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Taxonomy of the family Iguanidae
Bibliography of the genus Ctenosaura
Biodiversity of the family Iguanidae








Genus
Ctenosaura

Northern Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Black Iguanas, Armed Iguanas, Spiny-tailed Swifts

Schwarzleguane

Nordlige Tornhaleleguaner*, Sorte Leguaner

1828 Ctenosaura Wiegmann (type species: Ctenosaura cycluroides Wiegmann 1828)
1845 Enyaliosaurus Gray (type species: Cyclura quinquecarinata Gray 1842; syn. Etheridge 1982)
Contents: 15 species, of which 11 (73.3%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Cachryx.
Distribution: Mexico, Central America.
Reported from: Belize, Colombia (Providencia, San Andres), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Big Pigeon Cay, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Roatan, Utila]), Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo], Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Cleofas, Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena, San Juanito)], Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora [incl. Isla San Esteban, Isla San Pedro Nolasco], Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua (incl. Islas del Maiz [Isla Grande del Maiz]), Panama.

Ctenosaura acanthura

Northeastern Spiny-tailed Iguana, Eastern Spiny-tailed Iguana, Mexican Spiny-tailed Iguana

Ostmexikanischer Schwarzleguan

Nordøstlig Tornhaleleguan*

1802 Lacerta acanthura Shaw
Uromastyx acanthurus Merrem 1820
Iguana acanthura Gray 1831
Ctenosaura acanthura Gray 1845
Cyclura acanthura Cope 1869
1825 Cyclura teres Harlan (Boulenger 1885)
Iguana teres Gray 1831
Ctenosaura teres Bocourt 1874
1828 Ctenosaura cycluroides Wiegmann (Boulenger 1885)
Iguana cycluroides Gray 1831
1831 Cyclura shawii Gray [substitute name for Lacerta acanthura Shaw 1802] (Etheridge 1982)
1831 Iguana armata Gray (Boulenger 1885)
1831 Iguana bellii Gray (Boulenger 1885)
Cyclura bellii Fitzinger 1843
1831 Iguana lanceolata Gray (Boulenger 1885)
1834 Cyclura articulata Wiegmann [substitute name for Iguana armata Gray 1831] (Etheridge 1982)
1834 Cyclura denticulata Wiegmann [substitute name for Ctenosaura cycluroides Wiegmann 1828] (Etheridge 1982)
1843 Cyclura semicristata Fitzinger [substitute name for Cyclura denticulata Wiegmann 1834] (Etheridge 1982)
1886 Ctenosaura multispinis Cope (Bailey 1928)

Remarks: Current presence in Nuevo Leon needs confirmation, since the species has not been found in the state since 1934 (Lemos-Espinal, Wylie & Smith 2017).
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).


Ctenosaura bakeri

Utila Island Spiny-tailed Iguana

Utila-Leguan

Utila-tornhaleleguan*

1901 Ctenosaura bakeri Stejneger
Enyaliosaurus bakeri Cochran 1961

Remarks: Records from Roatan refer to oedirhina (Queiroz 1987)
Distribution: Honduras (Islas de la Bahia: Utila).


Ctenosaura clarki

Balsas Armed Iguana, Michoacan Club-tail

Michoacán-Schwarzleguan

Michoacan-tornhaleleguan*

1928 Ctenosaura clarki Bailey
Enyaliosaurus clarki Smith & Taylor 1950

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan).


Ctenosaura conspicuosa

San Esteban Island Spiny-tailed Iguana

San Esteban-Schwarzleguan

San Esteban-tornhaleleguan*

1919 Ctenosaura conspicuosa Dickerson
Ctenosaura hemilopha conspicuosa Lowe & Norris 1955

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Grismer (1999).
Introduced to: USA (Arizona).
Distribution: Mexico (Sonora [Isla Cholludo, Isla San Esteban]).


Ctenosaura flavidorsalis

Yellow-backed Spiny-tailed Iguana

Gelbrücken-Schwarzleguan

Gulrygget Tornhaleleguan*

1994 Ctenosaura flavidorsalis Köhler & Klemmer

Distribution: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras.


Ctenosaura hemilopha

Cape Spiny-tailed Iguana

Niederkalifornischer Schwarzleguan

Baja California-tornhaleleguan*

1863 Cyclura hemilopha Cope
Ctenosaura hemilopha Cope 1866
1882 Ctenosaura interrupta Bocourt (Boulenger 1885)
Ctenosaura hemilopha interrupta Liner 1994
1919 Ctenosaura insulana Dickerson (Grismer 1999)
Ctenosaura hemilopha insulana Lowe & Norris 1955

Other common names:
hemilopha: Peninsular Spiny-tailed Iguana
insulana: Cerralvo Island Spiny-tailed Iguana
interrupta: Cape San Lucas Spiny-tailed Iguana
Remarks: Previously included conspicuosa, macrolopha, and nolascensis (e.g., Etheridge in Burghardt & Rand 1982).
Introduced to: USA (California).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo]).


