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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Vipera
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Vipera

Typical Vipers or Adders

Eurasische oder Echte Ottern oder Vipern

Eurasiske Hugorme, Egentlige Hugorme, Typiske Hugorme

1764 Vipera Garsault (type species: Coluber aspis Linnaeus 1758; by subsequent designation: Dubois & Bour 2010)
1768 Coluber Laurenti [not Coluber Linnaeus 1758 (Serpentes)] (type species: Coluber chersea Linnaeus 1758)
1806 Echidna Link [not Echidna Forster 1788 (Pisces); not Echidna Cuvier 1798 (Mammalia); not Echidna Lacepede 1799 (Mammalia)] (type species: Echidna redi = Coluber aspis Linnaeus 1758; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
1816 Berus Oken (type species: Coluber berus Linnaeus 1758)
1820 Pelias Merrem (type species: Coluber berus Linnaeus 1758)
1822 Chersea Fleming (type species: Vipera vulgaris Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801)
1831 Ammodytes Bonaparte [not Ammodytes Linnaeus 1758 (Pisces); not Ammodytes Linnaeus 1766 (Pisces)] (type species: Coluber ammodytes Linnaeus 1758)
1834 Rhinaspis Bonaparte [not Rhinaspis Perty 1830 (Insecta); not Rhinaspis Bonaparte 1832 (Aves); nomen nudum (Iinternational Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (1964): Opinion 698 (type species: Coluber ammodytes Linnaeus 1758)
1843 Rhinechis Fitzinger [not Rhinechis Michahelles in Wagler 1833 (Serpentes)] (type species: Coluber ammodytes Linnaeus 1758)
1844 Echidnoides Mauduyt (type species: Vipera trilamina Millet 1828)
1927 Acridophaga Reuss (type species: Pelias ursinii Bonaparte 1835)
1927 Mesocoronis Reuss (type species: Vipera coronis Reuss 1927)
1927 Mesovipera Reuss (type species: Coluber aspis Linnaeus 1758)
1927 Teleovipera Reuss [nomen illegitimum; Krecsac 2007] (type species: Coluber ammodytes Linnaeus 1758)
1929 Latastea Reuss (type species: Vipera latasti Bosca 1878)
1929 Tzarevscya Reuss (type species: Vipera tigrina Zarevsky 1917)
1935 Latasteopara Reuss (type species: Vipera hugyi Schinz 1833)
Contents: 26 species, of which 10 (38.5%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Pelias: Shield-headed Vipers
Remarks: Previously included the species now placed in the genera Daboia, Macrovipera, Montatheris, Montivipera, and Proatheris. Dubois & Bour (2010) corrected the authorship of Vipera to Garsault (1764). It had previously been attributed to Laurenti (1968). Some authors regard Pelias as a separate genus (e.g., Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: NW. Africa, Europe, C. and E. Asia.
Reported from: Albania, Algeria, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Jilin, Shaanxi, Xinjiang), Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands], Sporades Islands), Hungary, Iran, Italy (incl. Elba, Sicily), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Monaco, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Netherlands, North Korea, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia (incl. Sakhalin Island), San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Tunisia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Ukraine (incl. Crimea), United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales), Uzbekistan.

Vipera altaica

Altai Dwarf Viper*

Altaiotter*

Altai-hugorm*

2010 Vipera altaica Tuniyev, Nilson & Andrén
Pelias altaica Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Kazakhstan.


