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Taxonomy of the family Leptotyphlopidae
Bibliography of the genus Epictia
Biodiversity of the family Leptotyphlopidae








Genus
Epictia

Neotropical Thread Snakes

Neotropische Fadenschlangen

Neotropiske Trådslanger

1824 Stenostoma Wagler [not Stenostoma Latreille 1810 (Insecta); not Stenostoma Lamarck 1817 (Mollusca)] (type species: Stenostoma albifrons Wagler 1824; syn. Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009)
1845 Epictia Gray (type species: Typhlops undecimstriatus Schlegel 1839)
1858 Sabrina Girard (type species: Typhlops tessellatum Tschudi 1845; syn. Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009)
1884 Stenostomophis Rochebrune [substitute name for Stenostoma Wagler in Spix 1824]
Contents: 43 species, of which 29 (67.4%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Habrophallos collaris.
Distribution: Mexico, Central America, South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Bonaire, Brazil (Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Para, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, Sergipe), Colombia (incl. Providencia, San Andres), Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Roatan, Utila], Islas del Cisne (Isla Grande, Isla Pequeña)]), Mexico (Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Uruguay, Venezuela (incl. Margarita).

Epictia albifrons

Yellow-headed Thread Snake, Common Neotropical Thread Snake, Guyana Thread Snake

Gelbkopf-Fadenschlange

Gulhovedet Trådslange

1824 Stenostoma albifrons Wagler
Typhlops albifrons Wagler 1830
Epictia albifrons Gray 1845
Glauconia albifrons Boulenger 1893
Leptotyphlops albifrons Amaral 1925

Remarks: Confusion among albifrons, goudotii, phenops, and tenella has existed for decades - see a detailed description in Wallach (2016). All four species are considered valid herein, following this author. Also McCranie & Hedges (2016) recognized goudotii, phenops, and tenella as separate species, and considered albifrons and tenella as belonging to a different species group, although they did not make conclusions on the status of these taxa, pending further studies. Mumaw, González & Fernández (2015) designated a neotype, which was rejected by Wallach (2016), who designated another neotype. According to Wallach (2016), the only certain record of albifrons is the type locality in Para, Brazil, although reported from several other countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay (see Wallach 2016 for details). Pinto, Franco & Hoogmoed (2018), however, rejected Wallach's (2016) neotype designation, condidering it invalid.
Distribution: Brazil (Para).


Epictia albipuncta

White-spotted Thread Snake, Tucuman Thread Snake

Weißgefleckte Fadenschlange

Hvidplettet Trådslange

1861 Stenostoma albipuncta Burmeister
Stenostoma albifrons albipuncta Jan 1861
Leptotyphlops albipuncta Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Stenostoma undecimstriatus albipuncta Hahn 1980 (misinterpretation from synonymy of Jan 1863, according to McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
Epictia albipuncta Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1876 Stenostoma flavifrons Weyenberg in Napp (Kretzschmar 2006)

Remarks: Previously included melanoterma and weyrauchi.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru.


Epictia alfredschmidti

Huarmey Thread Snake

Huarmey-Fadenschlange

Huarmey-trådslange

2002 Leptotyphlops alfredschmidti Lehr, Wallach, Köhler & Aguilar
Epictia alfredschmidti Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia antoniogarciai

Jaén Thread Snake

Jaén-Fadenschlange

Jaén-trådslange

2015 Epictia antoniogarciai Koch, Venegas & Böhme

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia ater

Central American Black Thread Snake

Zentralamerikanische Schwarze Fadenschlange

Centralamerikansk Sort Trådslange

1940 Leptotyphlops ater Taylor "1939"
Leptotyphlops albifrons ater Dunn & Saxe 1950
Leptotyphlops goudotii ater Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Epictia ater McCranie 2009
1940 Leptotyphlops nasalis Taylor "1939" (Dunn & Saxe 1950; Savage 2002)
Epictia nasalis Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Other common names:
nasalis: Managua Thread Snake
Remarks: This species consists of what was previously regarded as Central American populations of the South American species goudoti (McCranie 2011). Revalidated by McCranie (2009) and supported by McCranie & Hedges (2016). Villa (1990) reviewed the species, but reversed the synonymy, considering ater a synonym of nasalis, although Dunn & Saxe (1950), as first revisers, chose ater over nasalis as the name for this taxon.
Distribution: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua.


Epictia australis

Rio Negro Thread Snake, Black-ringed Thread Snake

Rio-Negro-Fadenschlange

Rio Negro-trådslange

1968 Leptotyphlops australis Freiberg & Orejas-Miranda
Epictia australis Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Presence in Brazil reported by Lema (1994), but apparently overlooked(?) by Costa & Bernils (2015).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul).


