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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Trionychidae
Bibliography of the genus Apalone
Biodiversity of the family Trionychidae








Genus
Apalone

North American Softshell Turtles

Amerikanische Weichschildkröten

Nordamerikanske Blødskildpadder, Nordamerikanske Trekloskildpadder

1832 Apalone Rafinesque (type species: Apalone hudsonica Rafinesque 1832)
1832 Mesodeca Rafinesque (type species: Testudo bartrami Daudin 1801; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1835 Platypeltis Fitzinger (type species: Testudo ferox Schneider 1783; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
Glatypeltis Cope 1860 [lapsus for Platypeltis]
1869 Callinia Gray (type species: Trionyx spiniferus Le Sueur 1827; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1944 Euamyda Stejneger (type species: Trionyx muticus Le Sueur 1827; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)

Contents: 4 species, of which 3 (75.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included in Trionyx (e.g., Wermuth & Mertens 1977).
Distribution: North America.
Reported from: Canada (Ontario, Quebec), Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas), USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).

Apalone atra

Black Spiny Softshell Turtle

Schwarze Weichschildkröte

Mexicansk Sort Blødskildpadde

1960 Trionyx ater Webb & Legler
Trionyx spinifer ater Morafka 1977
Apalone spinifera ater Groombridge 1988
Apalone ater David 1994

Remarks: Many authors recognize atra as a separate species (e.g., Webb 1973; Flores-Villela 1993, Vetter 2004; Bonin, Devaux & Dupre 2006; Legler & Vogt 2013), although others retain it as a subspecies of spinifera (e.g., McCord & Joseph-Ouni 2005a; Fritz & Havas 2006; Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007b; Cerdá-Ardura, Soberón-Mobarak, McGaugh & Vogt 2008). Vetter (2004) noted that the correct spelling of the specific epithet is atra rather than ater, due to the feminine grammatical gender of Apalone.
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila).


Apalone ferox

Florida Softshell Turtle

Florida-Weichschildkröte

Florida-blødskildpadde

1783 Testudo ferox Schneider
Emydes ferox Brongniart 1805
Trionyx ferox Schweigger 1812
Amyda ferox Oken 1816
Aspidonectes ferox Wagler 1830
Platypeltis ferox Fitzinger 1843
Apalone ferox Meylan 1987
1795 Testudo (ferox?) verrucosa Schoepff (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1801 Testudo bartrami Daudin [substitute name for Testudo (ferox?) verrucosa Schoepff 1795] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Chelys bartramii Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire 1809
Trionyx bartrami LeConte 1830
Mesodeca bartrami Rafinesque 1832
1809 Trionyx carinatus Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Aspidonectes carinatus Wagler 1830
1809 Trionyx georgianus Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire [substitute name for Testudo ferox Schneider 1783] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1809 Trionyx georgicus Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire [substitute name for Testudo ferox Schneider 1783] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1812 Trionyx brongniarti Schweigger [substitute name for Trionyx carinatus Geoffroy Saint-Hillaire 1809] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1835 Trionyx harlani Bell in Harlan (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Distribution: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina).


Apalone mutica

Smooth Softshell Turtle

Glattrand-Weichschildkröte

Glatrandet Blødskildpadde

1827 Trionyx muticus Le Sueur
Aspidonectes muticus Wagler 1830
Gymnopus muticus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Amyda mutica Agassiz 1857
Apalone mutica Meylan 1987
1864 Potamochelys microcephalus Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Callinia microcephala Gray 1869
1959 Trionyx muticus calvatus Webb
Apalone mutica calvata Ernst & Barbour 1989

Other common names:
calvata: Gulf Coast Smooth Softshell Turtle
mutica: Midland Smooth Softshell Turtle
Extinct in: USA (Pennsylvania).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, West Virginia, Wisconsin).


