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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Geophis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae


Central American Earth Snakes

Zentralamerikanische Erdnattern*

Centralamerikanske Jordsnoge*

1830 Catostoma Wagler (type species: Catostoma chalybeum Wagler 1830; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1830 Geophis Wagler [substitute name for Catostoma Wagler 1830 erroneously believed preoccupied by Catostomus Lesueur 1817 (Pisces); conservation of Geophis is needed (Williams & Wallach 1989)
1853 Rabdosoma Dumeril (type species: Rhabdosoma semidoliatum Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1859 Colobognathus Peters (type species: Colobognathus hoffmanni Peters 1859; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1861 Geophidium Peters (type species: Geophidium dubium Peters 1861; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1868 Colophrys Cope (type species: Colophrys rhodogaster Cope 1868; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1883 Parageophis Bocourt (type species: Rhabdosoma semidoliatum Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1894 Dirosema Boulenger (type species: Geophis bicolor Günther 1868; syn. Wilson & Townsend 2007)
Contents: 50 species, of which 40 (80.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: Smith, Williams, Wallach & Chiszar (1990) clarified the nomenclatural priority of Geophis over Catostoma.
Distribution: Mexico, Central America, NW. South America.
Reported from: Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas), Nicaragua, Panama.

Geophis anocularis

Sierra Mije Earth Snake


Sierra Mije-jordsnog*

1920 Geophis anocularis Dunn
Catostoma anoculare Amaral 1929

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of dubius (e.g., Downs 1967). Revalidated by Campbell, Ford & Karges (1983).
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis bellus

Altos de Pacora Earth Snake*


Altos de Pacora-jordsnog*

2003 Geophis bellus Myers

Distribution: Panama.

Geophis betaniensis

Betania Earth Snake*



1987 Geophis betaniensis Restrepo & Wright

Remarks: Status see Lips & Savage (1994).
Distribution: Colombia.

Geophis bicolor

Mexican Plateau Earth Snake

Mexikanischer Plateau-Erdnatter*

Mexicansk Højlands-jordsnog*

1868 Geophis bicolor Günther
Dirosema bicolor Boulenger 1894
Rhabdosoma bicolor Cope 1885
Catostoma bicolor Amaral 1929

Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Distrito Federal, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan).

Geophis blanchardi

Acultzingo Earth Snake*, (Blanchard's Earth Snake)



1938 Geophis blanchardi Taylor & Smith

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz).

Geophis brachycephalus

Short-headed Earth Snake*

Kurzköpfige Erdnatter*

Korthovedet Jordsnog*

1871 Colobognathus brachycephalus Cope
Catostoma brachycephalum Cope 1876
Elapoidis brachycephalus Cope 1885
Dirosema brachycephalum Boulenger 1894
Geophis brachycephalus Dunn 1942
1871 Colobognathus dolichocephalus Cope (Wilson & Townsend 2007)
Catostoma dolichocephalum Cope 1876
Elapoidis dolichocephalus Cope 1885
Geophis dolichocephalus Günther 1893
1872 Geophis moestus Günther (Wilson & Townsend 2007)
Rhabdosoma moestum Cope 1887
Geophis moesta Günther 1893
1893 Geophis chalybaea quadrangularis Günther (Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1954 Geophis bakeri Taylor (Wilson & Townsend 2007)

Remarks: Validity confirmed by Savage & Watling (2008). Records from Colombia (e.g., Downs 1967; Pérez-Santos & Moreno 1988) refer to nigroalbus (Savage & Watling 2008).
Distribution: Costa Rica, Panama.

Geophis cancellatus

Chiapan Earth Snake



1941 Geophis cancellatus Smith

Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas).

Geophis carinosus

Keeled Earth Snake

Gekielte Erdnatter*

Kølet Jordsnog*

1941 Geophis carinosus Stuart

Remarks: Downs' (1967) record from Puebla refer to turbidus (Pavón-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez & Nieto-Montes de Oca 2013).
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Veracruz).

Geophis chalybeus

Veracruz Earth Snake



1830 Catostoma chalybeum Wagler
Geophis chalybaeus Wagler 1830
Elapoidis chalybaeus Cope 1885
Atractus chalybaeus Cope 1900
1885 Rhabdosoma guttulatum Cope (Smith & Taylor 1945; Wilson & Townsend 2007)

Distribution: Mexico (Veracruz).

