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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae Biodiversity of the family Viperidae

Bibliography of the family

(Reptilia: Serpentes)

Note: In order to limit redundancy, relevant literature indexed in the related bibliographies in the left column may not have been included in this page. For a comprehensive search of literature, these bibliographies should therefore also be consulted.

Aldridge, R.D.; Duvall, D. 2002. Evolution of the mating season in the pitvipers of North America. Herpetological Monographs 16: 1-25.

Alencar, L.R.V.; Quental, T.B.; Grazziotin, F.G.; Alfaro, M.L.; Martins, M.; Venzon, M.; Zaher, H. 2016. Diversification in vipers: Phylogenetic relationships, time of divergence and shifts in speciation rates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 105: 50-62.

Al-Shammari, A.M. 2011. Molecular phylogeny of Viperidae family from different provinces in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Biology 3(4): 56-63.

Amaral, A. do 1926. Nota de nomenclatura ophiologica. 4. Sôbre a differenciacao dos nomes genericos Lachesis, Trimeresurus e Bothrops. Revista do Museu Paulista (São Paulo) 14: 34-40.

Amaral, A. do 1929. Valor systematico de varias formas de ophidios neotropicos. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 4: 3-68.

Andonov, K.; Natchev, N.; Kornilev, Y.V.; Tzankov, N. 2017. Does sexual selection influence ornamentation of hemipenes in Old World snakes? Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 300(9): 1680-1694

Arena, P.C.; Warwick, C.; Duvall, D. 1995. Rattlesnake round-ups. pp. 313-324. In: Knight, R.L. & Gutzwiller, K.J. (eds.). Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and research. Island Press, Washington, D.C. & Covelo. 372 pp.

Arroyo, G.O.; Cerdas, L. 1986. Microestructura de las escamas dorsales de nueve especies de serpientes costarricenses (Viperidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical 34(1): 123-126.

Ashe, J.S.; Marx, H. 1988. Phylogeny of the viperine snakes (Viperinae): part 2. Cladistic analysis and major lineages. Fieldiana Zoology 52: 1-23.

Barrio, A. 1961. Consideraciones en torno a Crotalus terrificus crotaminicus Moura Goncalves. Physis (Buenos Aires) 22(63): 141-147.

Beaupre, S.J. 2002. Modeling time-energy allocation in vipers: individual responses to environmental variation and implications for populations. pp. 463-481. In: Schuett, G.W.; Höggren, M.; Douglas, M.E.; Greene, H.W. (eds.). Biology of the vipers. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain. 580 pp.

Becak, M.L.; Becak, W.; Pereira, A. 2003. Somatic pairing, endomitosis and chromosome aberrations in snakes (Viperidae and Colubridae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 75(3): 285-300.

Beyerlein, P. 1998. Studies on the significance of microdermatoglyphics in viperid systematics. 1. The microdermatoglyphics of desert vipers. (Squamata: Serpentes: Viperidae.). Herpetozoa 11(1-2): 79-86.

Block, M.J. 1950. Function and operation of the facial pit of the pit vipers. Nature (London) 165(4190): 284-285.

Bonfim, F.S.; Diniz Filho, J.A.F.; Bastos, R.P. 1998. Spatial patterns and the macroecology of South American viperid snakes. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 58(1): 97-103.

Borrell, B.J.; Laduc, T.J.; Dudley, R. 2005. Respiratory cooling in rattlesnakes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A Molecular and Integrative Physiology 140(4): 471-476.

Botha, S.A. 1986. Geographical distribution. Reptilia. Serpentes. Viperidae. Journal of the Herpetological Association of Africa 32: 31.

Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 3. Colubridae (opisthoglyphae and proteroglyphae), Amblycephalidae, Viperidae. Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History), London. 727 pp.

Branch, W.R. 1978. The venomous snakes of southern Africa. 1. Introduction and Viperidae. Snake 9(2): 67-86.

Brattstrom, B.H. 1964. Evolution of the pit vipers. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 13: 185-267.

Breidenbach, C.H. 1990. Thermal cues influence strikes in pitless vipers. Journal of Herpetology 24(4): 448-450.

Broadley, D.G. 1996. A review of the tribe Atherini (Serpentes: Viperidae), with the descriptions of two new genera. African Journal of Herpetology 45(2): 40-48.

Burger, W.L. 1965. Phylogenetic relationships of neotropical pitvipers. Journal Ohio Herpetological Society 5: 60-61.

Burger, W.L. 1971. Genera of pitvipers. Dissertation Abstracts International B 32: 6119.

