Reptiles of
Uruguay  

 

Bibliography of the reptiles of Uruguay Taxonomic history of the reptiles of Uruguay Introduced species
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© Rune Midtgaard


Reptile biodiversity of
Uruguay

excl. introduced, extinct, unconfirmed, and unnamed species
See complete statistics for
families and genera

Families

Endemic
families

Endemism
(families)

Genera

Endemic
genera

Endemism
(genera)

Species

Endemic
species

Endemism
(species)

Species in %
of total
Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia) 1 0 0.0 % 3 0 0.0 % 4 0 0.0 % 5.9 %
Crocodilians (Crocodylia) 1 0 0.0 % 1 0 0.0 % 1 0 0.0 % 1.5 %
Lizards (Sauria) 8 0 0.0 % 11 0 0.0 % 15 1 6.7 % 22.1 %
Snakes (Serpentes) 6 0 0.0 % 25 0 0.0 % 38 0 0.0 % 55.9 %
Turtles (Testudines) 4 0 0.0 % 9 0 0.0 % 10 0 0.0 % 14.7 %
Total 20 0 0.0 % 49 0 0.0 % 68 1 1.5 % 100.0 %

Checklist
General remarks: The list includes only formally described species. Newly discovered, but still unnamed species are excluded. However, unnamed species or species unassigned to species level are included, if they are the only representatives of their genus in the region. Species counts exclude extinct and introduced species. Doubtful records, typically older voucher specimens of uncertain origin, have been excluded if considered questionable, as are records based on sources considered unreliable.
Note: Your comments to the checklist (omissions, errors, etc.) are welcomed, preferably if they are provided with reliable references. If possible, please attach a pdf file of the relevant reference to an email addressed to:
Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Amphisbaenidae (Typical Worm Lizards)
Genus Amphisbaena (Neotropical Worm Lizards)
 
Amphisbaena darwinii

Uruguayan Ringed Worm Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Gans 1967 Gans 2005 Perez, Ribeiro & Borges-Martins 2012 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970 Ruiz-García, Curi, Lamas & Céspedez 2016 Teixeira, Vechio, Neto & Rodrigues 2014
 
Amphisbaena munoai

Munoa Worm Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Gans 2005 Perez, Ribeiro & Borges-Martins 2012 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970
Genus Anops (Keel-headed Worm Lizards)
 
Anops kingii

Pampas Worm Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Gans 2005 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970
Genus Leposternon (South American Worm Lizards)
 
Leposternon microcephalum

Small-headed Worm Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Gans 1971 Gans 2005

Crocodilians (Crocodylia)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Alligatoridae (Alligators and Caimans)
Genus Caiman (Typical Caimans)
 
Caiman latirostris

Broad-snouted Caiman

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 King & Burke 1989 Wermuth & Mertens 1977

Lizards (Sauria)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Anguidae (Slowworms, etc.)
Genus Ophiodes (South American Glass Lizards)
 
Ophiodes intermedius

Asunción Glass Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Colina, Arrieta & Carreira 2012
 
Ophiodes striatus

Dark-striped Glass Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 [as "aff. striatus"] Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 [as "aff. striatus"] Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 [as "aff. striatus"] Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970 Wermuth 1969
 
Ophiodes vertebralis

Uruguayan Glass Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970 Wermuth 1969
 Family Gymnophthalmidae (Scaly-tongued Spectacled Tejus)
Genus Cercosaura (Eastern Shade Lizards)
 
Cercosaura schreibersii

South Brazilian Shade Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Doan & Lamar 2012 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970 Ribeiro-Júnior & Amaral 2016 Ribeiro-Júnior & Amaral 2017
 Family Leiosauridae (Smooth Iguanas)
Genus Anisolepis (South American Tree Iguanas)
 
Anisolepis undulatus

Brazilian Tree Iguana

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Achaval & Meneghel 2006 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Etheridge & Williams 1991 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970
 Family Liolaemidae (South American Lesser Iguanas)
Genus Liolaemus (Smooth-throated Lizards)
  *
Liolaemus gardeli

Tacuarembó Smooth-throated Lizard

Verrastro, Maneyro, Silva & Farias 2017
 
Liolaemus occipitalis

Rio Grande Smooth-throated Lizard

Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Pincheira-Donoso, Scolaro & Sura 2008 Verrastro, Maneyro, Silva & Farias 2017 Verrastro, Schossler & da Silva 2006
 
Liolaemus wiegmanni

Eastern Smooth-throated Lizard

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Pincheira-Donoso, Scolaro & Sura 2008 Verrastro, Maneyro, Silva & Farias 2017
 Family Phyllodactylidae (Leaf-toed Geckos)
Genus Homonota (Broad-headed Geckos)
 
Homonota uruguayensis

Uruguay Broad-headed Gecko

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Kluge 1964 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970 Vanzolini 1968
 Family Scincidae (Skinks)
Genus Aspronema (South American White-striped Skinks)
 
Aspronema dorsivittatum

South American White-striped Skink

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Harvey, Aguayo & Miralles 2008 Hedges & Conn 2012 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970
 Family Teiidae (Greater Tejus)
Genus Contomastix (Short-tailed Whiptails)
 