Epictia bakewelli

Colima Thread Snake

Colima-Fadenschlange

Colima-trådslange

1937 Leptotyphlops bakewelli Oliver
Leptotyphlops phenops bakewelli Smith 1943
Leptotyphlops goudotii bakewelli Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Epictia goudotii bakewelli Cinar 2012
Epictia bakewelli Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1956 Leptotyphlops gadowi Duellman (Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of phenops (e.g., Smith 1943; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated as a separate species by Wallach (2016) and McCranie & Hedges (2016), although listed as such already by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014), however, without discussion. The unconfirmed record from Guanajuato (Romo-García & Gallardo-Arroyo 2007), mentioned by Wallach (2016), seem to be valid, whereas a record from Mexico state (Camarillo-Rangel, Aguilar-Cortes & Gonzalez-Ruiz 1985; Camarillo-R. & Smith in Strimple & Strimple 1992) is unconfirmed and probably a different species, considering the location (V. Wallach, pers. comm., 1 December 2016).
Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Michoacan, Oaxaca).


Epictia borapeliotes

Caatinga Thread Snake

Caatinga-Fadenschlange

Caatinga-trådslange

1996 Leptotyphlops borapeliotes Vanzolini
Epictia borapeliotes Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Sergipe).


Epictia clinorostris

Flat-nosed Thread Snake

Flachnasen-Fadenschlange

Fladsnudet Trådslange

2010 Epictia clinorostris Arredondo & Zaher

Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul).


Epictia columbi

Bahamas Thread Snake

Bahama-Fadenschlange

Bahama-trådslange

1939 Leptotyphlops columbi Klauber
Epictia columbi Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Bahamas.


Epictia diaplocia

Requena Thread Snake, Amazonian Thread Snake

Requena-Fadenschlange

Requena-trådslange

1969 Leptotyphlops diaplocius Orejas-Miranda
Epictia diaplocia Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Records from Brazil are based on misidentifications (Costa & Bérnils 2015).
Distribution: Peru.


Epictia goudotii

Neotropical Black Thread Snake, Lined Thread Snake, (Goudot's Thread Snake)

Neotropische Schwarze Fadenschlange

Neotropisk Sort Trådslange

1844 Stenostoma goudotii Dumeril & Bibron
Glauconia goudotii Boulenger 1893
Leptotyphlops goudotii Amaral 1930 [1929]
Leptotyphlops albifrons goudotti [sic] Roze 1952
Epictia goudotii Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1857 Stenostoma fallax Peters (Hahn 1980)
Epictia fallax Mumaw, González & Fernández 2015
1952 Leptotyphlops albifrons margaritae Roze (Hahn 1980)

Remarks: Confusion among albifrons, goudotii, phenops, and tenella long has existed. See further remarks under albifrons and a detailed account in Wallach (2016). Now restricted to South America, incl. Caribbean and Pacific coastal islands (Wallach 2016). Previously included ater, magnamaculata, and phenops, as well as populations now assigned to bakewelli, martinezi, pauldwyeri, resetari, schneideri, vindumi, and wynni (Wallach 2016).
Records from Panama refer to pauldwyeri, from Belize and Guatemala to phenops, and from El Salvador to ater or phenops (Wallach 2016). Presence in Trinidad needs confirmation (Wallach 2016), although reported by some authors (e.g., Hahn 1980; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Buurt (2005, 2006) did not mention goudotii from Bonaire, although reported by several authors (e.g., Hahn 1980; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Wallach 2016).
The nominal species fallax may represent a separate species (Wallach 2016) and was treated as such by Mumaw, González & Fernández (2015).
Distribution: Bonaire, Colombia, Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita).


Epictia hobartsmithi

Guaiquinima Thread Snake

Guaiquinima-Fadenschlange

Guaiquinima-trådslange

2015 Epictia hobartsmithi Esqueda, Schlüter, Machado, Castelaín & Mumaw in Mumaw, González & Fernández

Distribution: Venezuela.


Epictia magnamaculata

Caribbean Black Thread Snake

Karibische Schwarze Fadenschlange

Caribisk Sort Trådslange

1940 Leptotyphlops magnamaculata Taylor "1939"
Leptotyphlops albifrons magnamaculata Dunn & Saxe 1950
Leptotyphlops goudotii magnamaculatus Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Epictia magnamaculata Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Validity as a separate species confirmed by Adalsteinsson (2008).
Distribution: Colombia (incl. Providencia, San Andres), Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Barbareta, Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeño), Guanaja, Roatan, Utila], Islas del Cisne (Isla Grande, Isla Pequeña)]), Mexico (Quintana Roo [Cozumel]).