Ctenosaura macrolopha

Sonoran Spiny-tailed Iguana, Mainland Spiny-tailed Iguana

Sonora-Schwarzleguan

Sonora-tornhaleleguan*

1972 Ctenosaura hemilopha macrolopha Smith
Ctenosaura macrolopha Grismer 1999

Introduced to: USA (Arizona).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Sonora).


Ctenosaura melanosterna

Black-chested Spiny-tailed Iguana

Schwarzbrust-Schwarzleguan

Sortbrystet Tornhaleleguan*

1997 Ctenosaura melanosterna Buckley & Axtell

Distribution: Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia: Cayos Cochinos [Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño]).


Ctenosaura nolascensis

San Pedro Nolasco Island Spiny-tailed Iguana

Nolasko-Schwarzleguan

Nolasco-tornhaleleguan*

1972 Ctenosaura hemilopha nolascensis Smith
Ctenosaura nolascensis Grismer 1999

Distribution: Mexico (Sonora: Isla San Pedro Nolasco).


Ctenosaura oaxacana

Oaxacan Spiny-tailed Iguana

Oaxaca-Schwarzleguan

Oaxaca-tornhaleleguan*

2001 Ctenosaura oaxacana Köhler & Hasbún

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).


Ctenosaura oedirhina

Roatan Spiny-tailed Iguana

Roatan-Leguan

Roatan-tornhaleleguan*

1987 Ctenosaura oedirhina Queiroz

Remarks: This species represents populations previously regarded as part of bakeri (Queiroz 1987).
Distribution: Honduras (Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Big Pigeon Cay, Roatan]).


Ctenosaura palearis

Paleate Spiny-tailed Iguana

Guatemalischer Schwarzleguan

Guatemalansk Tornhaleleguan

1899 Ctenosaura palearis Stejneger
Enyaliosaurus palearis Smith & Taylor 1950

Remarks: Honduran records of palearis refer to melanosterna (Buckley & Axtell 1997).
Distribution: Guatemala.


Ctenosaura pectinata

West Mexican Spiny-tailed Iguana*, Western Spiny-tailed Iguana, Brown Iguana, (Mexican Spiny-tailed Iguana)

Westmexikanischer Schwarzleguan

Vestmexicansk Tornhaleleguan*

1839 Cyclura pectinata Wiegmann
Ctenosaura pectinata Gray 1845
1886 Ctenosaura brevirostris Cope (Smith 1949)
1886 Ctenosaura teres brachylopha Cope (Smith 1949)
Ctenosaura brachylopha Bailey 1928
1928 Ctenosaura parkeri Bailey (Smith 1949)

Introduced to: USA (Florida, Texas).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Cleofas, Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena, San Juanito)], Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Zacatecas).


Ctenosaura quinquecarinata

Central American Armed Iguana, Five-keeled Spiny-tailed Iguana

Fünfkiel-Schwarzleguan

Femkølet Tornhaleleguan*

1842 Cyclura quinquecarinata Gray
Enyaliosaurus quinquecarinatus Gray 1845
Ctenosaura quinquecarinata Bocourt in Duméril & Bocourt 1874
2009 Ctenosaura praeocularis Hasbún & Köhler (McCranie 2015)

Remarks: Now restricted to Costa Rica, Honduras and Nicaragua. Records from Oaxaca (Mexico) (e.g., Köhler 2000) refer to oaxacana. Records from El Salvador and some from Honduras refer to flavidorsalis (Hasbun, Köhler, McCranie & Lawrence 2001; Köhler & Hasbun 2001). Webb & Fugler's (1957) record from Puebla is regarded as doubtful (Gicca 1983). Although Honduran records were previously considered erroneous (Hasbun, Köhler, McCranie & Lawrence 2001; Köhler & Hasbun 2001; Hasbún & Köhler 2009), McCranie (2015) documented the species for the country by synonymizing praeocularis with quinquecarinata.
Distribution: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua.


Ctenosaura similis

Central American Black Iguana, Common Spiny-tailed Iguana, Black Spiny-tailed Iguana, (Black Iguana)

Gemeiner Schwarzleguan

Centralamerikansk Tornhaleleguan*

1831 Iguana similis Gray
Cyclura similis Wiegmann 1834
Ctenosaura similis Bailey 1928
1874 Ctenosaura completa Bocourt (Bailey 1928)
1934 Ctenosaura similis multipunctata Barbour & Shreve

Other common names:
similis: Barred Iguana
Introduced to: Bahamas, Honduras (Islas de la Bahia: Roatan), Nicaragua (Islas del Maiz: Isla Pequeña del Maiz), USA (Florida), Venezuela.
Distribution: Belize, Colombia (Providencia, San Andres), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Guanaja, Utila]), Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua (incl. Islas del Maiz: Isla Grande del Maiz), Panama.