Vipera ammodytes

European Nose-horned Viper, Sand Viper, Long-nosed Viper, (Horned Viper)

Sandotter, Europäische Hornotter

Sandhugorm

1758 Coluber ammodytes Linnaeus
Vipera ammodytes Sonnini & Latreille 1820
Cobra ammodytes Fitzinger 1826
Teleovipera ammodytes Reuss 1927
1768 Vipera illyrica Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1768 Vipera illyrica var. fusca Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1768 Vipera illyrica var. pallido-caerulescens Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1897 Vipera ammodytes var. steindachneri Werner (Golay & al. 1993)
1903 Vipera ammodytes meridionalis Boulenger
Vipera meridionalis Bolkay 1920
Pelias meridionalis Reuss 1930
1904 Vipera ammodytes montandoni Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
1913 Vipera ammodytes transcaucasiana Boulenger
Vipera transcaucasiana Nilson, Tuniyev, Andrén & Orlov 1999
1915 Vipera ammodytes transversovirgata Zarevsky (Golay & al. 1993)
1919 Vipera ammodytes var. connectens Bolkay [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
Vipera meridionalis connectens Bolkay 1920
1935 Rhinaspis illyrica litoralis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1935 Rhinaspis illyrica velebitensis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1937 Rhinaspis illyrica forma melanura Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1968 Vipera ammodytes ruffoi Bruno (Golay & al. 1993)
1974 Vipera ammodytes gregorwallneri Sochurek (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
ammodytes: Common Nose-horned Viper, Western Nose-horned Viper
gregorwallneri: Alpine Nose-horned Viper
meridionalis: Eastern Nose-horned Viper, Southern Nose-horned Viper
montandoni: Transdanubian Nose-horned Viper, Romanian Nose-horned Viper, Dobrudja Nose-horned Viper
ruffoi: South Tyrolian Nose-horned Viper
transcaucasiana: Armenian Nose-horned Viper, Armenian Sand Viper, Transcaucasian Nose-horned Viper, Transcaucasian Sand Viper
Remarks: Some authors regard transcaucasiana as a separate species (e.g., Obst 1983; Baran & Atatür 1998; Nilson, Tuniyev, Andrén & Orlov 1999; Ananjeva, Orlov, Khalikov, Darevsky, Ryabov & Barabanov 2006; Lymberakis & Poulakakis 2010; Tuniyev, Nilson, Kasaka, Avci, Agasyan, Orlov & Tuniyev 2017). Records from Syria are erroneous (possibly based on confusion with the Greek island Syra) or at least doubtful (Martens 1997; Venchi & Sindaco 2007). David & Ineich (1999) and Venchi & Sindaco (2007) regarded records from Armenia as doubtful, however, Ursenbacher, Schweiger, Tomovic, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Fumagalli & Mayer (2008) included material (of transcaucasiana) from the country. Records from Hungary (e.g., Welch 1983) are considered erroneous (Dely 1978; David & Ineich 1999), although reported by several authors (e.g., Steward 1971; Harding & Welch 1980; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Anonymous 2005c). Also records from Slovakia (e.g., Arnold & Burton 1978; Saint Girons 1978; Harding & Welch 1980; Bruno 1985; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999) are considered erroneous (David & Ineich 1999).
Distribution: Albania, Austria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Georgia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands], Sporades Islands), Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, Turkey (incl. European Turkey).


Vipera anatolica

Anatolian Mountain Steppe Viper, Anatolian Karst Viper, Anatolian Viper

Anatolische Otter

Anatolsk Steppehugorm*

1970 Vipera ursini anatolica Eiselt & Baran
Vipera anatolica Joger, Herrmann & Nilson 1992
Pelias anatolica Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
2017 Vipera anatolica senliki Göcmen, Mebert, Karis, Oguz & Ursebacher

Distribution: Turkey.


