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Taxonomy of the family Agamidae
Bibliography of the genus Phrynocephalus
Biodiversity of the family Agamidae








Genus
Phrynocephalus

Toad-headed Agamas, Toad Agamas

Krötenkopfagamen

Tudsehovedagamer

1825 Phrynocephalus Kaup (type species: Lacerta caudivolvula Pallas 1814)
1831 Megalochilus Eichwald (type species: Lacerta aurita Gmelin 1789; syn. Wermuth 1967; Szczerbak 1994; Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1843 Helioscopus Fitzinger (type species: Phrynocephalus helioscopus Wagler; syn. Wermuth 1967)
1843 Phrynosaurus Fitzinger (type species: Phrynocephalus olivieri Dumeril & Bibron 1837; syn. Wermuth 1967)
1843 Saccostoma Fitzinger (type species: Phrynocephalus auritus Fitzinger [=Lacerta aurita Gmelin 1789]; syn. Wermuth 1967)
2007 Oreosaura Barabanov & Ananjeva (type species: Phrynocephalus vlangalii Strauch 1876)
Contents: 40 species, of which 15 (37.5%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Bufoniceps laungwalaensis. Taxonomy of Phrynocephalus is still far from clear. Status of some forms is a matter of controversy, and various authors have disagreed regarding validity of forms and synonymies. The species list below follows Barabanov & Ananjeva (2007), with some adjustments based on subsequent works.
Distribution: Middle East, C. and E. Asia
Reported from: Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China (Gansu, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Xinjiang), India (Jammu & Kashmir), Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Yemen.


Phrynocephalus ahvazicus

Ahvaz Toad-headed Agama*

Ahvaz-Krötenkopfagame*

Ahvaz-tudsehovedagam*

2014 Phrynocephalus ahvazicus Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov, Rajabizadeh, Al-Johany, Amr & Ananjeva

Remarks: Records from Kuwait of arabicus (e.g., Al-Sirhan & Brown 2010) are tentatively assigned to ahvazicus, the species of the arabicus group occurring most closely to Kuwait.
Distribution: Iran, Kuwait.


Phrynocephalus ananjevae

Zagros Toad-headed Agama*

Zagros-Krötenkopfagame*

Zagros-tudsehovedagam*

2013 Phrynocephalus ananjevae Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov & Rajabizadeh

Distribution: Iran.


Phrynocephalus arabicus

Arabian Toad-headed Agama

Arabische Krötenkopfagame*

Arabisk Tudsehovedagam*

1894 Phrynocephalus arabicus Anderson

Remarks: Previously included macropeltis and nejdensis. Now restricted to southern Arabia. Records from Kuwait (e.g., Al-Sirhan & Brown 2010) are provisionally assigned to ahvazicus, the species of the arabicus group occurring most closely to Kuwait. A record from Qatar (Gardner 2013) is provisionally assigned to macropeltis, the species of the arabicus group occurring most closely to Qatar.
Distribution: Oman, Saudi Arabia, Yemen.


Phrynocephalus axillaris

East Turkestan Toad-headed Agama*

Ostturkestanische Krötenkopfagame*

Østturkestansk Tudsehovedagam*

1875 Phrynocephalus axillaris Blanford
1906 Phrynocephalus axillaris var. ericae Bedriaga "1905" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus axillaris var. idae Bedriaga "1905" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus axillaris var. murielis Bedriaga "1905" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus koslowi Bedriaga "1905" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus axillaris var. klemenzi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus axillaris var. maculata Bedriaga [not Phrynocephalus maculata Anderson 1872] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1910 Phrynocephalus Ludovici Mocquard (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1995 Phrynocephalus nasatus Golubev & Dunayev (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Distribution: China (Gansu, Xinjiang).


Phrynocephalus bannikovi

Krasnovodsky Toad-headed Agama*

Krasnovodsky-Krötenkopfagame*

Krasnovodsky-tudsehovedagam*

1976 Phrynocephalus reticulatus bannikovi Darevsky, Rustamov & Shammakov
Phrynocephalus bannikovi Lichnova 1992
Phrynocephalus ocellatus bannikovi Szczerbak 1994

Remarks: Previously treated as a subspecies of reticulatus. Lichnova (1992) raised bannikovi to status as a separate species. Validity confirmed by Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss (2018).
Distribution: Turkmenistan.