Epictia martinezi

Honduran Thread Snake

Honduranische Fadenschlange

Honduransk Trådslange

2016 Epictia martinezi Wallach

Distribution: Honduras.


Epictia melanoterma

Corrientes Thread Snake, (South American Thread Snake)

Corrientes-Fadenschlange

Corrientes-trådslange

1862 Stenostoma melanoterma Cope
Leptotyphlops melanotermus Orejas-Miranda 1964
Epictia melanoterma Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1893 Stenostoma melanostoma Günther [lapsus for Stenostoma melanoterma] (Kretzschmar 2006)

Remarks: Previously considered a synonym of albipuncta (e.g., Kretzschmar 2006). Regarded as a valid species herein, following Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) and Wallach (2016).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru.


Epictia melanura

Black-tailed Thread Snake, Chiclin Thread Snake

Schwarzschwanz-Fadenschlange

Sorthalet Trådslange

1943 Leptotyphlops melanurus Schmidt & Walker
Epictia melanurus Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia munoai

Rio Grande do Sul Thread Snake, Rio Grande do Sul Blind Snake, Pantanal Thread Snake

Rio-Grande-do-Sul-Fadenschlange

Rio Grande do Sul-trådslange

1961 Leptotyphlops munoai Orejas-Miranda
Epictia munoai Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Francisco, Pinto & Fernandes (2012) suggested that Paraguayan records of munoai represent vellardi and did not include Paraguay in the distribution of this species, which was followed by Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith (2016). It is provisionally retained herein as part of the snake fauna of Paraguay, pending further studies.
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Epictia pauldwyeri

Curundú Thread Snake

Curundú-Fadenschlange

Curundú-trådslange

2016 Epictia pauldwyeri Wallach

Distribution: Panama.


Epictia peruviana

Peruvian Thread Snake

Peruvianische Fadenschlange

Peruviansk Trådslange

1969 Leptotyphlops peruvianus Orejas-Miranda
Epictia peruviana Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia phenops

Shiny Thread Snake

Glanz-Fadenschlange

Glans-trådslange

1875 Stenostoma phenops Cope
Leptotyphlops phenops Smith 1939
Leptotyphlops goudotii phenops Liner 1994
Epictia goudotii phenops Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
Epictia phenops Pinto, Passos, Portilla, Arredondo & Fernandes 2010

Remarks: Confusion among albifrons, goudotii, phenops, and tenella has existed for decades. Revalidated as a separate species by Wallach (2016) and McCranie & Hedges (2016), although regarded as such already previously by several authors. See further remarks under albifrons and a detailed account in Wallach (2016). Previously included ater and magnamaculata, as well as populations now assigned to bakewelli, martinezi, resetari, schneideri, vindumi, and wynni. Records from Cozumel Island refer to magnamaculata (Campbell 1998; McCranie 2011; Wallach 2016; McCranie & Hedges 2016). Records from Guerrero and Michoacan are unverified (Wallach 2016). Records from Panama (e.g., Smith 1958) and Trinidad are erroneous (Wallach 2016).
Distribution: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Oaxaca, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, Veracruz, Yucatan).


Epictia resetari

Veracruz Thread Snake

Veracruz-Fadenschlange

Veracruz-trådslange

2016 Epictia resetari Wallach

Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).


Epictia rioignis

Corinto Thread Snake

Corinto-Fadenschlange

Corinto-trådslange

2019 Epictia rioignis Koch, Martins & Schweiger

Distribution: Nicaragua.





Epictia rubrolineata

Red-striped Thread Snake

Rotgestreifte Fadenschlange

Rødstribet Trådslange

1901 Glauconia albifrons rubrolineata Werner
Leptotyphlops rubrolineatus Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Epictia rubrolineata Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia rufidorsa

Red-backed Thread Snake, Huatupilla Thread Snake

Rotrückige Fadenschlange

Rødrygget Trådslange

1940 Leptotyphlops rufidorsum Taylor "1939"
Epictia rufidorsa Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia schneideri

Guerrero Thread Snake

Guerrero-Fadenschlange

Guerrero-trådslange

2016 Epictia schneideri Wallach

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca).


Epictia septemlineata

Peruvian Seven-lined Thread Snake

Peruvianische Siebenstreifige Fadenschlange

Peruviansk Syvstribet Trådslange

2015 Epictia septemlineata Koch, Venegas & Böhme

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia signata

Northern Amazon Thread Snake

Nördliche Amazonas-Fadenschlange

Nordlig Amazonas-trådslange

1862 Stenostoma signatum Jan
Glauconia signata Boulenger 1893
Leptotyphlops signatum Hahn 1979
Epictia signata Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1969 Leptotyphlops amazonicus Orejas-Miranda (Hahn 1979, 1980)
Epictia amazonica Mumaw, González & Fernández 2015

Remarks: Almendáriz (1992) listed both signata and amazonicus as a valid species, possibly having overlooked Hahn's (1979) synonymization of the two taxa. Also Mumaw, González & Fernández (2015) regarded amazonicus as a valid species.
According to Cisneros-Heredia (2008), older records from Ecuador were based on misidentifications or specimens of uncertain origin, so he proposed deleting signata from the list of Ecuadors snake fauna, however, the species is included for the country herein based on subsequent works (e.g., Francisco, Pinto & Fernandes 2012; Salazar-Valenzuela, Martins, Amador-Oyola & Torres-Carvajal 2015).
Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela.