Vipera aspis

Asp Viper, Aspic Viper, European Asp

Aspisviper, Juraviper

Aspishugorm

1758 Coluber aspis Linnaeus
Vipera aspis Merrem 1820
Pelias aspis Boie 1827
Vipera berus aspis Camerano 1888
Mesovipera aspis Reuss 1927
1768 Vipera francisciredi Laurenti
Vipera aspis francisciredi Harding & Welch 1980
1768 Vipera mosischaras Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1788 Coluber redi Gmelin in Linnaeus [new name for Vipera francisci redi Laurenti 1768] (Golay & al. 1993)
Vipera redi Sonnini & Latreille 1801
Vipera aspis redi Calabresi 1924
1801 Vipera chersea Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille [not Coluber chersea Linnaeus 1758] (Golay & al. 1993)
1801 Vipera ocellata Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille (Golay & al. 1993)
Aspis ocellata Fitzinger 1826
Vipera aspis ocellata Bonaparte 1834
1801 Vipera vulgaris Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille (Golay & al. 1993)
Chersea vulgaris Fleming 1822
Berus vulgaris Gray 1831
Vipera aspis vulgaris Massalongo 1853
1802 Coluber charasii Shaw (Golay & al. 1993)
1820 Vipera atra Meisner
Vipera aspis atra Meissner 1820
1828 Vipera communis Millet [not Leach 1817] (Golay & al. 1993)
1834 Vipera hugyi Schinz
Vipera aspis hugyi Schreiber 1912
1834 Vipera aspis var. nigra Bonaparte (Golay & al. 1993)
1835 Vipera aspis rubriventris Bonaparte (Golay & al. 1993)
1835 Vipera aspis var. fusca Bonaparte [not Vipera illyrica var. fusca Laurenti 1768] (Golay & al. 1993)
1835 Vipera aspis var. ocellata Bonaparte [not Vipera ocellata Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801] (Golay & al. 1993)
1835 Vipera aspis var. rufa Bonaparte (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Vipera aspis var. nigra Massalongo [not Vipera aspis var. nigra Bonaparte 1835] (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Vipera aspis var. ocellata Massalongo [not Vipera ocellata Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801; not Bonaparte 1835; not Vipera ocellata Smith 1838] (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Vipera aspis var. plumbea Massalongo (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. cinerascens De Betta [new name for Vipera aspis francisci redi Laurenti 1768] (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. cinerea De Betta (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. fulva De Betta (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. fusca-plumbeiventris De Betta (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. isabellina De Betta (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. rufescens De Betta (Golay & al. 1993)
1857 Vipera aspis var. rufiventris De Betta (Golay & al. 1993)
1875 Vipera heegeri Schreiber (Golay & al. 1993)
1878 Vipera aspis var. immaculata Calderini (Golay & al. 1993)
1879 Vipera aspis var. calderinii De Betta [new name for Vipera aspis var. immaculata Calderini 1878] (Golay & al. 1993)
1885 Vipera aspis var. infernalis Müller (Golay & al. 1993)
1885 Vipera hugii Müller (Golay & al. 1993)
1897 Vipera aspis var. lineata Düringen (Golay & al. 1993)
1902 Vipera aspis var. delalande Phisalix (Golay & al. 1993)
1924 Vipera aspis forma trans. rudolphi-italica Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1924 Vipera aspis typus Calabresi (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Mesovipera maculata Reuss [nomen nudum; not Vipera maculata Laurenti 1768] (Golay & al. 1993)
1934 Vipera aspis balcanica Buresh & Zonkov
1938 Mesovipera morathi lepontica Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1938 Mesovipera morathi morathi Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1956 Vipera aspis montecristi Mertens (Golay & al. 1993)
1958 Vipera aspis zinnikeri Kramer
Vipera zinnikeri Zuffi 2002
1968 Vipera aspis pyreneenne Phisalix (Golay & al. 1993)
1979 Vipera aspis heinzdischeki Sochurek [part] (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
aspis: Common Asp Viper
atra: Black Asp Viper
francisciredi: Central Italian Asp Viper
hugyi: Southern Italian Asp Viper, Calabrese's Asp Viper
montecristi: Monte Cristo Asp Viper
zinnikeri: Gascony Asp Viper, Pyrenean Asp Viper
Remarks: Taxonomic status of balcanica uncertain. It has been regarded as a synonym of ammodytes (e.g., Joger in David & Ineich 1999) or as a valid subspecies of aspis (Stojanov, Tzankov & Naumov 2011). In any case, the status of records from the Balkans (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Serbia) have often been assumed to be based on misidentifications or hybrids of other species (e.g., Arnold & Ovenden 2002). Although vouchers do exist for these records (Stojanov, Tzankov & Naumov 2011), these countries have not been included in the distribution herein, pending confirmation of extant populations of aspis in the Balkans. Zuffi (2002) proposed species rank to atra, hugyi, and zinnikeri, but this has been a matter of debate (e.g., Filippi 2003). The taxon atra has recently been synonymized with aspis (Conelli, Ursenbacher, Golay, Monney, Zuffi, Thiery, Durand & Fumagalli 2004; Golay, Conelli, Durand, Monney & Thiery 2004; Golay, Monney, Conelli, Durand, Thiery, Zuffi & Ursenbacher 2008).
Extinct in: Bulgaria.
Introduced to: Italy (Montecristo).
Distribution: Andorra, France, Germany, Italy (incl. Elba, Sicily), Monaco, San Marino, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland.