Phrynocephalus clarkorum

Afghan Toad-headed Agama

Afghanische Krötenkopfagame*

Afghansk Tudsehovedagam*

1967 Phrynocephalus clarkorum Anderson & Leviton

Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan.


Phrynocephalus erythrurus

Northwest Tibetan Toad-headed Agama*

Nordwesttibetanische Krötenkopfagame*

Nordvesttibetansk Tudsehovedagam*

1909 Phrynocephalus erythrurus Zugmayer
1909 Phrynocephalus vlangalii parva Bedriaga
Phrynocephalus parvus Tsarevsky 1927
Phrynocephalus erythrurus parva Jin & Liu 2010

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of theobaldi by Barabanov & Ananjeva (2007), but as a valid species by Jin & Liu (2010). The taxon parva was previously regarded as a synonym of vlangalii (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007). This species occupies the highest regions of any reptile on earth (Jin & Liu 2010).
Distribution: China (Tibet, Xinjiang).


Phrynocephalus euptilopus

Darband Toad-headed Agama*, Sand Toad Agama, (Spotted Toad-headed Agama)

Darband-Krötenkopfagame*

Darband-tudsehovedagam*

1897 Phrynocephalus euptilopus Alcock & Finn "1896"

Remarks: Although reported from India by several authors (e.g., Daniel 1983; Tikader & Sharma 1992; Das 1997; Daniel 2002), there seem to be no verified records from the country (Das 1996; Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007; Venugopal 2010).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan.


Phrynocephalus forsythii

Yarkand Toad-headed Agama*

Yarkand-Krötenkopfagame*

Yarkand-tudsehovedagam*

1872 Phrynocephalus forsythii Anderson
Phrynocephalus theobaldi forsythii Boulenger 1885

Distribution: China (Xinjiang).


Phrynocephalus golubewii

Bami Toad-headed Agama*, (Golubev's Toad-headed Agama)

Bami-Krötenkopfagame*

Bami-tudsehovedagam*

1990 Phrynocephalus golubewii Shenbrot & Semyonov

Distribution: Turkmenistan.


Phrynocephalus guinanensis

Guinan Toad-headed Agama*

Guinan-Krötenkopfagame*

Guinan-tudsehovedagam*

2009 Phrynocephalus guinanensis Ji, Wang & Wang

Distribution: China (Qinghai).