Burger, W.L. 1972. Genera of pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalidae). Dissertation Abstracts International 32B(10): 6119.

Cadle, J.E. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships among vipers: immunological evidence. pp. 41-48. In: Campbell, J.A. & Brodie, E.D. (eds.). Biology of the pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas. 467 pp.

Campbell, J.A.; Brodie, E.D. (eds.) 1992. Biology of the pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas. 467 pp.

Campbell, J.A.; Lamar, W.W. 1992. Taxonomic status of miscellaneous Neotropical viperids, with the description of a new genus. Occasional Papers the Museum Texas Tech University 153: 1-31.

Campbell, J.A.; Lamar, W.W. 2004. The venomous reptiles of the Western Hemisphere. Vol. 1-2. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, N.Y. 870 pp.

Carpenter, C.C.; Gillingham, J.C. 1975. Postural responses to kingsnakes by crotaline snakes. Herpetologica 31(3): 293-302.

Casperd, N.M. 1971. The vipers. Africana 4(5): 23-24.

Castoe, T.A.; Parkinson, C.L. 2006. Bayesian mixed models and the phylogeny of pitvipers (Viperidae: Serpentes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39(1): 91-110.

Chen, Q.; Liu, Y.; Brauth, S.E.; Fang, G.; Tang, Y. 2017. The thermal background determines how the infrared and visual systems interact in pit vipers. Journal of Experimental Biology 220(17): 3103-3109

Chiszar, D.; Andrén, C.; Nilson, G.; O'Connell, B.; Mestas, J.S.; Smith, H.M.; Radcliffe, C.W. 1982. Strike-induced chemosensory searching in Old World vipers and New World vipers. Animal Learning and Behavior 10(2): 121-125.

Chkhikvadze, V.M.; Zerova, G.A. 1983. The morphology of thoracic vertebrae and systematic position of some viperine snakes. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR 112(3): 653-656.

Clench, W.J. 1925. A possible manner of snake distribution. Copeia 1925(142): 40.

Corbett, K. 1993. Viper conservation in Europe. pp. 11-15. In: Johnson, B. & Menzies, V. (eds.). International symposium and workshop on the conservation of the eastern massasauga rattlesnake Sistrurus catenatus catenatus: Proceedings of a symposium and workshop sponsored by the Metropolitan Toronto Zoo, held at the Zoo from May 8-9, 1992. Metro Toronto Zoo, West Hill, Ontario. 141 pp.

Creer, S.; Malhotra, A.; Thorpe, R.S. 2003. Assessing the phylogenetic utility of four mitochondrial genes and a nuclear intron in the Asian pit viper genus, Trimeresurus: Separate, simultaneous, and conditional data combination analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution 20(8): 1240-1251.

Creer, S.; Malhotra, A.; Thorpe, R.S.; Pook, C.E. 2005. Targeting optimal introns for phylogenetic analyses in non-model taxa: experimental results in Asian pitvipers. Cladistics 21(4): 390-395.

Cullings, K.W.; Morafka, D.J.; Hernandez, J.; Roberts, J.W. 1997. Reassessment of phylogenetic relationships among pitviper genera based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Copeia 1997(2): 429-432.

Cunha, O.R. da; Nascimento, F.P. do 1981. Ofidios da Amazonia. 13. Observacoes sobre a viviparidade em ofidios do Para e Maranhao (Ophidia: Aniliidae, Boidae, Colubridae e Viperidae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi Nova Serie Zoologia 109: 1-20.

Darracq, M.A.; Lee, C.F.; Klauk, B.; Thornton, S.L. 2015. A chance to cut is not always a chance to cure - fasciotomy in the treatment of rattlesnake envenomation: a retrospective poison center study. Toxicon 101: 23-26.

David, P. 2007. Book review: Gumprecht, Tillack, Orlov, Captain & Ryabov. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. Russian Journal of Herpetology 14(1): 73-77.

David, P.; Vogel, G. 2010. Venomous snakes of Europe, Northern, Central, and Western Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 162 pp.

David, P.; Vogel, G. 2015. An updated list of Asian pitvipers and a selection of recent publications. pp. 545-565. In: Visser, D. Asian pitvipers. Breeding experience & wildlife. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt a.M. 571 pp.

David, P.; Vogel, G.; Dubois, A. 2011. On the need to follow rigorously the rules of the Code for the subsequent designation of a nucleospecies (type species) for a nominal genus which lacked one: the case of the nominal genus Trimeresurus Lacepede, 1804 (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 2992: 1-51.

