chlorosoma Wagler (type species: Coluber viridissimus Linnaeus 1758; syn. Thomas 1976)
1843 Orophis Fitzinger (type species: Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann 1835)
1854 Taeniophis Girard (type species: Taeniophis tantillus Girard 1854)
1858 Callirhinus Girard (type species: Callirhinus patagoniensis Girard 1857; syn. Thomas 1976)
1858 Euophrys Günther (type species: Euophrys modestus Günther 1858; syn. Thomas 1976)
1887 Agratomus Cope (type species: Herpetodryas trilineatus Burmeister 1861 [nomen nudum]; syn. Thomas 1976)
1887 Atomophis Cope [substitute name for Agratomus Cope 1887] (syn. Thomas 1976)
1887 Dirrhox Cope [substitute name for Callirhinus Girard 1858] (syn. Thomas 1976)
1894 Monobothris Cope (type species: Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann 1835; syn. Thomas 1976)
1896 Pseudablabes Boulenger (type species: Eirenis agassizii Jan 1863; syn. syn. Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009)
1903 Rhinodryas Werner (type species: Rhinodryas königi Werner 1903; syn. Thomas 1976)
1916 Pachyurus Philippi in Quijada (type species: Pachyurus mucronatus = Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann 1835)
1923 Platyinion Amaral (type species: Platyinion lividum Amaral 1923; syn. Thomas & Fernandes 1996)
1924 Pseuduromacer Werner (type species: Pseuduromacer lugubris Werner 1924; syn. Thomas 1976)
1974 Incaspis Donoso-Barros (type species: Incaspis cercostropha Donoso-Barros 1974; syn. Thomas 1977)
1993 Xenoxybelis Machado (type species: Coluber argenteus Daudin 1803 ?; syn. syn. Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009)
Contents: 23 species, of which 5 (21.7%) are endemic.
Other common names:
South American Bush Racers, South American Green Racers, South American Green Snakes, Pampas Racers, Palm Snakes (Philodryas, s.s.)
Burrowing Night Snake (Pseudablabes)
South American Vine Snakes (Xenoxybelis)
Remarks: The systematic history of Philodryas, Alsophis, and related genera has been turbulent. Philodryas currently includes many species formerly assigned to other genera. Previously included Tropidodryas. Grazziotin, Zaher, Murphy, Scrocchi, Benavides, Zhang & Bonatto (2012) considered the taxonomical gender of Philodryas feminine.
Distribution: South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Philodryas aestiva

Eastern Brazilian Green Bush Racer, Brazilian Green Racer

Ostbrasilianische Strauchnatter*

Østbrasiliansk Grøn Kratpilsnog*

1854 Dryophylax aestivus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Philodryas aestivus Günther 1858
Chlorosoma aestivum Amaral 1929
1900 Philodryas campicola Jensen (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1902 Philodryas subcarinatus Boulenger
Philodryas aestivus subcarinatus Thomas 1976
1924 Pseuduromacer lugubris Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1959 Philodryas aestivus manegarzoni Orejas-Miranda (Thomas 1976; Barrio, Laurent & Thomas 1977)
1976 Philodryas aestivus levisquamus Thomas

Other common names:
aestiva: Northern Green Snake
levisquama: Smooth Green Snake
subcarinata: Southern Green Snake
Remarks: Presence in Mato Grosso (do Sul?) needs verification. The species has been recorded from "Mato Grosso", but without exact locality (Thomas 1976b).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Philodryas agassizii

Burrowing Night Snake

Nacht-Wühlnatter*

Gravende Natsnog*

1863 Eirenis Agassizii Jan
Pseudablabes agassizii Boulenger 1896
Philodryas agassizii Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*
1863 Liopeltis brevicauda Jan (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1863 Philodryas paucisquamis Peters (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Remarks: Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Philodryas amaru

Azuay Bush Racer*

Azuay-Strauchnatter*

Azuay-kratpilsnog*

2014 Philodryas amaru Zaher, Arredondo, Valencia, Abbeláez, Rodrigues & Altamirano-Benavides

Distribution: Ecuador.