Phrynocephalus guttatus

Spotted Toad-headed Agama, Tail Roller

Gefleckter Krötenkopf, Schwanzroller

Plettet Tudsehovedagam*

1789 Lacerta guttata Gmelin
Agama guttata Daudin 1802
Phrynocephalus guttatus Kaup 1827
1814 Lacerta caudivolvula Pallas (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Agama caudivolvula Lichtenstein 1823
Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus Fitzinger 1826
1831 Phrynocephalus melanurus Eichwald (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus guttatus melanurus Melville, Hale, Mantziou, Ananjeva, Milto & Clemann 2009
1831 Phrynocephalus Pallasii Gray (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1905 Phrynocephalus alpherakii Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus alpherakii Tsarevsky 1926
Phrynocephalus guttatus alpherakii Golubev 1992
1905 Phrynocephalus caudivolvolus var. incerta Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus guttatus incerta Melville, Hale, Mantziou, Ananjeva, Milto & Clemann 2009
1905 Phrynocephalus kuschakewitschi Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus caudivolvulus kuschakewitschi Tsarevsky 1926
Phrynocephalus guttatus kuschakewitschi Terentjev & Chernov 1949
1905 Phrynocephalus suschkini Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus bergi Elpatjevsky "1907" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus haeckeli Bedriaga "1905" [nomen nudum] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus isseli Bedriaga "1905" [nomen nudum] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus salenskii Bedriaga "1905" [nomen nudum] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus acutirostris Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus Arcellazzii Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus Haeckeli Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus Isseli Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus Salenskyi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus guttatus salenskyi Szczerbak 2003
1909 Phrynocephalus Grum-Grzimailoi [grumgrzimaloi] Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus helioscopus levis Kascenko (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus helioscopus laevis Nikolski 1915 [substitute name for Phrynocephalus helioscopus var. levis Kascenko 1909]
1913 Phrynocephalus caudivolvolus var. moltschanovi Nikolski (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus moltschanovi Semenov & Shenbrot 1982
1926 Phrynocephalus bedrjagai Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1979 Phrynocephalus albo-lineatus Zhao (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1983 Phrynocephalus guttatus kalmykus Badmaeva & Shcherbak (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1987 Phrynocephalus versicolor paraskiwi Semenov, Brushko, Shenbrot & Kubykin (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1995 Phrynocephalus guttatus salsatus Gorelov, Dunayev & Kotenko in Golubev, Gorelov, Dunayev & Kotenko (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Other common names:
moltschanovi: Molchanov's Toad-headed Agama
Remarks: See under reticulatus. Ananjeva, Guo & Wang (2011) listed albolineatus as a separate species. Liu, Song, Li & Shi (2012) treated grumgrzimaloi as a separate species. Melville, Hale, Mantziou, Ananjeva, Milto & Clemann (2009) suggested incerta, kuschakewitschi, melanurus, and alpherakii deserve recognition as separate species, but this was regarded as premature by Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco (2013).
Distribution: China (Xinjiang), Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus helioscopus

Central Asian Sunwatcher*

Zentralasiatische Sonnengucker

Centralasiatisk Solkigger*

1771 Lacerta helioscopa Pallas
Agama helioscopus Lichtenstein 1823
Phrynocephalus helioscopus Kaup 1827
1789 Lacerta uralensis Gmelin (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1831 Phrynocephalus nigricans Eichwald (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1831 Phrynocephalus varius Eichwald (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus helioscopus varius Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007
1841 Lacerta gibba Eichwald [unavailable name] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus helioscopus var. Cameranoi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus helioscopus saposhnikovi Kascenko (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1912 Phrynocephalus helioscopus orientalis Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1981 Phrynocephalus helioscopus saidalievi Sattorov (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus saidalievi Eremchenko & Panfilov 1999
2012 Phrynocephalus helioscopus meridionalis Solovyeva, Dunayev & Poyarkov
2012 Phrynocephalus helioscopus sergeevi Solovyeva, Dunayev & Poyarkov

Remarks: Previously included horvathi, persicus, and turcomanus.
Distribution: China (Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang), Iran, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus hongyuanensis

Sichuan Toad-headed Agama*

Sichuan-Krötenkopfagame*

Sichuan-tudsehovedagam*

1980 Phrynocephalus vlangalii hongyuanensis Zhao, Jiang & Huang in Jiang, Huang & Zhao
Phrynocephalus hongyuanensis Wang & Jiang 1992

Remarks: Previously treated as a subspecies of vlangalii. Wang & Jiang (1992) raised hongyuanensis to status as a separate species. Validity confirmed by Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss (2018).
Distribution: China (Sichuan).





Phrynocephalus horvathi

Turkish Toad-headed Agama*, (Horvath's Toad-headed Agama)

Türkische Krötenkopfagame*

Tyrkisk Tudsehovedagam*

1894 Phrynocephalus helioscopus var. horvathi Mehely
Phrynocephalus horvathi Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov & Rajabizadeh 2013

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies or a synonym of helioscopus (e.g., Mehely 1894) or of persicus (e.g., Anderson 1999; Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007). Arakelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco & Leviton (2011) suggested that horvathi deserved recognition as a separate species. It was formally revalidated by Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov & Rajabizadeh (2013).
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkey.