Vipera barani

North Anatolian Viper*, (Baran's Adder)

Barans Otter

Nordanatolsk Hugorm*

1983 Vipera barani Böhme & Joger
Vipera berus barani Sindaco, Venchi, Carpaneto & Bologna 2000
Pelias barani Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: See remarks under pontica. Sometimes regarded as a subspecies of berus (e.g., Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013).
Distribution: Turkey.


Vipera berus

Northern Eurasian Viper, Common European Viper, Northern Viper, Cross Adder, Adder

Kreuzotter

Nordlig Hugorm*, Almindelig Europćisk Hugorm - I Danmark: Hugorm

1758 Coluber berus Linnaeus
Vipera berus Daudin 1802
Pelias berus Merrem 1820
1758 Coluber chersea Linnaeus (Golay & al. 1993)
Vipera chersea Daudin 1803
Pelias berus chersea Günther 1858
Pelias chersea Erber 1863
1761 Coluber prester Linnaeus (Golay & al. 1993)
Vipera prester Daudin 1803
Pelias berus prester Günther 1858
1768 Coluber vipera angelorum Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1771 Coluber melanis Pallas (Golay & al. 1993)
1773 Coluber scytha Pallas (Golay & al. 1993)
1789 Coluber niger Lacepede (Golay & al. 1993)
1804 Coluber coeruleus Sheppard (Golay & al. 1993)
1817 Vipera communis Leach (Golay & al. 1993)
1818 Coluber cheseae var. marasso Polli
Vipera berus marasso Schmidtler & Hansbauer 2020
1826 Vipera limnaea Bendiscioli (Golay & al. 1993)
1828 Vipera trilamina Millet (Golay & al. 1993)
1832 Vipera torva Lenz (Golay & al. 1993)
1842 Pelias dorsalis Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1842 Vipera prester var. gagatina Freyer (Golay & al. 1993)
1872 Vipera berus var. concolor Jan in Jan & Sordelli (Golay & al. 1993)
1889 Vipera berus bosniensis Boettger
1894 Vipera berus var. montana Mehely [not Vipera montana Smith 1826] (Golay & al. 1993)
1912 Vipera berus var. pseudaspis Schreiber (Golay & al. 1993)
1917 Vipera berus sachalinensis Zarevsky
Vipera sachalinensis Mertens 1934
Pelias sachalinensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1923 Vipera berus forma brunneomarcata Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1923 Vipera berus forma luteoalba Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1923 Vipera berus forma ochracea-assymetrica Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1924 Vipera berus forma bilineata Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1924 Vipera berus forma rudolphi-marchica Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1925 Vipera berus forma chersea-splendens Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1925 Vipera berus forma ochracea-splendens Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1925 Vipera berus forma punctata Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1925 Vipera berus forma rutila Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera aspoides Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera aspoides annulata Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera berus rudolphi Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera coronis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
Mesocoronis coronis Reuss 1927
1927 Vipera coronis beroides Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera coronis leopardina Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera coronis zamenoides Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera eimeri Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera nigroides Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Vipera rudolphoides Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1929 Pelias elberfeldi Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Mesocoronis bosniensis atrobosniensis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Mesocoronis coronis nigroides forma flavocincta Reuss [nomen illegitimum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Mesocoronis ornata Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias flavescens Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias meridionalis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias schoettleri Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias schreiberi Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias subalpina Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias sudetica Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1930 Pelias tyrolensis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1932 Pelias neglecta Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1932 Vipera berus sphagnosa Krassawzeff (Golay & al. 1993)
1933 Pelias occidentalis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1933 Pelias occidentalis oldesloensis Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1933 Pelias occidentalis orbensis Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1935 Pelias sudetica forma steinii Reuss [nomen nudum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1936 Vipera ursinii macrops Bacesco [not Vipera macrops Mehely 1911] (Golay & al. 1993)
1937 Mesocoronis pseudaspoides Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1937 Pelias sudetica steini forma emarcata Reuss [nomen illegitimum] (Golay & al. 1993)
1964 Vipera mesoccoronis Boquet (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
bosniensis: Bosnian Viper, Balkan Cross Adder
sachalinensis: Sakhalin Viper
Remarks: Some authors regard nikolskii as a subspecies of berus. Some authors have regarded sachalinensis as a separate species (e.g., Mertens 1934; Joger, Lenk, Baran, Böhme, Ziegler, Heidrich & Wink 1995; Adnagulov & Oleinikov 2006; Ananjeva, Orlov, Khalikov, Darevsky, Ryabov & Barabanov 2006; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), but others have retained it as a subspecies of berus (e.g. Joger in David & Ineich 1999; Kalyabina-Hauf, Schweiger, Joger, Mayer, Orlov & Wink 2004; Nilson, Andrén & Völki 2005; David & Vogel 2010). It has been suggested that bosniensis might represent a separate species (e.g., Joger in David & Ineich 1999).
Presence in Shaanxi province, China, as reported by two publications in Chinese (Song 2002; Tian, Chen, Bao & Liu 2007) probably needs verification, since this is far from the nearest other known localities. Shaanxi has therefore not been plotted in the distribution map of berus, but the species has nevertheless been included in the checklist for the province.
Distribution: Albania, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, China (Jilin, Shaanxi, Xinjiang), Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Korea, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia (incl. Sakhalin Island), Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey (incl. European Turkey), Ukraine, United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales).