Philodryas argentea

Green-striped Vine Snake

Grünstreifige Spitznatter*

Grønstribet Spidssnog*

1803 Coluber argenteus Daudin
Oxybelis argenteus Duméril 1853
Xenoxybelis argenteus Machado 1993
Philodryas argentea Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*

Remarks: Reported to occur in Paraguay by Costa Prudente, Silva, Rocha & Franco (2008), but no other sources seem to support this. It was not included by Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016) in their checklist of Paraguayan reptiles.
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Philodryas arnaldoi

Brazilian Speckled Racer, (Arnaldo's Bush Racer)

Gesprenkelte Strauchnatter*

Spættet Kratpilsnog*

1932 Chlorosoma arnaldoi Amaral
Philodryas arnaldoi Amaral 1936
Philodryas arnoldoi [lapsus] Thomas 1976

Distribution: Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo).


Philodryas baroni

Long-nosed Bush Racer*, (Baron's Racer, Baron's Bush Racer)

Langnasen-Strauchnatter

Spidssnudet Kratpilsnog*

1895 Philodryas Baroni Berg
Chlorosoma baroni Amaral 1929
1903 Rhinodryas königi Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1914 Philodryas baroni fusco-flavescens Serié (Thomas 1976)

Distribution: Argentina, Paraguay.


Philodryas boliviana

Bolivian Striped Bush Racer, Bolivian Racer

Bolivianische Streifen-Strauchnatter*

Boliviansk Stribet Kratpilsnog*

1896 Philodryas bolivianus Boulenger
Philodryas psammophideus bolivianus Vellard 1946
1909 Liophis bolivianus Werner (Thomas 1976)

Remarks: Regarded by some authors as a synonym of psammophideus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Thomas 1976; David & Ineich 1999).
Distribution: Bolivia.


Philodryas chamissonis

Chilean Bush Racer, Chilean Racer

Chilenische Strauchnatter*

Chilensk Kratpilsnog*

1835 Coronella chamissonis Wiegmann
Orophis chamissonis Fitzinger 1843
Dromicus chamissonis Steindachner 1867
Oreomorphus chamissonis Cope 1889
Monobothris chamissonis Cope 1889
Leimadophis chamissonis Schenone, Bertín & Mann 1954
Alsophis chamissonis Maglio 1970
Philodryas chamissonis Thomas 1976
1837 Psammophis temminckii Schlegel (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
Dromicus temmincki Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Liophis temmincki Cope 1862
Aporophis temmincki Cope 1889
1854 Taeniophis tantillus Girard (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1899 Liophis luctuosa Philippi (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1974 Alsophis chamissonis eremicola Donoso-Barros
Philodryas chamissonis eremicola Veloso & Navarro 1988

Distribution: Argentina, Chile.


Philodryas cordata

Guaiquinima Bush Racer

Guaiquinima-Strauchnatter*

Guaiquinima-kratpilsnog*

1991 Philodryas cordata Donnelly & Myers

Distribution: Venezuela.


Philodryas erlandi

Chaco Bush Racer*

Chaco-Strauchnatter*

Chaco-kratpilsnog*

1902 Philodryas erlandi Lönnberg
Philodryas ternetzii erlandi Müller 1928

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of mattogrossensis (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976). Revalidated as a separate species by Cacciali, Cabral, Ferreira & Köhler (2016).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay.


Philodryas georgeboulengeri

Amazonian Vine Snake*

Amazonas-Spitznatter*

Amazonas-spidssnog*

1923 Oxybelis boulengeri Procter [not Philodryas boulengeri Werner 1909]
Xenoxybelis boulengeri Machado 1993
Philodryas boulengeri Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*
2012 Philodryas georgeboulengeri Grazziotin, Zaher, Murphy, Scrocchi, Benavides, Zhang & Bonatto [substitute name for Oxybelis boulengeri Procter 1923]

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of argentea (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Keiser (1989). Not mentioned from Bolivia by Pincheira-Donoso (2002).
Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Rondonia), Peru.


