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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Montivipera
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Montivipera

Middle East Mountain Vipers*

Mittelöstliche Bergottern*

Mellemøstlige Bjerghugorme*

1999 Montivipera Nilson, Tuniyev, Andren, Orlov, Joger & Herrmann (type species: Daboia xanthina Gray 1849)
Contents: 7 species, of which 4 (57.1%) are endemic.
Remarks: This genus was first described as a subgenus of Vipera, but subsequently raised to full genus status by Lenk, Kalayabina, Wink & Joger (2001). Validity supported by Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux (2005).
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands), Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey (incl. European Turkey).

Montivipera bornmuelleri

Lebanese Mountain Viper, Lebanon Viper, (Bornmüller's Viper)

Libanesische Bergotter

Libanesisk Bjerghugorm*

1898 Vipera bornmülleri Werner
Vipera lebetina bornmülleri Werner 1902
Coluber bornmülleri Nikolsky 1916
Daboia raddei bornmuelleri Obst 1983
Vipera xanthina bornmuelleri Golay & al. 1993
Montivipera bornmuelleri Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux 2005

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of xanthina (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960; Schätti, Baran & Sigg 1991). Presence of bornmuelleri in Israel is based on its occurrence in the small part of Mt. Hermon currently claimed by Israel, but formerly Lebanese territory.
Distribution: Israel, Lebanon, Syria.


Montivipera bulgardaghica

Taurus Viper, Bulgar Dagh Viper

Taurische Bergotter

Taurus-bjerghugorm*

1985 Vipera bulgardaghica Nilson & Andren
Montivipera bulgardaghica Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux 2005
1990 Vipera albizona Nilson, Andren & Flard (Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger 2016)
Montivipera albizona Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux 2005
Montivipera bulgardaghica albizona Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger 2016

Other common names:
albizona: Central Turkish Mountain Viper, Kulmac Daglari Viper
Remarks: Regarded by some authors as a synonym of bornmuelleri (Golay & al. 1993), by others as a synonym of xanthina (e.g., Schätti, Baran & Sigg 1991; Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000). Most recently it has been regarded as a valid species (Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger 2016). The status of albizona has been disputed. Regarded by various authors as either a synonym of wagneri (e.g., Golay & al. 1993), a synonym of xanthina (e.g., Schätti, Baran & Sigg 1991; Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000), a synonym of bulgardaghica (e.g., Stümpel & Joger 2009), or as a valid species (e.g., Nilson & Andrén 1992; Mulder 1994; David & Ineich 1999; Göcmen, Arikan, Yildiz, Mermer & Alpagut-Keskin 2009). It is herein regarded as a subspecies of bulgardaghica, following Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger (2016).
Distribution: Turkey.


Montivipera kuhrangica

Kuhrang Mountain Viper*

Kuhrang-Bergotter*

Kuhrang-bjerghugorm*

2011 Montivipera kuhrangica Rajabizadeh, Nilson & Kami

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of raddei (Rastegar-Pouyani, Oraie, Khosravani, Kaboli, Mobaraki, Yousefi, Behrooz, Fakharmanesh & Wink 2014). Revalidated as a separate species by Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger (2016).
Distribution: Iran.


Montivipera latifii

Lar Valley Viper, (Latifi's Viper)

Elburs-Bergotter

Alborz-bjerghugorm*

1967 Vipera latifii Mertens, Darevsky & Klemmer
Daboia raddei latifii Obst 1983
Vipera raddei latifii Golay & al. 1993
Montivipera latifii Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger 2016

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of raddei (Rastegar-Pouyani, Oraie, Khosravani, Kaboli, Mobaraki, Yousefi, Behrooz, Fakharmanesh & Wink 2014). Revalidated as a separate species by Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wúster & Joger (2016).
Distribution: Iran.


Montivipera raddei

Armenian Mountain Viper, Armenian Rock Viper, (Armenian Viper, Radde's Rock Viper, Radde's Viper)

Armenische Bergotter, Kaukasische Bergotter

Armensk Bjerghugorm*

1890 Vipera raddei Boettger
Coluber raddei Nikolsky 1916
Vipera lebetina raddei Schwarz 1936
Vipera xanthina raddei Mertens 1952
Daboia raddei Obst 1983
Montivipera raddei Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux 2005
1985 Vipera albicornuta Nilson & Andren (Stümpel & Joger 2009; Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wüster & Joger 2016)
Vipera raddei albicornuta Golay & al. 1993
1986 Vipera raddei kurdistanica Nilson & Andren (Stümpel & Joger 2009; Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wüster & Joger 2016)
Vipera kurdistanica Nilson, Tuniyev, Andrén, Orlov, Joger & Herrmann 1999
Montivipera raddei kurdistanica Rajabizadeh, Nilson & Kami 2011

Other common names:
albicornuta: Iranian Mountain Viper, Zanjan Valley Viper, Zigzag Mountain Viper
kurdistanica: Kurdistan Mountain Viper
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of Macrovipera lebetina or of Montivipera xanthina. Revalidated as a separate species by Nilson & Sundberg (1981) and Obst (1983). Previously included kuhrangica and latifii.
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Iraq, Turkey.


Montivipera wagneri

Ocellated Mountain Viper, (Wagner's Mountain Viper, Wagner's Viper)

Wagners Bergotter

Plettet Bjerghugorm*

1984 Vipera wagneri Nilson & Andren
Montivipera wagneri Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux 2005

Remarks: Previously regarded as a species of uncertain status (e.g., Schätti, Baran & Sigg 1991), but most authors have considered it a valid species (e.g., Nilson & Andrén 1992; David & Ineich 1999; Venchi & Sindaco 2006; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Validity confirmed by Stümpel, Rajabizadeh, Avci, Wüster & Joger (2016). Presence in Iran is regarded as doubtful (Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013).
Distribution: Turkey.


Montivipera xanthina

Ottoman Viper, Coastal Viper, Rock Viper, Turkish Viper, Near East Viper

Kleinasiatische Bergotter

Vestanatolsk Bjerghugorm*, (Bjerghugorm)

1849 Daboia xanthina Gray
Vipera xanthina Strauch 1869
Vipera lebetina xanthina Werner 1902
Mesocoronis xanthina Reuss 1930
Montivipera xanthina Garrigues, Dauga, Ferquel, Choumet & Failloux 2005
2014 Montivipera xanthina dianae Cattaneo
2014 Montivipera xanthina nilsoni Cattaneo
2017 Montivipera xanthina occidentalis Cattaneo
2019 Montivipera xanthina varoli Afsar, Yakin, Cicek & Ayaz

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of Macrovipera lebetina.
Distribution: Greece (incl. Aegean Islands), Turkey (incl. European Turkey).