Epictia striatula

Yungas Thread Snake

Yungas-Fadenschlange

Yungas-trådslange

1945 Leptotyphlops striatula Smith & Laufe
Epictia striatula Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of melanotermus (=albipuncta) (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970; Hahn 1980). Revalidated by Laurent (1984).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas).


Epictia subcrotilla

Tumbes Thread Snake

Tumbes-Fadenschlange

Tumbes-trådslange

1939 Leptotyphlops subcrotilla Klauber
Epictia subcrotilla Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru.


Epictia teaguei

Chotano River Thread Snake

Chotano-Fadenschlange

Chotano-trådslange

1964 Leptotyphlops teaguei Orejas-Miranda
Epictia teaguei Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia tenella

Guyana Thread Snake

Guyana-Fadenschlange

Guyana-trådslange

1939 Leptotyphlops tenella Klauber
Leptotyphlops albifrons tenella Roze 1952
Epictia tenella Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
2015 Epictia fallax Mumaw, González & Fernández (not Stenostoma fallax Peters 1857)

Remarks: Confusion among albifrons, goudotii, phenops, and tenella has existed for decades. See further remarks under albifrons and a detailed account in Wallach (2016). Presence in Ecuador needs verification (Cisneros-Heredia 2008; Wallach 2016).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Amapa, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela.


Epictia tesselata

Lima Thread Snake, Cecilla Thread Snake

Lima-Fadenschlange

Lima-trådslange

1845 Typhlops tesselatum Tschudi
Stenostoma albifrons tessellata Jan & Sordelli 1861
Leptotyphlops tessellatus Schmidt & Walker 1943
Epictia tessellata Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia tricolor

Three-coloured Thread Snake, Tricolor Thread Snake

Dreifarbige Fadenschlange

Trefarvet Trådslange

1974 Leptotyphlops tricolor Orejas-Miranda & Zug
Epictia tricolor Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia undecimstriata

Eleven-striped Thread Snake

Elfstreifen-Fadenschlange

Ellevestribet Trådslange

1839 Typhlops undecimstriatus Schlegel
Epictia undecimstriata Gray 1845
Leptotyphlops undecimstriatus Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970

Distribution: Bolivia.


Epictia unicolor

Unicolored Thread Snake

Einfarbige Fadenschlange

Ensfarvet Trådslange

1913 P.[lauconia] unicolor [sic] Werner
G.[lauconia] unicolor Werner 1917 [emendation]
Leptotyphlops unicolor Hallermann 2006
Epictia unicolor Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Unknown.


Epictia vanwallachi

Pataz Thread Snake

Pataz-Fadenschlange

Pataz-trådslange

2015 Epictia vanwallachi Koch, Venegas & Böhme

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia vellardi

Argentine Thread Snake

Argentinische Fadenschlange

Argentinsk Trådslange

1984 Leptotyphlops velardi Laurent
Epictia vellardi Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.


Epictia venegasi

Cajabamba Thread Snake

Cajabamba-Fadenschlange

Cajabamba-trådslange

2016 Epictia venegasi Koch, Cruz & Cárdenas

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia vindumi

Yucatan Thread Snake

Yucatan-Fadenschlange

Yucatan-trådslange

2016 Epictia vindumi Wallach

Distribution: Mexico (Yucatan, Quintana Roo).


Epictia vonmayi

Chota Thread Snake

Chota-Fadenschlange

Chota-trådslange

2016 Epictia vonmayi Koch, Cruz & Cárdenas

Distribution: Peru.


Epictia weyrauchi

Tucuman Thread Snake

Tucuman-Fadenschlange

Tucuman-trådslange

1964 Leptotyphlops weyrauchi Orejas-Miranda
1964 Epictia weyrauchi Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Previously considered a synonym of albipuncta (e.g., Kretzschmar 2006). Regarded as a valid species herein, following Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) and Wallach (2016).
Distribution: Argentina.


Epictia wynni

Queretaran Thread Snake

Queretaro-Fadenschlange

Queretaro-trådslange

2016 Epictia wynni Wallach

Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Queretaro).