Philodryas laticeps

Bolivian Green Bush Racer*, Bolivian Green Tree Snake

Bolivianische Grüne Strauchnatter*

Boliviansk Grøn Kratpilsnog*

1900 Philodryas laticeps Werner
Philodryas viridissimus laticeps Thomas 1976
1921 Philodryas oligolepis Gomes (Zaher, Scrocchi & Masiero 2008)
1928 Philodryas affinis Müller (Zaher, Scrocchi & Masiero 2008)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of olfersii (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970), and later as a subspecies of viridissimus (e.g., Thomas 1976). Revalidated as a separate species by Zaher, Scrocchi & Masiero (2008). Records from French Guiana (e.g., Starace 1998; Chippaux 1986 [both as oligolepis]) are erroneous (Dewynter, Marty, Blanc, Gaucher, Vidal, Frétey, Massary & Fouquet 2008).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Santa Catarina).


Philodryas livida

Blue Bush Racer

Blaue Strauchnatter*

Blå Kratpilsnog*

1923 Platyinion lividum Amaral
Philodryas livida Thomas & Fernandes 1996

Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Parana, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.


Philodryas mattogrossensis

Mato Grosso Bush Racer, Two-coloured Racer, Miranda Green Racer

Mato-Grosso-Strauchnatter

Mato Grosso-kratpilsnog*

1898 Philodryas mattogrossensis Koslowsky
Chlorosoma mattogrossense Amaral 1929
1901 Philodryas ternetzii Schenkel (Cacciali, Cabral, Ferreira & Köhler 2016)
1909 Philodryas boulengeri Werner (Cacciali, Cabral, Ferreira & Köhler 2016)

Remarks: Previously included erlandi.
Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.


Philodryas nattereri

Paraguay Bush Racer, Brown Racer

Paraguay-Strauchnatter*

Paraguayisk Kratpilsnog*

1846 Psammophis molochina Berthold (rejected; Böhme 2010)
1870 Philodryas nattereri Steindachner
Chlorosoma nattereri Amaral 1929

Remarks: Although frequently listed in older literature as occurring in Paraguay (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; David & Ineich 1999), Smith, Scott, Cacciali, Atkinson & Pheasey (2013) were apparently the first to document the species from the country with a voucher specimen.
Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Philodryas olfersii

Common Green Bush Racer*, (Lichtenstein's Bush Racer, Lichtenstein's Green Racer)

Gewöhnliche Grüne Strauchnatter*

Almindelig Grøn Kratpilsnog*

1823 Coluber olfersii Lichtenstein
Chlorosoma olfersii Amaral 1929
Philodryas olfersii Boulenger 1896
1825 Coluber herbeus Wied
Philodryas olfersi herbeus Thomas 1976
1825 Coluber pileatus Wied (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1862 Philodryas latirostris Cope (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
Philodryas olfersi latirostris Thomas 1976
1862 Philodryas reinhardtii Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1924 Philodryas argentinus Müller (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1957 Philodryas carbonelli Roze (Thomas 1976)

Other common names:
herbea: Northern Green Racer
latirostris: Southern Green Racer
olfersii: Southeastern Green Racer
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela.


Philodryas patagoniensis

Patagonian Bush Racer, Patagonian Green Racer, Savanna Racer

Patagonische Strauchnatter

Patagonisk Kratpilsnog*

1857 Callirhinus patagoniensis Girard
Pseudophis patagoniensis Cope 1862
Dirrhox patagoniensis Cope 1887
Philodryas patagoniensis Hoge 1964
1858 Euophrys modestus Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)

Remarks: A single record from Chile (Thomas 1976; repeated by Gouveia, Novelli, Vieira & Sousa 2017) is regarded as doubtful. The species was not included for Chile in subsequent works (e.g., Núñez 1992; Veloso & Navarro 1988).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Philodryas psammophidea