Vipera darevskii

South Caucasian Viper*, (Darevsky's Viper, Darevsky's Meadow Viper)

Darevskys Kreuzotter

Sydkaukasisk Hugorm*

1986 Vipera darevskii Orlov & Tuniyev
Pelias darevskii Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012
2018 Vipera darevskii kumlutasi Tuniyev, Avci, Ilgaz, Olgun, Petrova, Bodrov, Geniez & Teynié
2018 Vipera darevskii uzumorum Tuniyev, Avci, Ilgaz, Olgun, Petrova, Bodrov, Geniez & Teynié

Remarks: Previously included the Turkish population now assigned to olguni (Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012). The description of olguni removed darevskii from the Turkish snake fauna, however, two new subspecies of darevskii (kumlutasi, uzumorum) were subsequently described from Turkey (Tuniyev, Avci, Ilgaz, Olgun, Petrova, Bodrov, Geniez & Teynié 2018). Although claimed earlier to occur in Georgia (e.g., Golay, Smith, Broadley, Dixon, McCarthy, Rage, Schätti & Toriba 1993; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999), presence in the country has been considered doubtful (e.g., Joger in David & Ineich 1999), however, the species has recently been confirmed for the country (Tuniyev, Iremashvili & Tuniyev 2014).
Distribution: Armenia, Georgia, Turkey.


Vipera dinniki

West Caucasian Viper, Caucasus Subalpine Viper, (Dinnik's Viper)

Westliche Kaukasusotter, Westkaukasische Kreuzotter, (Dinniks Kaukasusotter)

Vestkaukasisk Hugorm*

1913 Vipera berus dinniki Nikolsky
Coluber berus dinniki Nikolsky 1916
Vipera dinniki Vedmederja, Orlov & Tuniyev 1986
Pelias dinniki Tuniyev 2008
1916 Vipera tigrina Zarevsky (Golay & al. 1993)
Mesocoronis tigrina Reuss 1929

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of kaznakovi (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960).
Distribution: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia.