Contomastix lacertoides

Uruguayan Whiptail

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Cabrera & Carreira 2009 [as charrua] Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Harvey, Ugueto & Gutberlet 2012 Maslin & Secoy 1986 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970
Genus Salvator (Southern Tejus)
 
Salvator merianae

Southern Black-and-White Teju

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Avila-Pires 1995 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Köhler & Langerwerf 2000 Peters & Donoso-Barros 1970 Ribeiro-Júnior & Amaral 2016
Genus Teius (Typical Tejus)
 
Teius oculatus

Green Teju

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Cacciali, Morando, Köhler & Avila 2016 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Cei 1993 Harvey, Ugueto & Gutberlet 2012
 Family Tropiduridae (Rough-tailed Iguanas)
Genus Stenocercus (Whorl-tailed Iguanas)
 
Stenocercus azureus

Uruguayan Whorl-tailed Iguana

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Torres-Carvajal 2005a Torres-Carvajal 2007a
Genus Tropidurus (Eastern Keel-tailed Iguanas)
 
Tropidurus catalanensis

Uruguayan Keel-tailed Iguana

Achaval & Olmos 2003 [as torquatus] Achaval Elena 2001 [as torquatus] Cacciali & Köhler 2018 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 [as torquatus] Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 [as torquatus] Carvalho 2013 [as torquatus] Kunz & Borges-Martins 2013 Rodrigues 1987 [as torquatus]

Snakes (Serpentes)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Anomalepididae (Neotropical Blind Snakes)
Genus Liotyphlops (Smooth Blind Snakes)
 
Liotyphlops ternetzii

Paraguayan Blind Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Melgarejo & Meneghel 1984
 Family Boidae (Typical Boas)
Genus Eunectes (Anacondas)
 
Eunectes notaeus

Yellow Anaconda

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Dirksen 2001 Dirksen 2002 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 Family Colubridae (Typical Snakes or Colubrids)
Genus Atractus (Spindle Snakes)
 
Atractus reticulatus

Reticulated Spindle Snake

Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Lombardo & Achaval-Coppes 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2004 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Passos, Fernandes, Bernils & Moura-Leite 2010
Genus Boiruna (Southern Snake Eaters)
 
Boiruna maculata

South American Spotted Snake Eater

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Zaher 1996
Genus Calamodontophis (Southeastern Neotropical Forest Snakes)
 
Calamodontophis paucidens

Southern Forest Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Carreira & Lombardo 2008 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira & Meneghel 2003 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Lombardo & Achaval-Coppes 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Franco, Carvalho-Cintra & Lema 2006 Franco, Salomao, Borges-Martins, Di-Bernardo, Meneghel & Carreira 2001
Genus Chironius (Sipos)
 
Chironius bicarinatus

Eastern Sipo

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Dixon, Wiest & Cei 1993 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Genus Dipsas (South American Slug Eaters)
 
Dipsas turgida

Bolivian Snail Eater

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005
Genus Erythrolamprus (Neotropical Smooth Snakes)
 
Erythrolamprus almadensis

Almada Smooth Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Vanzolini 1986
 
Erythrolamprus jaegeri

Southern Green Smooth Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Dixon 1987b Dixon 1989 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Erythrolamprus poecilogyrus

Yellow-bellied Smooth Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Dixon 1989 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Erythrolamprus semiaureus

Golden Smooth Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Dixon 1983d Dixon 1989 Giraudo, Arzamendia & Cacciali 2006
Genus Helicops (South American Keelbacks)
 
Helicops infrataeniatus

Surinam Keelback

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Filho & Aoki 2011 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Genus Leptophis (Neotropical Parrot Snakes)
 
Leptophis ahaetulla

Common Green Parrot Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Meneghel & Achaval 1997
Genus Lygophis (South American Striped Ground Snakes)
 
Lygophis anomalus

Yellow-striped Ground Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Dixon 1985 Dixon 1989 Panzera, Guerrero & Manayro 2017 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Lygophis flavifrenatus

Yellow-lined Ground Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Lombardo 2007 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005
Genus Oxyrhopus (Calico Snakes)
 
Oxyrhopus rhombifer

Rhombic Calico Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Genus Paraphimophis (Rusty Snake Eater)
 
Paraphimophis rustica

Rusty Snake Eater

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Zaher 1996
Genus Phalotris (South American Collared Snakes)
 
Phalotris lemniscatus

Southern Black-sided White-collared Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Golay, Smith, Broadley, Dixon, McCarthy, Rage, Schätti & Toriba 1993
Genus Philodryas (South American Bush Racers & allies)
 
Philodryas aestiva

Eastern Brazilian Green Bush Racer

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Thomas 1976b
 
Philodryas agassizii

Burrowing Night Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Philodryas olfersii

Common Green Bush Racer

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Lombardo & Achaval-Coppes 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Philodryas patagoniensis

Patagonian Bush Racer

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Gouveia, Novelli, Vieira & Sousa 2017 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Thomas 1976b
Genus Psomophis (Smooth Ground Snakes)
 