South American Striped Racer*, (Günther's Bush Racer, Günther's Green Racer)

Südamerikanische Streifen-Strauchnatter*

Sydamerikansk Stribet Kratpilsnog*

1872 Philodryas psammophideus Günther
Chlorosoma psammophideum Serié 1936
1887 Dirrhox lativittatus Cope
Philodryas psammophideus lativittatus Thomas 1976
1909 Philodryas lineatus Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1976 Philodryas psammophideus andensis Thomas

Other common names:
andensis: Andean Striped Racer
lativittata: Brazilian Striped Racer
psammophidea: Common Striped Racer
Remarks: Previously included bolivianus.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.


Philodryas simonsii

Cajamarca Bush Racer*, (Simons' Racer, Simons' Bush Racer)

Cajamarca-Strauchnatter*

Cajamarca-kratpilsnog*

1900 Philodryas Simonsii Boulenger
Leimadophis simonsii Parker 1932
1943 Dromicus angustilineatus Schmidt & Walker (Thomas 1976, 1977)
Alsophis angustilineatus Maglio 1970
1943 Dromicus inca Schmidt & Walker (Thomas 1976, 1977)
1974 Incaspis cercostropha Donoso-Barros (Thomas 1976, 1977)

Remarks: Transferred back to Philodryas from Leimadophis by Thomas (1976, 1977). Presence in Chile has been questioned (Núñez & Jacsik 1993; David & Ineich 1999), but it was verified by Pincheira-Donoso (2003).
Distribution: Chile, Ecuador, Peru.


Philodryas tachymenoides

Arequipa Bush Racer*, Peruvian Bush Racer, Twin-spotted Racer

Arequipa-Strauchnatter*

Arequipa-kratpilsnog*

1943 Dromicus tachymenoides Schmidt & Walker
Alsophis tachymenoides Maglio 1970
Philodryas tachymenoides Thomas 1976
Liophis tachymenoides Dixon 1980

Distribution: Chile, Peru.


Philodryas trilineata

Argentine Racer, Argentine Mousehole Snake, (Burmeister's Bush Racer)

Argentinische Strauchnatter*

Argentinsk Kratpilsnog*

1961 Herpetodryas trilineatus Jan
Atomophis trilineatus Cope 1887
Philodryas trilineatus Cei 1993
1863 Philodryas burmeisteri Jan (Cei 1993)
Chlorosoma burmeisteri Amaral 1929
1898 Philodryas arenarius Andersson (Thomas 1976 [as a synonym of burmeisteri])

Distribution: Argentina.


Philodryas varia

Variegated Bush Racer

Bunte Strauchnatter*

Broget Kratpilsnog*

1863 Liophis wagleri var. varia Jan
Philodryas varius Thomas & Johnson 1984
1897 Philodryas borellii Peracca (Thomas & Johnson 1984)
1925 Philodryas werneri Müller (Thomas 1976 [as synonym of borellii])
1973 Philodryas patagoniensis haywardi Laurent (Reptile Database, viewed 2013 01 26)

Other common names:
borellii: Borelli's Racer
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia.


Philodryas viridissima

Emerald Bush Racer*, Emerald Palm Snake, Two-colored Green Tree Snake, Green Bush Racer, Common Bush Racer, Common Green Racer, Northern Green Tree Snake

Smaragd-Strauchnatter*

Smaragd-kratpilsnog*

1758 Coluber viridissimus Linnaeus
Natrix viridissimus Merrem 1820
Coronella viridissimus Boie 1827
Chlorosoma viridissimus Wagler 1830
Herpetodryas viridissimus Schlegel 1837
Dryophylax viridissimus Duméril 1853
Philodryas viridissimus Günther 1858
1803 Coluber janthinus Daudin (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Thomas 1976)
1861 Philodryas crassifrons Cope (Thomas 1976)

Remarks: Records from Paraguay are regarded as erroneous (Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith 2016).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.