Vipera ebneri

Persian Mountain Steppe Viper, Iranian Mountain Steppe Viper, Iranian Steppe Viper

Persische Bergsteppenotter, Iranische Bergsteppenotter

Persisk Steppehugorm*

1955 Vipera ursinii ebneri Knoepffler & Sochurek
Vipera ebneri Nilson, Tuniyev, Andrén, Orlov, Joger & Herrmann 1999
Vipera renardi ebneri Joger & Dely 2005
Pelias ebneri Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of eriwanensis by some authors (e.g., David & Ineich 1999; Arakelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco & Leviton 2011), or of renardi (e.g., Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Nilson & Andrén 2001; Mallow, Ludwig & Nilson 2003; David & Vogel 2010).
Distribution: Azerbaijan, Iran.


Vipera eriwanensis

Armenian Mountain Steppe Viper, Armenian Steppe Viper, Southern Steppe Viper, Armenian Meadow Viper, Transcaucasian Meadow Viper

Südliche Steppenotter

Armensk Steppehugorm*

1933 Acridophaga renardi eriwanensis Reuss
Vipera ursini eriwanensis Joger 1984
Vipera eriwanensis Höggren, Nilson, Andrén, Orlov & Tuniyev 1993
Vipera renardi eriwanensis Joger & Dely 2005
Pelias eriwanensis Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012

Remarks: Sometimes regarded as a subspecies of renardi (e.g., Joger & Dely 2005; Gvozdik, Jandzik, Cordos, Rehak & Kotlik 2012; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013).
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Iran, Turkey.


Vipera graeca

Greek Meadow Viper

Griechische Wiesenotter*

Grćsk Enghugorm*

1988 Vipera ursinii graeca Nilson & Andren
Vipera graeca Mizsei, Jablonski, Roussos, Dimaki, Ioannides, Nilson & Nagy 2017

Distribution: Albania, Greece (mainland).


Vipera kaznakovi

Caucasian Red Viper*, Red Viper, (Caucasian Viper, Kaznakov's Viper)

Kolchische Kaukasusotter

Kaukasisk Rřd Hugorm*

1909 Vipera kaznakovi Nikolsky
Coluber kaznakowi Nikolsky 1916
Pelias kaznakovi Reuss 1927
Vipera ursinii kaznakovi Schwarz 1936

Remarks: Previously included populations now assigned to magnifica and orlovi (Venchi & Sindaco 2007).
Distribution: Georgia, Russia, Turkey.


Vipera latastei

Snub-nosed Viper, (Lataste's Viper, Iberian Viper)

Stülpnasenotter

Iberisk Snudehugorm*, (Latastes Hugorm)

1878 Vipera latastei Bosca
Latastea latastei Reuss 1929
1977 Vipera latastei gaditana Saint Girons

Other common names:
gaditana: Southern Snub-nosed Viper
latastei: Northern Snub-nosed Viper
Remarks: Previously included monticola. Bosca used two different spellings, latastei and latasti, in the original description. David & Ineich (1999), acting as first revisors, selected the former spelling. Although Montori & Llorente (2005) suggested this action to be invalid, based on the assumption that latastei was a lapsus calami, this is not the case, since Bosca himself used the spelling latastei in subsequent publications (Speybroeck & Crochet 2007). Presence in Tunisia was questioned by Venchi & Sindaco (2007), but David & Vogel (2010) included a photo of a Tunisian specimen.
Distribution: Algeria, Gibraltar, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia.


Vipera lotievi

Caucasian Meadow Viper, (Lotiev's Meadow Viper, Lotiev's Viper)

Kaukasus-Wiesenotter, Lotievs Viper

Kaukasisk Enghugorm*

1995 Vipera lotievi Nilson, Tuniyev, Orlov, Hoggren & Andrén
Vipera renardi lotievi Joger & Dely 2005
Pelias lotievi Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012

Remarks: Sometimes regarded as a subspecies of renardi (e.g., Joger & Dely 2005; Gvozdik, Jandzik, Cordos, Rehak & Kotlik 2012; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013). Validity as a separate species demonstrated by Nilson & Andrén (2001).
Distribution: Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia.


