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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Eirenis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Eirenis

Middle Eastern Dwarf Snakes, Dwarf Racers, Peace Snakes

Mittelöstliche Zwergnattern

Mellemøstlige Dværgsnoge

1843 Pediophis Fitzinger (type species: Calamaria coronella Schlegel 1837; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1863 Eirenis Jan (type species: Coluber collaris Menetries 1832)
1863 Psilosoma Jan (type species: Calamaria coronella Schlegel 1837)
1888 Pseudocyclophis Boettger (type species: Pseudocyclophis walteri Boettger 1888; syn. Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink 2003)
1989 Collaria Dotsenko (type species: Coluber collaris Menetries 1832; syn. Dotsenko 1989)
2003 Eoseirenis Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink (type species: Ablabes decemlineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854)
Contents: 25 species, of which 7 (28.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included in Contia (e.g., Boulenger 1894, 1914). Revalidated for Old World species by Barbour (1914), presumably on geographic grounds (Stickel 1951). Although some authors continued to include Old World species in Contia, Stickel (1951) presented evidence that the two genera are not closely related, and Eirenis is now recognized as the valid genus for the Old World species. Pseudocyclophis is here included as a synonym of Eirenis on the basis of Williams & Wallach (1989) and Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink (2003), although some authors regard it as a valid genus (e.g., Dotsenko 1985; Schätti & Monsch 2004; Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009).
Distribution: NE. Africa, SE. Europe, Middle East, SW. Asia.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt (Sinai), Eritrea, Georgia, Greece (Aegean Islands), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Turkmenistan.

Eirenis africanus

African Dwarf Snake

Afrikanische Zwergnatter

Afrikansk Dværgsnog

1914 Contia africana Boulenger
Eirenis africana Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink 2004

Distribution: Djibouti, Eritrea, Sudan.


Eirenis angusticeps

Balochistan Dwarf Snake

Belutschistan-Zwergnatter

Balochistan-dværgsnog

1894 Contia angusticeps Boulenger (Smith 1943)
Eirenis angusticeps Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens 2015

Remarks: Previuosly regarded as a synonym of persicus (e.g., Smith 1943). Revalidated by Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens (2015).
Distribution: Pakistan.


Eirenis aurolineatus

Golden-striped Dwarf Snake

Goldstreifen-Zwergnatter

Gyldenstribet Dværgsnog

1919 Contia collaris var. aurolineata Venzmer
Eirenis aurolineatus Schmidtler & Schmidtler 1978

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Schmidtler (1993). Status of Lebanese and Israelian modestus is uncertain, but refer to either aurolineatus or levantinus (Schmidtler 1993). Bouskila (2004) listed only levantinus from Israel.
Distribution: Lebanon, Turkey.


Eirenis barani

Adana Dwarf Snake, (Baran's Dwarf Snake)

Adana-Zwergnatter, (Barans Zwergnatter)

Adana-dværgsnog

1988 Eirenis barani Schmidtler
1997 Eirenis barani bischofforum Schmidtler

Distribution: Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis collaris

Collared Dwarf Snake, Ringhals Dwarf Snake

Halsband-Zwergnatter

Halsbånd-dværgsnog

1832 Coluber collaris Menetries
Eirenis collaris Jan 1863
1903 Contia macrospilota Werner (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
Eirenis collaris macrospilota Darevsky & Bakradze 1982

Remarks: Presence in Lebanon needs confirmation, since a previous record from the country (Boulenger 1923) may refer to rothii (Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002). Haas' (1951) report of this species from Jordan (repeated by Werner 1971) most likely also represent rothii (Venchi & Sindaco 2007). Presence in Cyprus needs confirmation (Baier, Sparrow & Wiedl 2009).
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Iraq, Russia, Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis coronella

Crowned Dwarf Snake, Crowned Peace Snake

Krönchen-Zwergnatter

Krone-dværgsnog

1837 Calamaria coronella Schlegel
Contia coronella Boulenger 1894
Homalosoma coronella Peracca 1894
Eirenis coronella Barbour 1914
1863 Eirenis fasciatus Jan (Schmidtler & Schmidtler 1978)
1907 Contia brevicauda Nikolsky (Schmidtler & Schmidtler 1978)
1939 Eirenis coronella fraseri Schmidt
1961 Eirenis arabica Haas (Gasperetti 1988)
1982 Eirenis coronella fennelli Arnold
2003 Eirenis coronella ibrahimi Sivan & Werner

Other common names:
coronella: Syrian Dwarf Snake
fennelli: Fennell's Dwarf Snake
Remarks: Previously included coronelloides. Older records from within the range of coronelloides may represent that species (see Nilson & Rastegar-Pouyani 2011). Records from Lebanon (e.g., Bosch 1998) are regarded as doubtful (Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002).
Distribution: Egypt (Sinai), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Syria.


