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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Agkistrodon
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Agkistrodon

American Copperheads, Cottonmouths, and Cantils

Amerikanische Mokassinottern, Dreieckskopfottern, Dreiecksköpfe

Mokkasinslanger

1799 Agkistrodon Palisot de Beauvois (type species: Agkistrodon mokasen Beauvois de Palisot 1799)
1801 Scytale Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille [not Scytale Gronovius 1763 (Boidae)] (type species: Boa contortrix Linnaeus 1766)
1803 Cenchris Daudin (type species: Cenchris mokeson Daudin 1803)
1813 Scytalus Fischer [emendation of Scytalus Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801]
1826 Tisiphone Fitzinger [not Tisiphone Huebner 1819 (Insecta)] (type species: Scytalus cupreus Rafinesque 1818)
1830 Ancistrodon Wagler [emendation of Agkistrodon Palisot de Beauvois 1799]
1836 Acontias Troost [not Acontias Cuvier 1817 (Sauria)] (type species: Crotalus piscivorus Lacepede 1789)
1836 Toxicophis Troost [substitute name for Acontias Troost 1836]
Contents: 8 species, of which 4 (50.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included the species now placed in Calloselasma, Deinagkistrodon, Gloydius, and Hypnale.
Distribution: North America, Central America.
Reported from: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena)], Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia).

Agkistrodon bilineatus

Western Cantil, (Mexican Moccasin, Tropical Moccasin, Common Cantil)

Westmexikanische Mokassinotter

Vestmexicansk Mokkasinslange

1863 Ancistrodon bilineatus Günther
Trigonocephalus bilineatus Müller 1878
1954 Trigonocephalus specialis Recinos (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
2001 Agkistrodon bilineatus lemosespinali Smith & Chiszar (Bryson & Mendoza-Quijano 2007)

Other common names:
bilineatus: Common Cantil, Mexican Cantil
lemosespinali: Lemos-Espinal's Cantil
Remarks: Previously included howardgloydi and russeolus. Records of from coastal Veracruz refer to lemosespinali, a taxon of uncertain status, which is here considered a synonym of bilineatus, following Bryson & Mendoza-Quijano (2007).
Distribution: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena)], Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz).


Agkistrodon conanti

Florida Cottonmouth

Florida-Wassermokassinotter

Florida-vandmokkasin

1969 Agkistrodon piscivorus conanti Gloyd
Agkistrodon conanti Burbrink & Guiher 2015

Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia).


Agkistrodon contortrix

Eastern Copperhead, (American Copperhead)

Östlicher Kupferkopf, (Nordamerikanischer Kupferkopf)

Østlig Kobberhoved, (Amerikansk Kobberhoved)

1766 Boa contortrix Linnaeus
Scytale contortrix Sonnini & Latreille 1801-02
Trigonocephalus contortrix Holbrook 1838
Cenchris contortrix Gray 1842
Agkistrodon contortrix Baird & Girard 1853
Ancistrodon contortrix Baird 1854
1799 Agkistrodon mokasen Palisot de Beauvois (Burbrink & Guiher 2015)
Ancistrodon mokasen Brown 1908
1803 Cenchris mokeson Daudin (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Scytale mockeson [sic] Say 1819
Agkistrodon mokeson Gloyd & Conant 1943
Agkistrodon contortrix mokeson Klauber 1948
Ancistrodon contortrix mokeson Schmidt 1953
1818 Scytale Cupreus Rafinesque (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Tisiphone cuprea Fitzinger 1826
Agkistrodon mokasen cupreus Gloyd & Conant 1938
1827 Cenchris marmorata Boie (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1836 Acontias atro-fuscus Troost (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Toxicophas atrofuscus Troost 1836
Trigonocephalus atrofuscus Holbrook 1842
Ancistrodon atrofuscus Cope 1875
Ancistrodon contortrix atrofuscus Garman 1884
1837 Trigonocephalus cenchris Schlegel (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1853 Trigonocephalus histrionicus Duméril (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1943 Agkistrodon mokeson austrinus Gloyd & Conant (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
1969 Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster Gloyd [part] (Burbrink & Guiher 2015)

Other common names:
contortrix: Southern Copperhead
mokasen: Northern Copperhead
phaeogaster: Osage Copperhead
Remarks: Previously included laticinctus.
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia).