Geophis championi

Panamanian Earth Snake*

Panamaische Erdnatter*

Panamansk Jordsnog*

1894 Geophis championi Boulenger
Catostoma championi Amaral 1929

Distribution: Panama.

Geophis damiani

Honduran Red-banded Earth Snake*

Honduranische Rotband-Erdnatter*

Honduransk Rødbåndet Jordsnog*

1998 Geophis damiani Wilson, McCranie & Williams

Distribution: Honduras.

Geophis downsi

Puntarenas Earth Snake*



1981 Geophis downsi Savage

Distribution: Costa Rica.

Geophis dubius

Mesa del Sur Earth Snake


Mesa del Sur-jordsnog*

1861 Geophidium dubium Peters
Geophis dubius Bocourt 1883
Atractus dubius Cope 1900
1886 Geophis fuscus Fischer (Smith & Taylor 1945; Wilson & Townsend 2007)

Remarks: Perez-Higareda & Smith (1988) regarded rostralis as a synonym of dubius. Their record of dubius from Puebla (based the specimen in Webb & Fugler 1957) refer to turbidus (Pavón-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez & Nieto-Montes de Oca 2013), which is most likely also the case regarding García-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez, Gutiérrez-Mayén & Trujano-Ortega (2009), who do not mention rostralis. Woolrich-Piña, García-Padilla, DeSantis, Johnson, Mata-Silva & Wilson (2017) included both dubius and turbidus for Puebla, but without comments. For this reason, the listing of dubius for the state is regarded as an error. Not mentioned for Veracruz by Wilson & Townsend (2007).
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz).

Geophis duellmani

Sierra Juarez Earth Snake


Sierra Juarez-jordsnog*

1969 Geophis duellmani Smith & Holland

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis dugesii

Tangancícuaro Earth Snake*, (Dugès' Earth Snake)



1883 Geophis dugesii Bocourt
Elapoidis dugesi Cope 1885
Catostoma dugesii Amaral 1929
1959 Geophis aquilonaris Legler (Webb 1977)
Geophis dugesii aquilonaris Webb 1977

Other common names:
aquilonaris: Chihuahuan Earth Snake
Remarks: Some authors regard aquilonaris as a separate species (e.g., Tanner 1985).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Sonora, Zacatecas).

Geophis dunni

Nicaraguan Earth Snake*

Nicaraguanische Erdnatter*

Nicaraguansk Jordsnog*

1932 Geophis dunni Schmidt

Distribution: Nicaragua.

Geophis fulvoguttatus

Salvadoran Earth Snake*

Salvadoranische Erdnatter*

Salvadoransk Jordsnog*

1952 Geophis fulvoguttatus Mertens

Distribution: El Salvador, Honduras.

Geophis godmani

Irazú Earth Snake*



1894 Geophis godmani Boulenger
Catostoma godmani Amaral 1929

Distribution: Costa Rica, Panama.

Geophis hoffmanni

Costa Rican Earth Snake*, (Hoffmann's Earth Snake)

Costaricanische Erdnatter*

Costaricansk Jordsnog*

1859 Colobognathus Hoffmanni Peters
Elapoidis hoffmanni Jan 1862
Geophis hoffmanni Bocourt 1883
Catostoma hoffmanni Amaral 1929
1954 Geophis acutirostris Taylor (Wilson & Townsend 2007)
1954 Geophis bartholomewi Brattstrom & Howell (Wilson & Townsend 2007)

Distribution: Colombia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.

Geophis immaculatus

Guatemalan Earth Snake*, (Downs' Earth Snake)

Guatemalische Erdnatter

Guatemalansk Jordsnog

1967 Geophis immaculatus Downs

Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas).

Geophis incomptus

Sierra Coalcoman Earth Snake


Sierra Coalcoman-jordsnog*

1959 Geophis incomptus Duellman

Remarks: The standard name Sierra Coalcoman Earth Snake is also used for nigrocinctus.
Distribution: Mexico (Michoacan).