Apalone spinifera

Spiny Softshell Turtle

Dornrand-Weichschildkröte

Tornet Blødskildpadde, Tornet Trekloskildpadde

1827 Trionyx spiniferus Le Sueur
Gymnopus spiniferus Duméril & Bibron 1835
Gymnopodus spiniferus Duméril 1856
Aspidonectes spinifer Agassiz 1857
Callinia spinifera Gray 1870
Platypeltis spinifer Baur 1893
Amyda spinifera Hurter 1911
Amyda ferox spinifera Neill 1951
Trionyx ferox spinifera Schmidt 1953
Apalone spinifera Meylan 1987
1827 Trionyx ocellatus LeSueur (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1832 Apalone hudsonica Rafinesque (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1839 Trionyx annulifer Wied [substitute name for Trionyx ocellatus LeSueur 1827] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1844 Tyrse argus Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Trionyx argus Gray 1856
1857 Aspidonectes asper Agassiz
Platypeltis asper Baur 1893
Amyda spinifera aspera Stejneger & Barbour 1939
Amyda ferox aspera Neill 1951
Trionyx ferox aspera Schmidt 1953
Trionyx spinifer asper Schwartz 1956
Apalone spinifera asper Ernst & Barbour 1989
1857 Aspidonectes emoryi Agassiz
Trionyx emoryi Strauch 1862
Platypeltis emoryii Baur 1893
Amyda emoryi Stejneger & Barbour 1917
Amyda ferox emoryi Neill 1951
Trionyx ferox emoryi Schmidt 1953
Trionyx spinifer emoryi Schwartz 1956
Apalone spinifera emoryi Ernst & Barbour 1989
1857 Aspidonectes nuchalis Agassiz (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Platypeltis nuchalis Baur 1893
1865 Gymnopus olivaceus Wied [substitute name for Trionyx ocellatus LeSueur 1827] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1870 Aspidonectes emyda Gray [lapsus for Aspidonectes emoryi Agassiz 1857] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1870 Aspidonectes georgii Gray [lapsus for Aspidonectes emoryi Agassiz 1857] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1888 Platypeltis agassizii Baur (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Trionyx agassizii Hay 1892
Pelodiscus agassizii Baur 1893
Aspidonectes agassizii Jordan 1899
Trionyx spiniferus agassizii Siebenrock 1924
Amyda agassizii Stejneger & Barbour 1939
Amyda ferox agassizii Neill 1951
Trionyx ferox agassizi Schmidt 1953
1948 Amyda spinifera hartwegi Conant & Goin
Amyda ferox hartwegi Neill 1951
Trionyx ferox hartwegi Schmidt 1953
Trionyx spinifer hartwegi Schwartz 1956
Apalone spinifera hartwegi Ernst & Barbour 1989
1962 Trionyx spinifer guadelupensis Webb
Apalone spinifera guadalupensis Ernst & Barbour 1989
1962 Trionyx spinifer pallidus Webb
Trionyx pallidus Pritchard 1967
Apalone spinifera pallida Ernst & Barbour 1989

Other common names:
aspera: Gulf Coast Spiny Softshell Turtle
emoryi: Texas Spiny Softshell Turtle
guadaloupensis: Guadaloupe Spiny Softshell Turtle
hartwegi: Western Spiny Softshell Turtle
pallida: Pallid Spiny Softshell Turtle
spinifera: Eastern Spiny Softshell Turtle, Northern Spiny Softshell Turtle
Remarks: Previously included atra, and some authors still regard atra as a subspecies of spinifera. Records from Guerrero (Jiménez-Arcos, Santa Cruz-Padilla, Escalona-López, Casas-Andreu & Centenero-Alcalá 2009) and Puebla (García-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez, Gutiérrez-Mayén & Trujano-Ortega 2009) are tentatively regarded as introductions.
Introduced to: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Guerrero, Jalisco, Morelos, Puebla, Sonora), USA (Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Utah).
Distribution: Canada (Ontario, Quebec), Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas), USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).