Agkistrodon howardgloydi

Southern Cantil, Castellana

Südliche Mokassinotter

Centralamerikansk Mokkasinslange

1984 Agkistrodon bilineatus howardgloydi Conant
Agkistrodon howardgloydi Porras, Wilson, Schuett & Reiserer 2013

Distribution: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua.


Agkistrodon laticinctus

Broad-banded Copperhead

Breitband-Kupferkopf

Bredbåndet Kobberhoved

1934 Agkistrodon mokasen laticinctus Gloyd & Conant
Agkistrodon mokeson laticinctus Gloyd & Conant 1943
Agkistrodon contortrix laticinctus Klauber 1948
Ancistrodon contortrix laticinctus Schmidt 1953
Agkistrodon laticinctus Burbrink & Guiher 2015
1943 Agkistrodon mokeson pictigaster Gloyd & Conant
Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Klauber 1948
Ancistrodon contortrix pictigaster Schmidt 1953
1969 Agkistrodon contortrix phaeogaster Gloyd [part] (Burbrink & Guiher 2015)

Other common names:
phaeogaster: Osage Copperhead
pictigaster: Trans-Pecos Copperhead
Remarks: Previously included regarded as a subspecies of contortrix.
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila), USA (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas).


Agkistrodon piscivorus

Northern Cottonmouth, Water Moccasin

Nördliche Wassermokassinotter, Wassermokasinschlange

Nordlig Vandmokkasin, Vandmokkasinslange

1789 Crotalus piscivorus Lacepede
Scytale piscivora Sonnini & Latreille 1801-02
Coluber piscivorus Merrem 1820
Trigonocephalus piscivorus Holbrook 1838
Cenchris piscivorus Gray 1842
Toxicophis piscivorus Baird & Girard 1853
Ancistrodon piscivorus Cope 1860
Vipera cenchris piscivorus Higgins 1873
Agkistrodon piscivorus Garman 1890
1790 Crotalus Aquaticus Bonnaterre (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Coluber aquaticus Shaw 1802
1802 Coluber Tisiphone Shaw (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Trigonocephalus tisiphone Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
1836 Acontias leucostoma Troost
Toxicophis leucostoma Troost 1836
Agkistrodon piscivorus leucostoma Gloyd & Conant 1943
1853 Toxicophis pugnax Baird & Girard (Campbell & Lamar 2004)
Ancistrodon pugnax Cope 1860
Ancistrodon piscivorus pugnax Yarrow 1883

Other common names:
leucostoma: Western Cottonmouth
piscivorus: Eastern Cottonmouth
Remarks: Previously included conanti. Although piscivorus was published in an unavailable work, the specific epithet piscivorus has been conserved (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1987: Opinion 1463).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia).


Agkistrodon russeolus

Yucatan Cantil, Yucatecan Cantil

Yucatan-Mokassinotter

Yucatan-mokkasinslange

1972 Agkistrodon bilineatus russeolus Gloyd
Agkistrodon russeolus Porras, Wilson, Schuett & Reiserer 2013

Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Yucatan).


Agkistrodon taylori

Ornate Cantil, (Taylor’s Cantil)

Schmuck-Mokassinotter

Pragtmokkasinslange

1951 Agkistrodon bilineatus taylori Burger & Robertson
Agkistrodon taylori Parkinson, Zamudio & Greene 2000

Remarks: Campbell & Lamar (2004) regarded Agkistrodon bilineatus lemosespinali as a synonym of taylori. Following Bryson & Mendoza-Quijano (2007) it is here treated as part of bilineatus, as in the original description. Records of from coastal Veracruz refer to lemosespinali (=bilineatus).
Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).