Phrynocephalus interscapularis

Rose-shouldered Toad-headed Agama, Spiny Toad-headed Agama

Rosaschulter-Krötenkopfagame*, Stachelkopf

Rosenskuldret Tudsehovedagam*

1856 Phrynocephalus interscapularis Lichtenstein

Remarks: Previously included sogdianus.
Distribution: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus longicaudatus

Long-tailed Toad-headed Agama*

Langschwanz-Krötenkopfagame*

Langhalet Tudsehovedagam*

1957 Phrynocephalus maculatus longicaudatus Haas
Phrynocephalus longicaudatus Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss 2018

Remarks: Not mentioned for Saudi Arabia by Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan (2019).
Distribution: Iraq, Jordan, Saudi Arabia.





Phrynocephalus lutensis

Lut Toad-headed Agama*

Lut-Krötenkopfagame*

Lut-tudsehovedagam*

2015 Phrynocephalus lutensis Kamali & Anderson

Distribution: Iran.


Phrynocephalus luteoguttatus

Yellow-speckled Toad-headed Agama, Spiny-headed Toad-headed Agama

Gelbfleckiger Krötenkopfagame*

Gulprikket Tudsehovedagam*

1887 Phrynocephalus luteoguttatus Boulenger

Remarks: Although reported from India by Das (1997), there are no verified records from the country (Venugopal 2010).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan.


Phrynocephalus macropeltis

Dhahran Toad-headed Agama*

Dhahran-Krötenkopfagame*

Dhahran-tudsehovedagam*

1957 Phrynocephalus nejdensis macropeltis Haas
Phrynocephalus macropeltis Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov, Rajabizadeh, Al-Johany, Amr & Ananjeva 2014

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of arabicus (e.g., Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007). Revalidated as a separate species by Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov, Rajabizadeh, Al-Johany, Amr & Ananjeva (2014). A record from Qatar of arabicus (Gardner 2013) is provisionally assigned to macropeltis, the species of the arabicus group occurring most closely to Qatar.
Distribution: Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates.


Phrynocephalus maculatus

Black-tailed Toad-headed Agama, Whip-tailed Toad-headed Agama, (Spotted Toad-headed Agama)

Schwarzschwanz-Krötenkopfagame*

Sorthalet Tudsehovedagam*

1872 Phrynocephalus maculatus Anderson
1896 Phrynocephalus spiniventris Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus maculatus spiniventris Nikolsky 1900

Remarks: Previously included longicaudatus. Records from Turkmenistan (e.g., Szczerbak 1994) refer to golubewii (Shenbrot & Semenov 1990; Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan.


Phrynocephalus mystaceus

Bearded Toad-headed Agama

Bärtiger Krötenkopfagame

Skægget Tudsehovedagam

1776 Lacerta mystacea Pallas
Agama mystacea Merrem 1820
Phrynocephalus mystacia [sic] Kaup 1827
Megalochilus mystaceus Ananjeva 1986
1776 Lacerta aurita Pallas (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Gekko auritus Latreille 1801
Agama aurita Daudin 1802
Phrynocephalus auritus Fitzinger 1826
Megalochilus auritus Eichwald 1831
Saccostoma auritum Fitzinger 1843
1802 Lacerta lobata Shaw [substitute name for Lacerta aurita Gmelin 1789] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1932 Phrynocephalus mystaceus galli Krassowsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1932 Phrynocephalus mystaceus mystaceus natio Dagestanica Krassowsky (unavailable name; Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Megalochilus mystaceus dagestanica Ananjeva 1987 "1986" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1990 Phrynocephalus mystaceus aurantiacocaudatus Semyonov & Shenbrot
2018 Phrynocephalus mystaceus khorasanus Solovyeva, Dunayev, Nazarov, Radjabizadeh & Poyarkov

Introduced to: Azerbaijan.
Distribution: Afghanistan, China (Xinjiang), Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus nejdensis

Nejd Toad-headed Agama*

Nejd-Krötenkopfagame*

Nejd-tudsehovedagam*

1957 Phrynocephalus nejdensis Haas

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of arabicus (e.g., Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007). Revalidated as a separate species by Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov, Rajabizadeh, Al-Johany, Amr & Ananjeva (2014).
Distribution: Jordan, Saudi Arabia.


