Reptiles of
Canada  

Related checklists:  Alberta - British Columbia - Manitoba - New Brunswick - Newfoundland & Labrador - North West Territories - Nova Scotia - Ontario - Prince Edward Island - Quebec - Saskatchewan - Yukon

Bibliography of the reptiles of Canada Taxonomic history of the reptiles of Canada Introduced species
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© Rune Midtgaard


Reptile biodiversity of
Canada

excl. introduced, extinct, unconfirmed, and unnamed species
See complete statistics for
families and genera

Families

Endemic
families

Endemism
(families)

Genera

Endemic
genera

Endemism
(genera)

Species

Endemic
species

Endemism
(species)

Species in %
of total
Lizards (Sauria) 3 0 0.0 % 3 0 0.0 % 5 0 0.0 % 11.9 %
Snakes (Serpentes) 3 0 0.0 % 16 0 0.0 % 25 0 0.0 % 59.5 %
Turtles (Testudines) 6 0 0.0 % 12 0 0.0 % 12 0 0.0 % 28.6 %
Total 12 0 0.0 % 31 0 0.0 % 42 0 0.0 % 100.0 %

Checklist
General remarks: The list includes only formally described species. Newly discovered, but still unnamed species are excluded. However, unnamed species or species unassigned to species level are included, if they are the only representatives of their genus in the region. Species counts exclude extinct and introduced species. Doubtful records, typically older voucher specimens of uncertain origin, have been excluded if considered questionable, as are records based on sources considered unreliable.
Note: Your comments to the checklist (omissions, errors, etc.) are welcomed, preferably if they are provided with reliable references. If possible, please attach a pdf file of the relevant reference to an email addressed to:
Lizards (Sauria)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Anguidae (Slowworms, etc.)
Genus Elgaria (Western Alligator Lizards)
 
Elgaria coerulea

Northern Alligator Lizard

Behler & King 1979 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007
 Family Phrynosomatidae (North American Lesser Iguanas)
Genus Phrynosoma (Horned Lizards)
 
Phrynosoma brevirostris

Great Plains Short-horned Lizard

Behler & King 1979 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 [as hernandesi] Mills 1948 Montanucci 2015 Russell & Bauer 1993 Schmidt 1953 Seburn & Brooks 2007 [as h. hernandesi] Zamudio, Jones & Ward 1997
  EX
Phrynosoma douglasii

Pygmy Short-horned Lizard

Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Montanucci 2015 Seburn & Brooks 2007
 Family Scincidae (Skinks)
Genus Plestiodon (Blue-tailed Skinks)
 
Plestiodon fasciatus

North American Five-lined Skink

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007
 
Plestiodon septentrionalis

Prairie Skink

Behler & King 1979 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Mills 1948 Preston 1987 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Smith 1946
 
Plestiodon skiltonianus

Western Skink

Behler & King 1979 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Jones & Lovich (eds.) 2009 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007

Snakes (Serpentes)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Boidae (Typical Boas)
Genus Charina (Rubber Boas)
 
Charina bottae

Northern Rubber Boa

Behler & King 1979 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Stimson 1969 Wright & Wright 1952
 Family Colubridae (Typical Snakes or Colubrids)
Genus Coluber (North American Racer)
 
Coluber constrictor

North American Racer

Cook & Jong 1975 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wilson 1978 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Contia (Sharp-tailed Snakes)
 
Contia tenuis

Common Sharp-tailed Snake

Cook 1984 Feldman & Hoyer 2010 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952 [as mitis]
Genus Diadophis (Ring-necked Snake)
 
Diadophis punctatus

Ring-necked Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Conant 1975 Cook 1984 Denman & Lapper 1964 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Heterodon (North American Hognose Snakes)
 
Heterodon nasicus

Western Hognose Snake

Behler & King 1979 Conant 1975 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Mills 1948 Preston 1987 Russell & Bauer 1993 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Heterodon platirhinos