Geophis isthmicus

Isthmian Earth Snake



1883 Rhabdosoma zebrinum Bocourt [not Rhabdosoma zebrinum Jan 1862] (Wilson & Townsend 2007)
Rhegnops zebrinus Cope 1885
Geophis zebrina Günther 1893
Atractus zebrinus Amaral 1929
1894 Atractus isthmicus Boulenger [substitute name for Rhabdosoma zebrinum Bocourt 1883]
Geophis isthmicus Dunn 1928

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis juarezi

Metates Earth Snake*, (Benito Juarez's Earth Snake)



2003 Geophis juarezi Nieto-Montes de Oca

Remarks: Previously confused with carinosus (Wilson & Townsend 2007).
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis juliai

Tuxtlan Earth Snake*, (Zurtuche's Earth Snake)



2001 Geophis juliai Pérez-Higareda, Smith & López-Luna

Distribution: Mexico (Veracruz).

Geophis laticinctus

Mesa Central Earth Snake


Bredbåndet Jordsnog*

1963 Geophis laticinctus Smith & Williams
1969 Geophis laticinctus albiventris Smith & Holland (Johnson 1979; Wilson & Townsend 2007)

Distribution: Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco).

Geophis laticollaris

Wide-collared Earth Snake



1965 Geophis laticollaris Smith, Lynch & Altig

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of sallaei (e.g., Downs 1967). Revalidated by Smith & Smith (1976) and Smith & Chiszar (1992).
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis latifrontalis

San Luis Potosí Earth Snake


San Luis Potosí-jordsnog*

1883 Geophis latifrontalis Garman
Atractus latifrontalis Cope 1896
1941 Geophis semiannulatus Smith (Dixon & Thomas 1974)
Geophis latifrontalis semiannulatus Dixon & Thomas 1974

Other common names:
latifrontalis: Common San Luis Potosi Earth Snake
semiannulatus: Mountain Earth Snake
Remarks: Fernandez-Badillo & Goyenechea (2010) listed semiannulatus as a separate species.
Distribution: Mexico (Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas).

Geophis lorancai

Zongolica Mountains Earth Snake*



2016 Geophis lorancai Canseco-Márquez, Pavón-Vázquez, López-Luna & Nieto-Montes de Oca

Distribution: Mexico (Puebla, Veracruz).

Geophis maculiferus

Michoacan Earth Snake



1941 Geophis maculiferus Taylor

Distribution: Mexico (Michoacan).

Geophis mutitorques

Highland Earth Snake



1885 Rhabdosoma mutitorques Cope
Geophis mutitorques Günther 1893
1886 Rhabdosoma longiceps Cope (Wilson & Townsend 2007)
Atractus longiceps Boulenger 1894
Geophis longiceps Dunn 1928

Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz).

Geophis nasalis

Coffee Earth Snake



1868 Catostoma nasale Cope
Rhabdosoma nasale Cope 1885
Geophis nasalis Smith 1941

Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas).

Geophis nephodrymus

Cloud Forest Earth Snake*



2006 Geophis nephodrymus Townsend & Wilson

Distribution: Honduras.

Geophis nigroalbus

Colombian Earth Snake

Kolumbianische Erdnatter*

Colombiansk Jordsnog*

1908 Geophis nigro-albus Boulenger
Catostoma nigroalbum Amaral 1929
Geophis negroalbus [lapsus] Myers 2003 (Wilson & Townsend 2007)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of brachycephalus (e.g., Downs 1967). Revalidated by Myers (2003). Validity confirmed by Savage & Watling (2008).
Distribution: Colombia.

Geophis nigrocinctus

Black-banded Earth Snake, Sierra Coalcoman Earth Snake


Sortbåndet Jordsnog*

1959 Geophis nigrocinctus Duellman

Remarks: The common name Sierra Coalcoman Earth Snake is also used for incomptus.
Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco, Michoacan).

Geophis occabus

El Molote Earth Snake*


El Molote-jordsnog*

2011 Geophis occabus Paván-Vázquez, García-Vázquez, Blancas-Hernández & Nieto-Montes de Oca

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero).

Geophis omiltemanus

Guerreran Earth Snake



1893 Geophis omiltemana Günther
Dirosema omiltemanum Boulenger 1894
Atractus omiltemanus Cope 1896
Catostoma omiltemanum Amaral 1929

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca).

Geophis petersii

Mexican Mountain Earth Snake*, (Peters' Earth Snake)

Mexicanische Gebirgs-Erdnatter*

Mexicansk Bjerg-jordsnog*

1894 Geophis petersii Boulenger
Catostoma petersii Amaral 1929

Distribution: Mexico (Distrito Federal, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan).