Davidson, T.M.; Schafer, S.F.; Jones, J. 1992. North American pit vipers. Journal of Wilderness Medicine 3(4): 397-421.

Davidson, T.M.; Schafer, S.F.; Moseman, J. 1993. Central and South American pit vipers. Journal of Wilderness Medicine 4(4): 416-440.

Detrait, J.; Saint Girons, H. 1986. Correlations entre les communautes antigeniques des venins et le pouvoir neutralisant des immunserums antiveniment chez des Elapidae et des Viperidae. Rapports avec la position systematique. Bulletin de la Societe Zoologique de France 111(3-4): 173-182.

Detrait, J.; Saint-Girons, H. 1979. Communautes antigeniques des venins et systematique des Viperidae. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 49(1): 71-80.

Dobiey, M.; Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous snakes of Africa / Giftschlangen Afrikas. [Terralog vol. 15]. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main. 148 pp.

Dowling, H.G. 1965. The puzzle of the Bothrops; or, a tangle of serpents. Animal Kingdom 68: 18-21.

Dullemeijer, P. 1959. A comparative functional-anatomical study of the heads of some Viperidae. Gegenbaurs Morph. Jb. 99: 881-985.

Dunkle, T. 1981. A perfect serpent. Science 81 2(8): 30-35.

Dutton, C.J.; Taylor, P. 2003. A comparison between pre- and posthibernation morphometry, hematology, and blood chemistry in viperid snakes. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 34(1): 53-58.

Duvall, D.; Arnold, S.J.; Schuett, G.W. 1992. Pitviper mating systems: ecological potential, sexual selection, and microevolution. pp. 321-336. In: Campbell, J.A. & Brodie, E.D. (eds.). Biology of the pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas. 467 pp.

Duvall, D.; Beaupre, S.J. 1998. Sexual strategy and size dimorphism in rattlesnakes: integrating proximate and ultimate causation. American Zoologist 38(1): 152-165.

Elliott, M.L. 1954. Keeping adders. Starfish 7: 14-16.

El-Toubi, M.R.; Kamal, A.M.; Hammouda, H.G. 1965. The phylogenetic relationship between the ophidian families Boidae, Colubridae and Viperidae in the light of the developmental study of the skull. Zoologischer Anzeiger 175: 289-294.

Estol, C.O. 1982. Scale microdermatoglyphics of the viperid snake genera Bothrops and Trimeresurus: taxonomic relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International B Sciences and Engineering 42(7): 2734.

Fenwick, A.M.; Greene, H.W.; Parkinson, C.L. 2012. The serpent and the egg: unidirectional evolution of reproductive mode in vipers. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 50(1): 59-66.

Feuillee-Billot, A. 1928. A propos des vipères. Nature (Paris) 2761 [1927]: 465-466.

Gans, C.; Kim, H.L. 1992. Kinematic description of the sidewinding locomotion of four vipers. Israel Journal of Zoology 38(1): 9-23.

Gans, C.; Mendelssohn, H. 1971. Sidewinding and jumping progression of vipers. pp. 17-38. In: Toxins of animal and plant origin. Vol. 1. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers, New York, London & Paris.

Garrigues, T.; Dauga, C.; Ferquel, E.; Choumet, V.; Failloux, A.B. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of Vipera Laurenti, 1768 and the related genera Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) and Daboia (Gray, 1842), with comments about neurotoxic Vipera aspis aspis populations. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 35(1): 35-47.

Geniez, P.; Grillet, P. 1989. Les couleuvres et les viperes. Payot, Lausanne. 64pp.

Giannasi, N.; Malhotra, A.; Thorpe, R.S. 2001. Nuclear and mtDNA phylogenies of the Trimeresurus complex: implications for the gene versus species tree debate. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19(1): 57-66.

Gloyd, H.K. 1958. Aberrations in the color patterns of some Crotalid snakes. Bulletin of the Chicago Academy of Sciences 10: 185-195.

Gloyd, H.K.; Conant, R. 1990. Snakes of the Agkistrodon complex: a monographic review. (Contributions to Herpetology. Vol. 6). Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Athens, Ohio. 614 pp.

Goetz, J.C. 1975. The vipers of Africa south of the Sahara. Herp 12(1-2): 3-11.

Golay, P.; Smith, H.M.; Broadley, D.G.; Dixon, J.R.; McCarthy, C.; Rage, J.C.; Schätti, B.; Toriba, M. 1993. Endoglyphs and other major venomous snakes of the world: a checklist. Azemiops, Geneva, Switzerland. 478 pp.