Eastern Hognose Snake

Blem 1981 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 [as contortrix] Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Hypsiglena (North American Night Snakes)
 
Hypsiglena chlorophaea

Desert Night Snake

Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 [as torquata] Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Schmidt 1953 Seburn & Brooks 2007 [as torquata]
Genus Lampropeltis (King Snakes & Milk Snakes)
 
Lampropeltis triangulum

Eastern Milk Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Denman & Lapper 1964 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Markel 1990 Mills 1948 Ruane 2015 Ruane, Bryson, Alexander & Burbrink 2014 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Nerodia (North American Water Snakes)
 
Nerodia sipedon

Northern Water Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gibbons & Dorcas 2004 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Opheodrys (North American Green Snakes)
 
Opheodrys vernalis

Smooth Green Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Conant 1975 Cook & Nero 1961 Cook 1967 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 Grobman 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Seton 1918 Stebbins 1985 Thomas 1965 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Pantherophis (North American Rat Snakes)
 
Pantherophis spiloides

Grey Rat Snake

Bleakney 1958 [as obsoletus] Burbrink 2001 Cook 1984 [as E. obsoleta] Dowling 1952 [as obsoleta] Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 [as E. obsoleta] MacCulloch 2002 [as Elaphe obsoleta] Mills 1948 [as obsoletus] Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952 [as obsoletus]
 
Pantherophis vulpinus

Eastern Fox Snake

Cook 1984 [as gloydi] Crother, White, Savage, Eckstut, Graham & Gardner 2011 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 [as gloydi] MacCulloch 2002 [as gloydi] Mills 1948 [as gloydi] Powell 1990 Schulz 1996 [as gloydi] Seburn & Brooks 2007 [as Elaphe gloydi] Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Pituophis (Bullsnakes, Pine Snakes & Gopher Snakes)
 
Pituophis catenifer

Gopher Snake

Behler & King 1979 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Russell & Bauer 1993 Schmidt 1953 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Regina (Queen Snakes)
 
Regina septemvittata

Queen Snake

Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gibbons & Dorcas 2004 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Storeria (North American Brown Snakes)
 
Storeria dekayi

Common Brown Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Christman 1982 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Storeria occipitomaculata

North American Red-bellied Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Conant 1975 Cook & Nero 1961 Cook 1967 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Denman & Lapper 1964 Denman 1981 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Seton 1918 Thomas 1965 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Thamnophis (North American Garter Snakes & Ribbon Snakes)
 
Thamnophis butleri

Northeastern Garter Snake

Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Thamnophis elegans

Terrestrial Garter Snake

Behler & King 1979 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Fitch 1983 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996 Russell & Bauer 1993 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Thamnophis ordinoides

Northwestern Garter Snake

Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Thamnophis radix

Plains Garter Snake

Behler & King 1979 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Mills 1948 Preston 1987 Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996 Russell & Bauer 1993 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Seton 1918 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Thamnophis saurita

Eastern Ribbon Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Bleakney 1963 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rossman 1970 Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Thamnophis sirtalis

Common Garter Snake

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Conant 1975 Cook 1967 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Denman & Lapper 1964 Denman 1981 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Fitch 1980 Gilhen 2015 MacCulloch 2002 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Preston 1987 Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996 Russell & Bauer 1993 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Secoy 1987 Seton 1918 Thomas 1965 Wright & Wright 1952
 Family Viperidae (Vipers)
Genus Crotalus (Typical Rattlesnakes)
  EX
Crotalus horridus

Timber Rattlesnake

Campbell & Lamar 2004 Cook 1984 Ernst 1992 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
 
Crotalus oreganus

Northern Pacific Rattlesnake

Behler & King 1979 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Cook 1984 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007
 
Crotalus viridis

Prairie Rattlesnake

Behler & King 1979 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Ernst 1992 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Mills 1948 Russell & Bauer 1993 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952
Genus Sistrurus (Pygmy Rattlesnakes)
 