Eirenis coronelloides

Sinai Dwarf Snake, Sinai Dwarf Racer

Sinai-Zwergnatter

Sinai-dværgsnog

1862 Homalosoma coronelloides Jan
Contia coronelloides Chernov 1948
Eirenis coronelloides Welch 1983
Eirenis coronella coronelloides Venchi & Sindaco 2007

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of coronella (e.g., Schmidtler & Schmidtler 1978; Gasperetti 1988). Revalidated by Sivan & Werner (2003). Venchi & Sindaco (2007) questioned this decision, and regarded coronelloides as a subspecies of coronella, but most recent works have treated it as a separate species (e.g., Amr & Disi 2011; Avci & Olgun 2011; Nilson & Rastegar-Pouyani 2011). Not mentioned for Iran by Safaei-Mahroo & al. (2015). Not included for Israel by Werner (2016).
Distribution: Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis decemlineatus

Narrow-striped Dwarf Snake, Ten-lined Dwarf Snake, Ten-lined Peace-snake, Lined Dwarf Racer

Zehnstreifen-Zwergnatter

Smalstribet Dværgsnog

1854 Ablabes decemlineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Eirenis collaris decemlineata Jan 1866
Contia decemlineata Werner 1898
Eirenis decemlineata Schmidt 1939

Remarks: Presence in Iran doubtful. The only known Iranian specimens (Wall 1908) and literature records most probably refer to punctatolineatus or rechingeri (Schätti & Monsch 2004; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013; Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller 2013). Only a single record from Iraq (Corkill 1932).
Distribution: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis eiselti

Urfa Dwarf Snake, (Eiselt's Dwarf Snake)

Urfa-Zwergnatter

Urfa-dværgsnog

1978 Eirenis eiselti Schmidtler & Schmidtler

Distribution: Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis hakkariensis

Hakkari Dwarf Snake

Hakkari-Zwergnatter

Hakkari-dværgsnog

1991 Eirenis hakkariensis Schmidtler & Eiselt
Eirenis thospitis hakkariensis Nagy, Schmidtler, Joger & Wink 2003

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of thospitis. Revalidated as a separate species by Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller (2013).
Distribution: Turkey.


Eirenis kermanensis

Kerman Dwarf Snake

Kerman-Zwergnatter

Kerman-dværgsnog

2012 Eirenis kermanensis Rajabizadeh, Schmidtler, Orlov & Soleimani

Remarks: Status uncertain. Suggested to be a synonym of medus by Rajabizadeh, Schmidtler, Orlov & Soleimani (2012), followed by Safaei-Mahroo & al. (2015).
Distribution: Iran.


Eirenis levantinus

Levant Dwarf Snake, Asia Minor Dwarf Racer

Levantische Zwergnatter

Levantisk Dværgsnog

1993 Eirenis levantinus Schmidtler

Remarks: Status of Lebanese and Israelian modestus is uncertain, but refer to either aurolineatus or levantinus (Schmidtler 1993). Bouskila (2004) listed only levantinus from Israel. The doubtful records of modestus from Cyprus are referred to levantinus by Schmidtler (1993).
Distribution: Cyprus, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis lineomaculatus

Spotted-line Dwarf Snake, (Striped Dwarf Snake, Crowned Dwarf Racer)

Längsgepunktete Zwergnatter

Stiplet Dværgsnog

1939 Eirenis lineomaculatus Schmidt

Distribution: Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis mcmahoni

Suleiman Mountains Dwarf Snake

Suleiman-Zwergnatter

Suleiman-dværgsnog

1911 Contia mcmahoni Wall
Eirenis mcmahoni Welch 1988

Remarks: Status uncertain. Listed as a valid species by some authors (e.g., Das 1996). Regarded as a synonym of persicus by others (e.g., Minton 1966). Not mentioned by Khan (2006) or Masroor (2012), indicating that these authors did not regard it as a valid species either. Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens (2015) noted the unique scalation of specimens from the Suleiman Mountains which can be referred to mcmahoni, but although the authors listed the species separately, they also pointed out the current lack of sufficient data to evaluate the taxonomy of the species. It is provisionally included herein as a valid species, pending further studies to resolve its status.
Distribution: Pakistan.


Eirenis medus

Turkmen Dwarf Snake, (Striped Dwarf Snake)

Turkmenische Zwergnatter

Turkmensk Dværgsnog

1940 Contia meda Chernov
Eirenis medus Schmidtler & Schmidtler 1978

Distribution: Iran, Turkmenistan.