Gonzalez Lorenzo, D. 1977. Notas sobre distribucion, morfologia y biometria de Viperidae (Reptilia, Ophidia). Miscelánea Zoológica (Barcelona) 4(1): 241-263.

Greene, H.W. 1992. The ecological and behavioral context for pitviper evolution. pp. 107-117. In: Campbell, J.A. & Brodie, E.D. (eds.). Biology of the pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas. 467 pp.

Greene, H.W.; Campbell, J.A. 1992. The future of pitvipers. pp. 421-427. In: Campbell, J.A. & Brodie, E.D. (eds.). Biology of the pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas. 467 pp.

Greene, H.W.; May, P.G.; Hardy, D.L.; Sciturro, J.M.; Farrell, T.M. 2002. Parental behavior by vipers. pp. 179-206. In: Schuett, G.W.; Höggren, M.; Douglas, M.E.; Greene, H.W. (eds.). Biology of the vipers. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain. 580 pp.

Grice, G. 1998. The red hourglass. Lives of the predators. Allen Lane The Penguin Press, Harmondsworth, Middlesex. 259 pp.

Grond, C. 1924. Sur les serpents, vipères. Rev. path. comp. Paris 24: 437-440.

Groombridge, B. 1986. Phyletic relationships among viperine snakes. pp. 219-222. In: Rocek, Z. (ed.). Studies in herpetology. Proceedings of the European herpetological meeting (3rd ordinary general meeting of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica), Prague 1985. Charles University, Prague. 754 pp.

Gumprecht, A. 2012. [Current information on the taxonomy and systematics of Asian pit vipers]. Elaphe 1(1): 52-61.

Gumprecht, A.; Ryabov, S.A. 2002. Die Gattung Trimeresurus Lacepede, 1804 - Zum Kenntnisstand der Forschung. Draco 3(4) (12): 31-44.

Gumprecht, A.; Tillack, F.; Orlov, N.L.; Captain, A.; Ryabov, S. 2004. Asian Pitvipers. GeitjeBooks, Berlin. 368 pp.

Guo, P. 2005. [Current advances in Trimeresurus (sensu lato) systematics]. (In Chinese, English summary). Sichuan Journal of Zoology 24(3): 428-431.

Guo, P.; Jadin, R.C.; Malhotra, A.; Li, C. 2010. An investigation of the cranial evolution of Asian pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae), with comments on the phylogenetic position of Peltopelor macrolepis. Acta Zoologica (Copenhagen) 91(4): 402-407.

Guo, P.; Liu, Q.; Li, J.; Cao, Y.; Wang, Y. 2016. Catalogue of the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles in the Herpetological Museum of the Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences: V. Viperidae (Reptilia, Serpentes). Asian Herpetological Research 7(1): 59-63.

Guo, P.; Malhotra, A.; Creer, S.; Pook, C.E. 2009. An evaluation of the systematic value of skull morphology in the Trimeresurus radiation (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) of Asian pitvipers. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 47(4): 378-384.

Guo, P.; Zhang, F. 2000. [Cladistic analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among the Crotalinae genera in Asia (Serpentes: Viperidae)]. (In Chinese, English summary). Shengming Kexue Yanjiu 4(3) (Sum 12): 262-266.

Guo, P.; Zhao, E.M. 2004. [A review of taxonomy and phylogeny of Trimeresurus (sensu lato)]. (In Chinese, English summary). Sichuan Journal of Zoology 23(4): 380-385.

Guo, P.; Zhao, E.M. 2006. Comparison of skull morphology in nine Asian pit vipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae). Herpetological Journal 16(3): 305-313.

Gutberlet, R.L.; Harvey, M.B. 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of New World pitvipers as inferred from anatomical evidence. pp. 51-68. In: Schuett, G.W.; Höggren, M.; Douglas, M.E.; Greene, H.W. (eds.). Biology of the vipers. Eagle Mountain Publishing, Eagle Mountain. 580 pp.

Gutierrez, J.M.; Taylor, R.T.; Bolanos, R. 1979. Cariotipos de diez especies de serpientes costarricenses de la familia Viperidae. Revista de Biologia Tropical 27(2): 309-319.

Hampton, P.M. 2011. Ventral and sub-caudal scale counts are associated with macrohabitat use and tail specialization in viperid snakes. Evolutionary Ecology 25(2): 531-546.