Phrynocephalus ornatus

Southern Striped Toad-headed Agama*, Black-and-White Toad-headed Agama

Südliche Gestreifte Krötenkopfagame*

Sydlig Stribet Tudsehovedagam*

1887 Phrynocephalus ornatus Boulenger

Remarks: Previously included vindumi.
Distribution: Afghanistan, Pakistan.


Phrynocephalus persicus

Persian Toad-headed Agama

Persische Krötenkopfagame*

Persisk Tudsehovedagam*

1863 Phrynocephalus persicus De Filippi
Phrynocephalus helioscopus persicus Terentjev & Chernov 1949

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of helioscopus. Revalidated as a separate species by Anderson (1999). Previously included horvathi.
Distribution: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran.


Phrynocephalus przewalskii

Alashan Toad-headed Agama*

Alasha-Krötenkopfagame*

Alasha-tudsehovedagam*

1876 Phrynocephalus Przewalskii Strauch
1876 Phrynocephalus affinis Strauch (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1876 Phrynocephalus frontalis Strauch (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus pewzowi Bedriaga "1905" [nomen nudum] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus Pewzowi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus steindachneri Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus carinilabris Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus ciliaris Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus potanini Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus Reldæ Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1927 Phrynocephalus birulai Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1927 Phrynocephalus carinatus Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1927 Phrynocephalus elegans Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1927 Phrynocephalus parvulus Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1927 Phrynocephalus suschkinianus Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1984 Phrynocephalus werneri Peters [unavailable name] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Remarks: Status of frontalis is uncertain. Melville, Hale, Mantziou, Ananjeva, Milto & Clemann (2009) listed it as a separate species. Ananjeva, Guo & Wang (2011) questioned the presence of przewalskii in Qinghai, referring to Zhao (1979).
Distribution: China (Gansu, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Xinjiang).


Phrynocephalus putjatai

Guide Toad-headed Agama*

Guide-Krötenkopfagame*

Guide-tudsehovedagam*

1909 Phrynocephalus Putjatai Bedriaga

Remarks: Zhao & Adler (1993) regarded the status of this species as uncertain. Barabanov & Ananjeva (2007) treated it as a valid species. Validity supported by Guo & Wang (2007) and Noble, Qi & Fu (2010). Specific epithet occasionally misspelled putjatia (e.g., Noble, Qi & Fu 2010).
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai).


Phrynocephalus raddei

Trans-Caspian Toad-headed Agama

Trans-Kaspische Krötenkopfagame*

Transkaspisk Tudsehovedagam*

1888 Phrynocephalus raddei Boettger
1905 Phrynocephalus raddei var. boettgeri Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus reticulatus boettgeri Tsarevsky 1926
1915 Phrynocephalus raddei var. bilkewitschi Nikolski (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1915 Phrynocephalus raddei var. zarudnyi Nikolski (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of reticulatus (e.g., Terentjev & Chernov 1949; Wermuth 1967), but as a valid species by Szczerbak (1994) and Dunayev (1996). Although presence in Iran has previously been questioned (e.g., Anderson 1999; Safaei-Mahroo & al. 2015), raddei was recent confirmed for the country (Khosravani, Khani, Oraie & Rasyegar-Pouyani 2014).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus reticulatus

Reticulated Toad-headed Agama, Netted Toad-headed Agama, (Ladakh Toad-headed Agama)

Netz-Krötenkopfagame*

Retikuleret Tudsehovedagam*

1823 Agama ocellata Lichtenstein in Eversmann (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007; see remarks)
Phrynocephalus ocellatus Golubev 1991
1831 Phrynocephalus reticulatus Eichwald
Phrynocephalus caudivolvolus reticulatus Nikolsky 1915
Phrynocephalus theobaldi reticulatus Das 2003
1905 Phrynocephalus boulengeri Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus nikolskii boulengeri Nikolsky 1915
1905 Phrynocephalus nikolskii Bedriaga in Nikolsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Remarks: Previously included bannikovi. Agama ocellata Lichtenstein in Eversmann 1823 was formerly regarded as a synonym of caudivolvolus (e.g., Boulenger 1885) or of guttatus (e.g., Lantz 1924; Wermuth 1967). Golubev (1991) demonstrated that ocellata is a senior synonym of reticulatus and referred to the species as ocellatus. In the interest of taxonomic stability, the species is here referred to as reticulatus, following Barabanov & Ananjeva (2007), since this name has been used many times for more than a century. P. raddei was previously confused with reticulatus (e.g., Wermuth 1967), and older records may refer to either species. Records from Afghanistan (e.g., Leviton & Anderson 1970 [as reticulatus boettgeri]) refer to raddei (Clark 1990).
Distribution: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus roborowskii