Sistrurus catenatus

Eastern Massasauga

Behler & King 1979 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Cook 1984 Ernst 1992 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wright & Wright 1952

Turtles (Testudines)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Cheloniidae (Hard-shelled Sea Turtles)
Genus Caretta (Loggerhead Sea Turtle)
 
Caretta caretta

Loggerhead Sea Turtle

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Gilhen 2015 Ledwell 2007 Mills 1948 Pritchard 1979 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007
Genus Chelonia (Green Sea Turtle)
 
Chelonia mydas

Green Sea Turtle

James, Martin & Dutton 2004 King & Burke 1989 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007
Genus Lepidochelys (Ridley Sea Turtles)
 
Lepidochelys kempii

Atlantic Ridley Sea Turtle

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Conant 1975 Cook 1984 Gilhen 2015 Gramentz & Fritz in Fritz (ed.) 2005b Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007
 Family Chelydridae (American Snapping Turtles)
Genus Chelydra (American Snapping Turtles)
 
Chelydra serpentina

North American Snapping Turtle

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Bleakney 1963 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Denman & Lapper 1964 Ernst & Barbour 1989 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Preston 1987 Pritchard 1979 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Secoy 1987 Seton 1918 Wermuth & Mertens 1977
 Family Dermochelyidae (Leatherback Sea Turtle)
Genus Dermochelys (Leatherback Sea Turtle)
 
Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback Sea Turtle

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1958 Conant 1975 Cook 1984 Ernst & Barbour 1989 Fritz & Havas 2006 Gilhen 2015 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007
 Family Emydidae (Western Pond Turtles)
Genus Actinemys (Pacific Pond Turtles)
  EX
Actinemys marmorata

Northern Pacific Pond Turtle

Bury & Germano 2008 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Iverson 1992 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Seburn & Brooks 2007
Genus Chrysemys (American Painted Turtle)
 
Chrysemys picta

American Painted Turtle

Behler & King 1979 Bird 1958 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Bleakney 1963 Conant 1975 Cook 1977 Cook 1984 Ernst & Barbour 1989 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Matsuda, Green & Gregory 2006 Mills 1948 Preston 1987 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Russell & Bauer 1993 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Secoy 1987 Seton 1918 Wermuth & Mertens 1977
Genus Clemmys (American Spotted Turtle)
 
Clemmys guttata

American Spotted Turtle

Conant 1975 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007
Genus Emydoidea (Blanding's Turtle)
 
Emydoidea blandingii

Blanding's Turtle

Bleakney 1958 Bleakney 1963 Conant 1975 Congdon, Graham, Herman, Lang, Pappas & Brecke 2008 Cook 1984 Ernst & Barbour 1989 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wermuth & Mertens 1977
Genus Glyptemys (North American Wood Turtle & Bog Turtle)
 
Glyptemys insculpta

North American Wood Turtle

Behler & King 1979 Bleakney 1952 Bleakney 1958 Bleakney 1963 Conant 1975 Cook 1984 Denman & Lapper 1964 Ernst & Barbour 1989 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Gilhen 2015 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wermuth & Mertens 1977
Genus Graptemys (Map Turtles)
 
Graptemys geographica

Northern Map Turtle

Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Vogt, Bulté & Iverson 2018
 Family Kinosternidae (American Mud and Musk Turtles)
Genus Sternotherus (North American Musk Turtles)
 
Sternotherus odoratus

Common Musk Turtle

Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wermuth & Mertens 1977
 Family Trionychidae (Softshell Turtles)
Genus Apalone (North American Softshell Turtles)
 
Apalone spinifera

Spiny Softshell Turtle

Bleakney 1958 Cook 1984 Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007 Iverson 1992 MacCulloch 2002 Mills 1948 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Seburn & Brooks 2007 Wermuth & Mertens 1977