Hanger, M.R. 1983. Heat detection in the Boidae and Crotalidae. Herptile 8(1): 37-40.

Harding, K.A.; Welch, K.R.G. 1980. Venomous snakes of the world. A checklist. Pergamon, New York. 188 pp.

Harris, H.S. 1977. Additional notes concerning cannibalism in pit vipers (Serpentes, Crotalidae). Bulletin of the Maryland Herpetological Society 13(2): 121-122.

Hendry, C.R.; Guiher, T.J.; Pyron, R.A. 2014. Ecological divergence and sexual selection drive sexual size dimorphism in new world pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae). Journal of Evolutionary Biology 27(4): 760-771.

Herrmann, H.W.; Joger, U. 1995. Molecular data on the phylogeny of African vipers - preliminary results. pp. 92-97. In: Llorente, G.A.; Montori, A.; Santos, X. & Carretero, M.A. (eds.). Scientia Herpetologica: papers submitted from the 7th Ordinary General Meeting of Societas Europaea Herpetologica, Barcelona, September 15-19, 1993. Asociacion Herpetologica Espanola, Barcelona. 385 pp.

Herrmann, H.W.; Joger, U. 1997. Evolution of viperine snakes. Symposia of the Zoological Society of London 70 [1996]: 43-61.

Herrmann, H.W.; Joger, U.; Lenk, P.; Wink, M. 1999. Morphological and molecular phylogenies of viperines: conflicting evidence? Kaupia Darmstädter Beiträge Zur Naturgeschichte 8: 21-30.

Herrmann, H.W.; Joger, U.; Nilson, G. 1992. Phylogeny and systematics of viperine snakes. III. Resurrection of the genus Macrovipera (Reuss, 1927) as suggested by biochemical evidence. Amphibia-Reptilia 13(4): 375-392.

Hewitt, J. 1911. Note on the relationship of the maxilla of Vipera to that of Colubridae. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 3(2): 93-95.

Hofstadler Deiques, C. 2002. The development of the pit organ of Bothrops Jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae): Support for the monophyly of the subfamily Crotalinae. Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 83(3): 175-182.

Hoge, A.R. 1965. Preliminary account on neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes, Viperidae). Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 32: 109-184.

Hoge, A.R.; Romano-Hoge, S.A.R.W.L. 1981. Poisonous snakes of the world. Part 1. Check list of the pit vipers Viperoidea, Viperidae, Crotalinae. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 42-43 [1978-1979]: 179-310.

Hoge, A.R.; Romano-Hoge, S.A.R.W.L. 1983. Notes on micro and ultrastructure of 'Oberhautschen' in Viperoidea. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 44-45 1980-1981[1983]: 81-118.

Höggren, M. 2003. Jungfrufodsel och kalla måltider. Nya rön om huggormarnas biologi. [Virgin birth and cold meals - new findings on the biology of vipers.] (In Swedish). Fauna och Flora (Stockholm) 98(2): 38-40.

Höggren, M.; Nilson, G.; Andrén, C.; Orlov, N.L.; Tuniyev, B.S. 1993. Vipers of the Caucasus: natural history and systematic review. Herpetological Natural History 1(2): 11-19.

Hoser, R.T. 2009. A reclassification of the rattlesnakes; species formerly exclusively referred to the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 6: 1-21.

Hoser, R.T. 2012. A reassessment of the higher taxonomy of the Viperidae. Australasian Journal of Herpetology 10: 35-48.

Hoser, R.T. 2013. A review and rearrangement of pitviper genera (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Australasian Journal of Herpetology 19: 43-63.

Hoser, R.T. 2013. African adders (Bitis Gray, 1842), reviewed, including, two new subgenera, five new species of Puff adder, all formerly Bitis arietans (Merrem, 1820) subspecific division of Bitis caudalis (Smith, 1839) and division of the Berg Adders Bitis atropos (Linnaeus, 1758) (Serpentes: Viperidae: Bitisini). Australasian Journal of Herpetology 19: 3-24.

Hoser, R.T. 2013. New tribes and sub-tribes of vipers and elapid snakes and two new species of snake (Squamata: Serpentes). Australasian Journal of Herpetology 17: 58-63.

Hunziker, R. 2001. The guide to owning eyelash and temple vipes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 54 pp.

Jackson, K. 2002. How tubular venom-conducting fangs are formed. Journal of Morphology 252(3): 291-297.

Joger, U. (ed.) 1999. Phylogeny and systematics of the Viperidae. Kaupia Darmstädter Beiträge Zur Naturgeschichte 8: 1-148.

