Reptiles of
Lebanon  

 

Bibliography of the reptiles of Lebanon Taxonomic history of the reptiles of Lebanon Introduced species
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© Rune Midtgaard


Reptile biodiversity of
Lebanon

excl. introduced, extinct, unconfirmed, and unnamed species
See complete statistics for
families and genera

Families

Endemic
families

Endemism
(families)

Genera

Endemic
genera

Endemism
(genera)

Species

Endemic
species

Endemism
(species)

Species in %
of total
Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia) 1 0 0.0 % 1 0 0.0 % 1 0 0.0 % 1.9 %
Lizards (Sauria) 7 0 0.0 % 17 0 0.0 % 22 1 4.5 % 42.3 %
Snakes (Serpentes) 4 0 0.0 % 16 0 0.0 % 23 0 0.0 % 44.2 %
Turtles (Testudines) 5 0 0.0 % 6 0 0.0 % 6 0 0.0 % 11.5 %
Total 17 0 0.0 % 40 0 0.0 % 52 1 1.9 % 100.0 %

Checklist
General remarks: The list includes only formally described species. Newly discovered, but still unnamed species are excluded. However, unnamed species or species unassigned to species level are included, if they are the only representatives of their genus in the region. Species counts exclude extinct and introduced species. Doubtful records, typically older voucher specimens of uncertain origin, have been excluded if considered questionable, as are records based on sources considered unreliable.
Note: Your comments to the checklist (omissions, errors, etc.) are welcomed, preferably if they are provided with reliable references. If possible, please attach a pdf file of the relevant reference to an email addressed to:
Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Blanidae (Mediterranean Worm Lizards)
Genus Blanus (Mediterranean Worm Lizards)
 
Blanus alexandri

Levant Worm Lizard

Bosch 1998 [as aporus] Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 [as aporus] Gans 2005 [as aporus] Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 [as aporus] Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008 [as aporus] Sindaco, Kornilios, Sacchi & Lymberakis 2014

Lizards (Sauria)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Agamidae (Agamas and Dragons)
Genus Laudakia (Asian Rock Agamas)
 
Laudakia stellio

Starred Agama

Baig, Wagner, Ananjeva & Böhme 2012 Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002
Genus Trapelus (Afro-Asian Ground Agamas)
 
Trapelus ruderatus

Horny-scaled Agama

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
 Family Anguidae (Slowworms, etc.)
Genus Pseudopus (Eurasian Glass Lizard)
 
Pseudopus apodus

Eurasian Glass Lizard

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002
 Family Chamaeleonidae (Chameleons)
Genus Chamaeleo (Typical Chameleons)
 
Chamaeleo chamaeleon

Mediterranean Chameleon

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Glaw 2015 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Klaver & Böhme 1997 Tilbury 2010
 Family Gekkonidae (Typical Geckos)
Genus Hemidactylus (Half-toed Geckos)
 
Hemidactylus turcicus

Turkish Half-toed Gecko

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002
Genus Mediodactylus (Mediterranean Bent-toed Geckos)
 
Mediodactylus amictopholis

Mount Hermon Bent-toed Gecko

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
 
Mediodactylus orientalis

Levant Bent-toed Gecko

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002
 Family Lacertidae (Typical Lizards)
Genus Acanthodactylus (Fringe-toed Lizards)
 
Acanthodactylus boskianus

Afro-Arabian Fringe-toed Lizard

Bosch 1998 [as A. schreiberi syriacus] Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 [as A. schreiberi syriacus] Salvador 1982 [as A. schreiberi syriacus] Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008 [as A. schreiberi syriacus]
 
Acanthodactylus tristrami

Lebanese Fringe-toed Lizard

Arnold 1983 Bosch 1998 Salvador 1982 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
Genus Lacerta (Eurasian Green Lizards)
 
Lacerta media

Levant Emerald Lizard

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
Genus Mesalina (Afro-Asian Desert Lizards)
 
Mesalina microlepis

Arabian Small-scaled Desert Lizard

Bosch 2001 [as brevirostris] Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 [as brevirostris] Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008 [as brevirostris] Smíd, Moravec, Gvozdík, Stundl, Frynta, Lymberakis, Kapli, Wilms, Schmitz, Shobrak, Yousefkhani, Rastegar-Pouyani, Castilla, Els & Mayer 2017
Genus Ophisops (Snake-eyed Lizards)
 
Ophisops elegans

Elegant Snake-eyed Lizard

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
Genus Parvilacerta (Middle East Dwarf Lizards)
  *
Parvilacerta fraasii

Lebanese Mountain Lizard

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
Genus Phoenicolacerta (Phoenician Lizards)
 
Phoenicolacerta kulzeri

Lebanese Rock Lizard

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
 
Phoenicolacerta laevis

Lebanese Smooth-scaled Lizard

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
 Family Phyllodactylidae (Leaf-toed Geckos)
Genus Ptyodactylus (Fan-toed Geckos)
 
Ptyodactylus puiseuxi

Levant Fan-toed Gecko

Bosch 1998 Hraoui Bloquet 1981 [as hasselquistii] Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Metallinou, Cervenka, Crochet, Kratochvil, Wilms, Geniez, Shobrak, Brito & Carranza 2015 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008 Sivan & Werner 1992
 Family Scincidae (Skinks)
Genus Ablepharus (Eurasian Snake-eyed Skinks)
 
Ablepharus budaki

North Levant Snake-eyed Skink

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Schmidtler 1997 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
 