Vipera magnifica

Krasnodar Viper*, Magnificent Viper, (West Caucasian Viper)

Krasnodarotter*, (Westliche Kaukasusotter)

Krasnodar-hugorm*

2001 Vipera magnifica Tuniyev & Ostrovskikh
Pelias magnifica Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012

Distribution: Russia.


Vipera monticola

Atlas Dwarf Viper, (Atlas Mountain Viper)

Atlas-Zwergotter

Atlas-dvćrghugorm*

1953 Vipera latastei montana Saint Girons [not Vipera montana Smith 1826; not Vipera berus var. montana Mehely 1894]
1954 Vipera latastei monticola Saint Girons [substitute name for Vipera latastei montana Saint Girons 1953]
Vipera monticola Beerli, Billing & Schätti 1986

Distribution: Morocco.


Vipera nikolskii

Russian Black Viper*, (Forest-steppe Viper, Nikolsky's Viper, Black Viper)

Waldsteppenotter

Russisk Sort Hugorm*

1986 Vipera nikolskii Vedmederya & Grubant
Vipera berus nikolskii Joger in David & Ineich 1999
Pelias nikolskii Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Status uncertain. Regarded as a subspecies of berus by some authors (e.g., Joger in David & Ineich 1999; David & Vogel 2010; Speybroeck, Beukema & Crochet 2010; Zinenko, Turcanu & Strugariu 2010; Sos & Hegyeli 2011; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013; Mizsei, Jablonski, Roussos, Dimaki, Ioannides, Nilson & Nagy 2017), but as a valid species by others (e.g., Mallow, Ludwig & Nilson 2003; Smedt 2006; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). In their checklist for Romania, Cogalniceanu, Rozylowicz, Székely, Samoila, Stanescu, Tudor, Székely & Iosif (2013) did not examine nikolskii separately from berus, and therefore did not list nikolskii for the country, although reported by other authors.
Distribution: Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine.


Vipera olguni

Ardahan Mountain Viper*

Ardahan-Bergotter*

Ardahan-bjerghugorm*

2012 Pelias olguni Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian

Remarks: This species was perviously regarded as a Turkish population of darevskii (e.g., Avci, Ilgaz, Baskaya, Baran & Kumlutas 2010; David & Vogel 2010).
Distribution: Turkey.


Vipera orlovi

Mount Papai Viper*, (Orlov's Viper)

Orlovs Kaukasusotter

Papai-bjerghugorm*

2001 Vipera orlovi Tuniyev & Ostrovskikh
Pelias orlovi Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012

Distribution: Russia.


Vipera pontica

Pontic Adder, Black Sea Viper

Pontische Otter

Pontisk Hugorm*

1990 Vipera pontica Billing, Nilson & Sattler
Pelias pontica Tuniyev, Avci, Tuniyev, Agasian & Agasian 2012

Remarks: Status uncertain (Nilson & Andrén 2001; David & Vogel 2010). Possibly a hybrid (Billing, Nilson & Sattler 1990; David & Vogel 2010). Regarded as a synonym of barani by Baran, Joger, Kutrup & Turkozan (2001), but regarded here tentatively as a valid species, pending further studies, following Nilson & Andrén (2001), Mallow, Ludwig & Nilson (2003), and David & Vogel (2010).
Distribution: Turkey.