Geophis pyburni

Coalcomán Earth Snake*, (Pyburn's Earth Snake)



1977 Geophis pyburni Campbell & Murphy

Distribution: Mexico (Michoacan).

Geophis rhodogaster

Rose-bellied Earth Snake


Rødbuget Jordsnog*

1868 Colophrys rhodogaster Cope
Geophis rhodogaster Bocourt 1883
Catostoma rhodogaster Amaral 1929

Remarks: Recorded erroneously from Yucatan (Downs 1967; Smith 1995).
Distribution: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas).

Geophis rostralis

Sierra Madre Earth Snake


Sierra Madre-jordsnog*

1865 Elapoides rostralis Jan
Geophis rostralis Bocourt 1883
Rhabdosoma rostrale Cope 1885
Catostoma rostrale Amaral 1929

Remarks: Status uncertain (Wilson & Townsend 2007). Regarded as a synonym of dubius by some authors (e.g., Smith 1959; Downs 1967; Pérez-Higareda & Smith 1988; Smith & Pérez-Higareda 1991), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Bogert & Porter 1966; Campbell, Ford & Karges 1983; Liner 1993; Wilson & Townsend 2007). A record from Puebla (Webb & Fugler 1957) was referred to carinosus by Downs (1967), and later to dubius by Perez-Higareda & Smith (1988), but has subsequently been described as turbidus (Pavón-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez & Nieto-Montes de Oca 2013).
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis russatus

Red Earth Snake

Rote Erdnatter*

Rød Jordsnog*

1966 Geophis sallaei russatus Smith & Williams
Geophis russatus Downs 1967

Remarks: Downs (1967) elevated russatus to species level in a footnote. Heimes (2016) treated russatus as a synonym of laticollaris, but without discussion or references.
Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis ruthveni

Sarapiqui Earth Snake*



1925 Geophis ruthveni Werner
Catostoma ruthveni Amaral 1929

Distribution: Costa Rica.

Geophis sallaei

Oaxacan Earth Snake*, (Salle's Earth Snake)



1894 Geophis sallaei Boulenger
Catostoma sallaei Amaral 1929

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).

Geophis semidoliatus

Coral Earth Snake, Broken-ringed Earth Snake



1854 Rhabdosoma semidoliatum Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Geophis semidoliatus Peters 1859
Catastoma semidoliatum Cope 1860
Elapiodes semidoliatus Jan 1862
Atractus semidoliatus Cope 1900

Remarks: Presence in Jalisco is considered doubtful (Chávez-Avila, Casas-Andreu, García-Aguayo, Cifuentes-Lemus & Cupul-Magaña 2015), although included for the state by some authors (e.g., Cruz-Sáenz, Guerrero, Lazcano & Téllez-López 2009).
Distribution: Mexico (Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz).

Geophis sieboldi

West Mexican Earth Snake*, (Siebold's Earth Snake)

Westmexicanische Erdnatter*

Vestmexicansk Jordsnog*

1862 Elapoides sieboldi Jan
Catastoma sieboldii Cope 1868
Ninia sieboldi Garman 1884
Geophis sieboldi Smith 1941

Remarks: The distribution of this species is not well known (Flores-Villela 1993).
Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan).

Geophis talamancae

Talamanca Earth Snake*



1994 Geophis talamancae Lips & Savage

Remarks: Validity confirmed by Savage & Watling (2008).
Distribution: Costa Rica, Panama.

Geophis tarascae

Tarascan Earth Snake



1959 Geophis tarascae Hartweg

Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco, Michoacan).

Geophis tectus

La Loma Earth Snake*


La Loma-jordsnog*

2008 Geophis tectus Savage & Watling

Distribution: Panama.

Geophis turbidus

Cuetzalan Earth Snake*



2013 Geophis turbidus Pavón-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez & Nieto-Montes de Oca

Remarks: Previously confused with carinosus, dubius, and rostralis (Pavón-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez & Nieto-Montes de Oca 2013).
Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Puebla).

Geophis zeledoni

Finca Zeledón Earth Snake*


Finca Zeledón-jordsnog*

1954 Geophis zeledoni Taylor

Distribution: Costa Rica.