Johnson, B.D. 1968. Selected Crotalidae venom properties as a source of taxonomic criteria. Toxicon 6: 5-10.

Kardong, K.V. 1979. 'Protovipers' and the evolution of snake fangs. Evolution 33(1): 433-443.

Kardong, K.V. 1981. Investigations into the feeding mechanism of solenoglyphous snakes. Acta Morphologica Neerlando-Scandinavica 19(3): 246.

Kardong, K.V. 1983. The evolution of the venom apparatus in snakes from colubrids to viperids and elapids. Memorias do Instituto Butantan (Sao Paulo) 46 [1982]: 105-118.

Kardong, K.V.; Berkhoudt, H. 1999. Rattlesnake hunting behavior: correlations between plasticity of predatory performance and neuroanatomy. Brain Behavior and Evolution 53(1): 20-28.

Klemmer, K. 1963. Liste der rezenten Giftschlangen. Elapidae, Hydrophiidae, Viperidae und Crotalidae. pp. 253-464. In: Anonymous. Die Giftschlangen der Erde. Behringwerk-Mitteilungen, Sonderband, Marburg/Lahn.

Knight, A.; Mindell, D.P. 1994. On the phylogenetic relationship of Colubrinae, Elapidae, and Viperidae and the evolution of front-fanged venom systems in snakes. Copeia 1: 1-9.

Kraus, F.; Mink, D.G.; Brown, W.M. 1996. Crotaline intergeneric relationships based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data. Copeia 1996(4): 763-773.

Krecsák, L. 2007. An account of the generic and specific names, and type specimens of viperid taxa described by Albert Franz Theodor Reuss (Squamata: Viperidae). Zootaxa 1514: 1-36.

Krochmal, A.R.; Bakken, G.S.; Laduc, T.J. 2004. Heat in evolution's kitchen: evolutionary perspectives on the functions and origin of the facial pit of pitvipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae). Journal of Experimental Biology 207(24): 4231-4238.

Kwet, A.; Trapp, B. 2014. Die Vipern Europas. Draco 15(60): pp. ?

Kwiatkowski, M.A.; Brent, B.D. 2011. Evolutionary losses of facial stripes in New World pitvipers. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104(4): 923-933.

Leenders, T. 1995. The snakes of Rara Avis, Costa Rica. 2. Pit vipers (Crotalinae). Litteratura Serpentium (English Edition) 15(1): 4-12.

Leitao de Araujo, M. 1978. Notas sobre ovos de serpentes (Boidae, Colubridae, Elapidae e Viperidae). Iheringia (Zoologia) 51: 9-37.

Leitao de Araujo, M.; Ely, L.A.M. 1980. Notas sobre a biologia de tanatofidios criados em cativeiro - 2-2 parte (Ophidia-Elapidae e Viperidae). Iheringia Serie Zoologia 55: 9-26.

Lema, T. de 1960. Notas sôbre os répteis do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. VIII. Tendência ao estriamento des marcas dorsais nos Crotalideos - descrição de dois casos novos. Iheringia (Zoologia) 13: 28-35.

Lenk, P.; Kalyabina, S.; Wink, M.; Joger, U. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among the true vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19(1): 94-104.

Lillywhite, H.B. 1993. Orthostatic intolerance of viperid snakes. Physiological Zoology 66(6): 1000-1014.

Lillywhite, H.B.; Smits, A.W. 1992. The cardiovascular adaptations of viperid snakes. pp. 143-153. In: Campbell, J.A. & Brodie, E.D. (eds.). Biology of the pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas. 467 pp.

Lima-Ribeiro, M.S.; Brito Rangel, T.F.L.V.; Plaza Pinto, M.; Moura, I.O.; Melo, T.L.; Terribile, L.C. 2010. Padroes espaciais da riqueza de especies de viperideos na America do Sul: temperatura ambiental vs. cinetica-bioquimica. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences 32(2): 153-158.

Loveridge, A. 1929. Notes on snakes and snakebites in East Africa. III. The viperine snakes. Bulletin of the Antivenin Institute of America 2: 1-5.

Lynn, W.G. 1931. The facial pit of the pit vipers. Amer. J. Anat. 49: 97-135.

Malhotra, A.; Creer, S.; Pook, C.E.; Thorpe, R.S. 2010. Inclusion of nuclear intron sequence data helps to identify the Asian sister group of New World pitvipers. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 54(1): 172-178.

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