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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Phalotris
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae


South American Collared Snakes

Südamerikanische Halsbandnattern

Sydamerikanske Halsbåndsnoge

1862 Phalotris Cope (type species: Elapomorphus tricolor Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854)
Contents: 17 species, of which 8 (47.1%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of Elapomorphus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970).
Distribution: South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay, Uruguay.

Phalotris bilineatus

Two-lined Collared Snake

Zweistreifige Halsbandnatter

Tostribet Halsbåndsnog

1854 Elapomorphus bilineatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Phalotris bilineatus Cope 1862
1913 Elapomorphus spegazzinii Boulenger (Ferrarezzi 1993; Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)
Elapomorphus bilineatus spegazzinii Lema 1978
Elapomorphus lemniscatus spegazzinii Lema 1979
1924 Elapomorphus suspectus Amaral (Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)
Elapomorphus bilineatus suspectus Lema 1978
Elapomorphus lemniscatus suspectus Lema 1979
Elapomorphus spegazzinii suspectus Lema 1984
1954 Elapomorphus bollei Mertens (Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)

Remarks: Previously included lemniscatus and reticulatus. Presence in Brazil reported by several works (e.g., Lema 1994; Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002), but apparently overlooked(?) by Costa & Bernils (2015). Lema (1979) proposed that the name bilineatus should be dropped from usage, replacing it with the name spegazzinii, which has been followed by some authors (e.g., Cabral & Cacciali 2015), however, others have retained bilineatus as the valid name for this taxon (e.g., Ferrarezzi 1993; Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002). Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo).

Phalotris cerradensis

Cerrado Collared Snake



2020 Phalotris cerradensis Lima Silveira

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia).

Phalotris concolor

Plain Collared Snake

Schmucklose Halsbandnatter

Prydløs Halsbåndssnog

1993 Phalotris concolor Ferrarezzi

Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais).

Phalotris cuyanus

Mendoza Collared Snake



1984 Elapomorphus cuyanus Cei
Phalotris cuyanus Ferrarezzi 1993

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of punctatus (e.g., Golay, Smith, Broadley, Dixon, McCarthy, Rage, Schätti & Toriba 1993). Considered a valid species herein, following subsequent works (e.g., Ferrarezzi 1993; Martins & Lema 2017).
Distribution: Argentina.

Phalotris labiomaculatus

Lip-spotted Collared Snake


Læbeplettet Halsbåndsnog

2002 Phalotris labiomaculatus Lema

Distribution: Brazil (Maranhao, Tocantins).

Phalotris lativittatus

Broad-striped Collared Snake

Breitstreifige Halsbandnatter

Bredstribet Halsbåndsnog

1993 Phalotris lativittatus Ferrarezzi

Remarks: A single record from Santa Catarina (Ferrarezzi 1993) needs confirmation (Vasconcelos & Santos 2009).
Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Sao Paulo).

Phalotris lemniscatus

Southern Black-sided Collared Snake, (Dumeril's Diadem Snake)

Südliche Schwarzseitige Halsbandnatter

Sydlig Sortsidet Halsbåndsnog

1854 Elapomorphus lemniscatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Elapomorphus bilineatus lemniscatus Lema 1978
Phalotris lemniscatus Cope 1862
1889 Elapomorphus trilineatus Boulenger (Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)
Elapomorphus lemniscatus trilineatus Lema 1984
Phalotris trilineatus Zilio 2006

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of bilineatus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Previously included reticulatus.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Paraguay, Uruguay.

Phalotris matogrossensis

Mato Grosso Collared Snake


Mato Grosso-halsbåndsnog

2005 Phalotris matogrossensis Lema, D'Agostini & Cappellari

Distribution: Brazil (Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.

Phalotris mertensi

São Paulo Reticulated Collared Snake


Sao Paulo-halsbåndsnog

1955 Elapomorphus mertensi Hoge
Phalotris mertensi Ferrarezzi 1993

Distribution: Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Sao Paulo).

Phalotris multipunctatus

Many-spotted Collared Snake

Vielfleckige Halsbandnatter

Mangeplettet Halsbåndsnog

1993 Phalotris multipunctatus Puorto & Ferrarezzi

Distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Sao Paulo), Paraguay.

Phalotris nasutus

Snouted Collared Snake



1915 Elapomorphus nasutus Gomes
Phalotris nasutus Ferrarezzi 1993

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo).

Phalotris nigrilatus

Paraguayan Black-sided Collared Snake

Paraguayische Halsbandnatter

Paraguayisk Halsbåndsnog

1993 Phalotris nigrilatus Ferrarezzi

Distribution: Paraguay.

Phalotris normanscotti

Chaco Collared Snake, Chaco Burrowing Snake



2015 Phalotris normanscotti Cabral & Cacciali

Distribution: Paraguay.

Phalotris punctatus

Spotted Collared Snake

Fleckige Halsbandnatter

Plettet Halsbåndsnog

1979 Elapomorphus punctatus Lema
Phalotris punctatus Ferrarezzi 1993

Remarks: Previously included cuyanus. Formerly regarded as a synonym of tricolor (e.g., Lema, D'Agostini & Cappellari 2005). Considered a valid species herein, following more recent works (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014; Martins & Lema 2017).
Distribution: Argentina.

Phalotris reticulatus

Southern Reticulated Collared Snake



1860 Elapomorphus reticulatus Peters
Phalotris reticulatus Cope 1862
Elapomorphus bilineatus reticulatus Lema 1970
1884 Elapomorphus iheringi Strauch (Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)
Elapomorphus lemniscatus iheringi Lema 1984
Phalotris lemniscatus iheringi Lema 1994
Phalotris iheringi Lema 2002
1885 Phalotris melanopleurus Cope (Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)
1984 Elapomorphus lemniscatus divittatus Lema (Giraudo & Scrocchi 2002)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of bilineatus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970) and, more recently, of lemniscatus (e.g., Golay & al. 1993).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo).

Phalotris sansebastiani

Bolivian Collared Snake

Bolivianische Halsbandnatter

Boliviansk Halsbåndsnog

2008 Phalotris sansebastiani Jansen & Köhler

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia.

Phalotris tricolor

Tri-coloured Collared Snake

Dreifarbige Halsbandnatter

Trefarvet Halsbåndsnog

1854 Elapomorphus tricolor Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Phalotris tricolor Ferrarezzi 1993

Remarks: Previously included punctatus and the populations now assigned to matogrossensis. Records from Brazil refer to matogrossensis (Lema, D'Agostini & Cappellari 2005; Martins & Lema 2017). Nevertheless, Martins & Lema (2017) plotted a record in Mato Grosso in their distribution map, but presumably in error, since they stated that matogrossensis is the only species of the tricolor group found in Brazil. Presence in Argentina needs confirmation, since earlier records are based on misidentifications (Martins & Lema 2017).
Distribution: Bolivia, Paraguay.