Vipera renardi

Eastern Steppe Viper

Östliche Steppenotter

Řstlig Steppehugorm*

1861 Pelias renardi Christoph
Vipera renardi Boulenger 1893
Vipera ursinii renardi Schwarz 1936
Vipera berus renardi Basoglu 1947
1929 Acridophaga uralensis Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
2001 Vipera renardi parursinii Nilson & Andren
2001 Vipera renardi tienshanica Nilson & Andren
2004 Vipera renardi bashkirovi Bakiev, Garanin, Litvinov, Pavlov & Ratnikov
2009 Vipera renardi puzanovi Kukushkin

Other common names:
bashkirovi: Altai Steppe Viper*, (Bashkirov's Steppe Viper)
parursinii: Xinjiang Mountain Steppe Viper
renardi: Lowland Steppe Viper
tienshanica: Tien Shan Mountain Steppe Viper
Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Joger, Herrmann & Nilson (1992), followed by others (e.g., Höggren, Nilson, Andrén, Orlov & Tuniyev 1993; Nilson & Andren 2001). Records from Azerbaijan refer to shemakhensis (Tuniyev, Orlov, Tuniyev & Kidov 2013).
Distribution: China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine (incl. Crimea), Uzbekistan.


Vipera sakoi

Otlubekli Viper

Otlubekli-Otter

Otlubekli-hugorm*

2018 Vipera sakoi Tuniyev, Avci, Ilgaz, Olgun, Petrova, Bodrov, Geniez & Teynié

Distribution: Turkey.





Vipera seoanei

Northern Iberian Viper*, Pyrenean Viper, Baskian Viper, Portuguese Viper, (Iberian Cross Adder, Iberian Viper)

Nordiberische Kreuzotter, Spanische Kreuzotter

Nordiberisk Hugorm*

1879 Vipera berus seoanei Lataste
Pelias seoanei Reuss 1927
Vipera seoanei Saint-Girons & Duguy 1976
1983 Vipera seoanei cantabrica Brana & Bas

Other common names:
cantabrica: Cantabrian Viper
Distribution: France, Portugal, Spain.


Vipera shemakhensis

Shemakhan Steppe Viper*

Aserbaidschanische Steppenotter*

Azerbaijansk Steppehugorm*

2013 Pelias shemakhensis Tuniyev, Orlov, Tuniyev & Kidov
2018 Pelias shemakhensis kakhetiensis Tuniyev, Iremashvili, Petrova & Kravchenko

Distribution: Azerbaijan, Georgia.


Vipera ursinii

Meadow and Karst Vipers, (Western Steppe Viper, Orsini's Viper)

Wiesenotter, Karstsotter

Enghugorm, Karsthugorm (macrops), (Orsinis Hugorm)

1835 Pelias Ursinii Bonaparte
Pelias berus ursinii Cope 1860
Vipera ursinii Boulenger 1893
Acridophaga ursinii Reuss 1927
1893 Vipera berus rakosiensis Mehely
Vipera ursinii rakosiensis Mehely 1894
1911 Vipera macrops Mehely
Vipera ursinii macrops Bolkay 1924
1924 Vipera ursinii forma trans. rudolphi Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1955 Vipera ursinii wettsteini Knoepffler & Sochurek (Nilson & Andrén 2001)
1993 Vipera ursinii moldavica Nilson, Andren & Joger

Other common names:
macrops: Balkan Karst Viper
moldavica: Moldavian Meadow Viper
rakosiensis: Danubian Meadow Viper
ursinii: Italian Meadow Viper
wettsteini: French Meadow Viper, French Karst Viper
Remarks: Previously included anatolica, ebneri, eriwanensis, graeca and renardi, now regarded as separate species (Höggren, Nilson, Andrén, Orlov & Tuniyev 1993; Tuniyev, Orlov, Höggren & Andrén 1995; Wüster, Golay & Warrell 1997; Nilson & Andrén 2001; Mizsei, Jablonski, Roussos, Dimaki, Ioannides, Nilson & Nagy 2017). Although previously recorded from Moldova (subsp. moldavica), the species has not been confirmed from the country recently (Krecsák, Zamfirescu & Korsós 2003).
Extinct in: Austria, Bulgaria, Moldova.
Distribution: Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, France, Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia.


Vipera walser

Northwest Italian Viper*, Piedmont Viper

Nordwestitalienische Otter*

Nordvestitaliensk Hugorm*

2016 Vipera walser Ghielmi, Menegon, Marsden, Laddaga & Ursenbacher

Distribution: Italy.