Ablepharus rueppellii

South Levant Snake-eyed Skink

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Roll, Tallowin, Berkowic, Maza, Ostrometzky, Slavenko, Shacham, Tamar & Meiri 2013 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
Genus Chalcides (Cylindrical Skinks)
 
Chalcides guentheri

Levant Cylindrical Skink

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
 
Chalcides ocellatus

Mediterranean Ocellated Skink

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002
Genus Eumeces (Afro-Asian Long-legged Skinks)
 
Eumeces pavimentatus

Levant Long-legged Skink

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008 [as schneideri]
Genus Heremites (Western Palearctic Grass Skinks)
 
Heremites vittatus

Bridled Skink

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008

Snakes (Serpentes)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Colubridae (Typical Snakes or Colubrids)
Genus Dolichophis (Greater Whip Snakes)
 
Dolichophis jugularis

Large Whip Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Eirenis (Middle Eastern Dwarf Snakes)
 
Eirenis aurolineatus

Golden-striped Dwarf Snake

Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller 2013 [as "cf. aurolineatus"]
 
Eirenis decemlineatus

Narrow-striped Dwarf Snake

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller 2013 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 
Eirenis levantinus

Levant Dwarf Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller 2013 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 
Eirenis lineomaculatus

Spotted-line Dwarf Snake

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller 2013 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 
Eirenis rothi

Israeli Dwarf Snake

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Mahlow, Tillack, Schmidtler & Müller 2013 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Elaphe (Palearctic-Oriental Rat Snakes)
 
Elaphe sauromates

Eastern Four-lined Rat Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Schulz 1996 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Hemorrhois (Palearctic Whip Snakes)
 
Hemorrhois nummifer

Coin-marked Whip Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 
Hemorrhois ravergieri

Mountain Whip Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Natrix (Eurasian Keelbacks)
 
Natrix tessellata

Dice Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Platyceps (Flat-headed Whip Snakes)
 
Platyceps collaris

Red Whip Snake

Bosch 1998 [as rubriceps] Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 [as rubriceps] Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Schätti, Baran & Maunoir 2001 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 
Platyceps najadum

European Slender Whip Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Rhynchocalamus (Middle East Black-headed Snakes)
 
Rhynchocalamus melanocephalus

Palestine Black-headed Snake

Amr & Disi 2011 Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Telescopus (Cat Snakes & Tiger Snakes)
 
Telescopus fallax

European Cat Snake

Bosch 1998 Grillitsch & Grillitsch in Böhme (ed.) 1999 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Jandzík 2007 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 
Telescopus nigriceps

Black-headed Cat Snake

Bosch 1998 Ilgaz, Avci, Kumlutas, Baran & Özdemir 2007 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Zamenis (Western Palearctic Rat Snakes)
 
Zamenis hohenackeri

Transcaucasian Rat Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Schulz 1996 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 Family Lamprophiidae (House Snakes, etc.)
Genus Malpolon (Montpellier Snakes)
 
Malpolon insignitus

Eastern Montpellier Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Micrelaps (Afro-Asian Black-headed Snakes)
 
Micrelaps muelleri

Israeli Black-headed Snake

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013 Werner, Babocsay, Carmely & Thuna 2006
Genus Psammophis (Old World Sand Snakes and Grass Snakes)
 
Psammophis schokari

Arabian Sand Snake

Bosch 1998 Hraoui Bloquet 1981 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 Family Typhlopidae (Typical Blind Snakes)
Genus Xerotyphlops (Desert Blind Snakes)
 
Xerotyphlops vermicularis

European Worm Snake

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
 Family Viperidae (Vipers)
Genus Daboia (Daboias)
 
Daboia palaestinae

Palestinian Viper

Bosch 1998 David & Ineich 1999 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Macrovipera (Giant Vipers)
 
Macrovipera lebetina

Blunt-nosed Viper

Bosch 1998 David & Ineich 1999 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999 Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013
Genus Montivipera (Middle East Mountain Vipers)
 
Montivipera bornmuelleri

Lebanese Mountain Viper

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 David & Ineich 1999 Hraoui Bloquet 1981 [as Vipera xanthina] Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999

Turtles (Testudines)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Cheloniidae (Hard-shelled Sea Turtles)
Genus Caretta (Loggerhead Sea Turtle)
 
Caretta caretta

Loggerhead Sea Turtle

Bosch 1998 Gramentz in Fritz (ed.) 2005a Newbury, Khalil & Venizelos 2002 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
Genus Chelonia (Green Sea Turtle)
 
Chelonia mydas

Green Sea Turtle

Bosch 1998 Gramentz & Fritz in Fritz (ed.) 2005a Newbury, Khalil & Venizelos 2002 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 Family Dermochelyidae (Leatherback Sea Turtle)
Genus Dermochelys (Leatherback Sea Turtle)
 
Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback Sea Turtle

Bosch 1998 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 Family Geoemydidae (Eastern Pond Turtles)
Genus Mauremys (Stripe-necked Turtles)
 
Mauremys rivulata

Balkan Pond Turtle

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Mantziou & Rifai 2014 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008 Wischuf & Busack in Fritz (ed.) 2001
 Family Testudinidae (Tortoises)
Genus Testudo (Palearctic Tortoises)
 
Testudo graeca

Spur-thighed Tortoise

Bosch 1998 Bosch, Bischoff & Schmidtler 1998 Fritz & Havas 2006 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 Family Trionychidae (Softshell Turtles)
Genus Trionyx (African Softshell Turtle)
 
Trionyx triunguis

African Softshell Turtle

Bosch 1998 Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco & Venchi 2002 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017