Psomophis obtusus

Red-bellied Ground Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Myers & Cadle 1994 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Pietro, Nenda & Williams 2010
Genus Taeniophallus (Lowland Dwarf Leaf-litter Snakes)
 
Taeniophallus occipitalis

Bahia Leaf-litter Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Myers 1974 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Taeniophallus poecilopogon

Uruguayan Leaf-litter Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Myers 1974
Genus Tantilla (American Centipede Snakes)
 
Tantilla melanocephala

South American Black-headed Centipede Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Wilson & Mata-Silva 2015 Wilson & Mena 1980 Wilson 1987 Wilson 1992
Genus Thamnodynastes (South American Mock Vipers)
 
Thamnodynastes hypoconia

Southern Mock Viper

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002
 
Thamnodynastes strigatus

Striped Mock Viper

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Di Pietro & Nenda 2007
Genus Tomodon (Pampas Snakes)
 
Tomodon dorsatus

Brazilian Pampas Snake

Carreira & Lombardo 2006 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Lombardo & Achaval-Coppes 2012
 
Tomodon ocellatus

Ocellated Pampas Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Genus Xenodon (Northern Mock Lanceheads & South American Hognose Snakes)
 
Xenodon dorbignyi

Spotted Hognose Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Xenodon histricus

Rayed Hognose Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Orejas-Miranda 1971 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
 
Xenodon merremii

Toad-eating Mock Lancehead

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Carreira & Achaval 2007 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005
 Family Elapidae [part 1: terrestrial species] (Cobras, Mambas, etc.)
Genus Micrurus (American Coral Snakes)
 
Micrurus altirostris

Uruguayan Coral Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Lema 2002 Roze 1996 Silva & Sites 1999
 Family Leptotyphlopidae (Thread Snakes)
Genus Epictia (Neotropical Thread Snakes)
 
Epictia munoai

Rio Grande do Sul Thread Snake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Francisco, Pinto & Fernandes 2012 Hahn 1980 McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999 Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970 Wallach 2016
 Family Viperidae (Vipers)
Genus Bothrops (American Lanceheads)
 
Bothrops alternatus

Urutu

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005
 
Bothrops pubescens

Pampas Lancehead

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Silva & Rodrigues 2008
Genus Crotalus (Typical Rattlesnakes)
 
Crotalus durissus

South American Rattlesnake

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Campbell & Lamar 2004 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Prigioni, Borteiro, Kolenc, Colina & González 2013

Turtles (Testudines)
= endemicEX = extinct or assumed extinct

Species
References
 Family Chelidae (Austro-American Side-necked Turtles)
Genus Acanthochelys (South American Side-necked Swamp Turtles)
 
Acanthochelys spixii

Black Spiny-necked Swamp Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fritz & Havas 2006 Iverson 1992 King & Burke 1989 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Rhodin, Silva & Mittermeier 1984
Genus Hydromedusa (South American Snake-necked Turtles)
 
Hydromedusa tectifera

Uruguayan Snake-necked Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fritz & Havas 2006 Iverson 1992 King & Burke 1989 Martins, Garbin & Bruno 2011 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Sousa & Novelli 2009
Genus Phrynops (Lesser Toad-headed Turtles)
 
Phrynops hilarii

Spotted-bellied Toad-headed Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fritz & Havas 2006 Iverson 1992 King & Burke 1989 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 
Phrynops williamsi

Rio Cadea Toad-headed Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fritz & Havas 2006 Iverson 1992 King & Burke 1989 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 Family Cheloniidae (Hard-shelled Sea Turtles)
Genus Caretta (Loggerhead Sea Turtle)
 
Caretta caretta

Loggerhead Sea Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fallabrino, Bager, Estrades & Achaval 2000 Pritchard 1979 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
Genus Chelonia (Green Sea Turtle)
 
Chelonia mydas

Green Sea Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fallabrino, Bager, Estrades & Achaval 2000 King & Burke 1989 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
Genus Eretmochelys (Hawksbill Sea Turtle)
 
Eretmochelys imbricata

Hawksbill Sea Turtle

Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
Genus Lepidochelys (Ridley Sea Turtles)
 
Lepidochelys olivacea

Olive Ridley Sea Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fallabrino, Bager, Estrades & Achaval 2000 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 Family Dermochelyidae (Leatherback Sea Turtle)
Genus Dermochelys (Leatherback Sea Turtle)
 
Dermochelys coriacea

Leatherback Sea Turtle

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fallabrino, Bager, Estrades & Achaval 2000 King & Burke 1989 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017
 Family Emydidae (Western Pond Turtles)
Genus Trachemys (Slider Turtles)
 
Trachemys dorbigni

South Brazilian Slider

Achaval & Olmos 2003 Achaval Elena 2001 Carreira & Maneyro 2015 Carreira, Brazeiro, Camargo, Rosa, Canavero & Manyro 2012 Carreira, Meneghel & Achaval 2005 Fritz & Havas 2006 Iverson 1992 King & Burke 1989 Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk 2017 Wermuth & Mertens 1977