Eirenis modestus

Ring-headed Dwarf Snake, Asia Minor Dwarf Snake, Mild Dwarf Snake

Kopfbinden-Zwergnatter

Anatolsk Dværgsnog

1838 Coronella modesta Martin
Contia modesta Werner 1939
Eirenis modesta Stickel 1951
1839 Tyria argonauta Eichwald (Böhme (ed.) 1993)
1876 Eirenis modestus semimaculatus Boettger
1937 Contia modesta werneri Wettstein
Eirenis modestus werneri Welch 1983
1993 Eirenis modestus cilicius Schmidtler

Remarks: Syrian and Lebanese records refer to levantinus (Schmidtler 1993; Martens 1997; Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002). According to Schmidtler (1993), status of Israelian records is uncertain, but refer to either aurolineatus or levantinus, however, Bouskila (2004) listed only levantinus from Israel. The doubtful records of modestus from Cyprus are referred to levantinus by Schmidtler (1993).
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Greece (Aegean Islands), Iran, Russia, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey).


Eirenis nigrofasciatus

Black-banded Dwarf Snake

Schwarzgebänderte Zwergnatter

Sortbåndet Dværgsnog

1907 Contia persica var. nigrofasciata Nikolsky
Contia persica nigrofasciata Terentjev & Chernov 1949
Eirenis nigrofasciatus Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens 2015

Remarks: Previuosly regarded as a synonym of persicus. Revalidated by Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens (2015).
Distribution: Iran, Iraq.


Eirenis occidentalis

Sanliurfa Dwarf Snake

Sanliurfa-Zwergnatter

Sanliurfa-dværgsnog

2015 Eirenis occidentalis Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens

Distribution: Iran, Turkey.


Eirenis persicus

Persian Dwarf Snake, Dark-headed Dwarf Snake, Persian False Dwarf Snake

Persische Zwergnatter

Persisk Dværgsnog

1872 Cyclophis persicus Anderson
Pseudocyclophis persicus Boettger 1888
Contia persica Terentjev & Chernov 1949
Eirenis persica Khalaf 1959

Remarks: Previously included angusticeps, mcmahoni, nigrofasciatus, walteri, and the populations now assigned to occidentalis. Although reported to occur in India (e.g., Terentjev & Chernov 1949; Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992), the species is probably not found there (Das, cited in the Reptile Database, viewed 15 February 2018).
Distribution: Armenia, Iran.


Eirenis punctatolineatus

Armenian Dwarf Snake, Dotted Dwarf Snake

Armenische Zwergnatter

Armensk Dværgsnog

1892 Cyclophis modestus punctatolineata Boettger
Eirenis punctatolineatus Engelmann, Fritzsche, Günther & Obst 1933
1903 Zamenis bornmüllerorum Werner (Rajabizadeh, Schmidtler, Javanmardi, Rastegar-Pouyani & Esmaeili 2012)
1909 Contia schelkovnikovi Nikolsky (Rajabizadeh, Schmidtler, Javanmardi, Rastegar-Pouyani & Esmaeili 2012)
1939 Eirenis iranica Schmidt (Rajabizadeh, Schmidtler, Javanmardi, Rastegar-Pouyani & Esmaeili 2012)
1920 Contia condoni Boulenger
Eirenis punctatolineatus condoni Rajabizadeh, Schmidtler, Javanmardi, Rastegar-Pouyani & Esmaeili 2012
1970 Eirenis punctatolineatus kumerloevi Eiselt

Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey.


Eirenis rechingeri

Schiras Dwarf Snake

Schiras-Zwergnatter

Schiras-dværgsnog

1971 Eirenis rechingeri Eiselt

Distribution: Iran.


Eirenis rothii

Israeli Dwarf Snake, (Roth's Dwarf Snake, Roth's Snake)

Israelische Zwergnatter

Israelsk Dværgsnog

1863 Eirenis rothii Jan
Contia rothii Werner 1939

Remarks: Erroneously recorded from Iraq by Marx & Reed (1959), a record which was based on misidentified collaris (Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992). Only a single record from Lebanon without precise locality (Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002).
Distribution: Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey.


Eirenis thospitis

Kurdish Dwarf Snake

Kurdische Zwergnatter

Kurdisk Dværgsnog

1990 Eirenis thospitis Schmidtler & Lanza

Remarks: Previously included hakkariensis.
Distribution: Turkey.


Eirenis walteri

Northern Dwarf Snake

Nördliche Zwergnatter

Nordlig Dværgsnog

1888 Pseudocyclophis walteri Boettger
Contia walteri Boulenger 1894
Contia persica walteri Terentjev & Chernov 1949
Eirenis persicus walteri Mertens 1969
Eirenis walteri Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens 2015
1923 Contia zebrina Wall (syn. Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens 2015)

Remarks: Previuosly regarded as a subspecies or synonym of persicus. Revalidated by Rajabizadeh, Nagy, Adriaens, Avci, Masroor, Schmidtler, Nazarov, Esmaeili & Christiaens (2015).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, Turkmenistan.


Eirenis yassujicus

Yasouj Dwarf Snake

Yasouj-Zwergnatter

Yasouj-dværgsnog

2019 Eirenis yassujicus Fathinia, Rastegar-Pouyani & Shafaeipour

Distribution: Iran.