Zaidam Toad-headed Agama*

Zaidam-Krötenkopfagame*

Zaidam-tudsehovedagam*

1906 Phrynocephalus vlangalii var. roborowskii Bedriaga "1905"
Phrynocephalus roborowskii Peters 1984

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of vlangalii by Zhao & Adler (1993), but as a valid species by Barabanov & Ananjeva (2007).
Distribution: China (Qinghai).


Phrynocephalus rossikowi

Khentau Toad-headed Agama

Khentau-Krötenkopfagame*

Khentau-tudsehovedagam*

1899 Phrynocephalus rossikowi Nikolsky
1915 Phrynocephalus rossikowi relictus Nikolski (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1979 Phrynocephalus rossikowi shammakowi Shcherbak & Golubev (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Distribution: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus sakoi

Sharqiyah Toad-headed Agama*

Sharqiyah-Krötenkopfagame*

Sharqiyah-tudsehovedagam*

2015 Phrynocephalus sakoi Melnikov, Melnikova, Nazarov, Al-Johany & Ananjeva

Distribution: Oman.


Phrynocephalus scutellatus

Grey Toad-headed Agama, Banded Toad-headed Agama

Graue Krötenkopfagame*

Grå Tudsehovedagam*

1807 Agame scutellata [incorrect original spelling] Olivier
Phrynocephalus scutellatus Moquard 1910
1837 Phrynocephalus olivieri Duméril & Bibron (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1845 Phrynocephalus tickelii Gray (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus olivieri var. brevipes Nikolski (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1907 Phrynocephalus olivieri var. carinipes Nikolski (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Distribution: Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan.


Phrynocephalus sogdianus

Tajik Toad-headed Agama*

Tadschikische Krötenkopfagame*

Tadsjikisk Tudsehovedagam*

1948 Phrynocephalus interscapularis sogdianus Chernov
Phrynocephalus sogdianus Sokolovsky 1975

Remarks: Previously treated as a subspecies of interscapularis. Sokolovsky (1975) raised sogdianus to status as a separate species. Validity confirmed by Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss (2018).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.





Phrynocephalus strauchi

Fergana Valley Toad-headed Agama*, (Strauch's Toad-headed Agama)

Fergana-Krötenkopfagame*

Fergana-tudsehovedagam*

1899 Phrynocephalus strauchi Nikolsky
Phrynocephalus reticulatus strauchi Terentjev & Chernov 1949

Remarks: Previously treated as a subspecies of reticulatus. Mesherin & Golubev (1989) revalidated strauchi to status as a separate species. Validity confirmed by Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss (2018).
Distribution: Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan.


Phrynocephalus theobaldi

Kashmir Toad Agama, (Theobald's Toad Agama)

Himalaya-Krötenkopfagame

Kashmir-tudsehovedagam*

1863 Phrynocephalus theobaldi Blyth
1867 Phrynocephalus stoliczkai Steindachner (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus vlangalii var. lidskii Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus lidskii Tsarevsky 1927
1984 Phrynocephalus alticola Peters (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1996 Phrynocephalus zetangensis Wang, Zeng, Fang, Liu, Wu, Papenfuss & Macey (the authors also used the spelling zetanensis in the original decription) (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007; Guo & Wang 2007)
1999 Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis Wang, Papenfuss & Zeng in Wang, Zheng, Fang, Wu, Papenfuss & Macey [not Phrynocephalus helioscopus var. orientalis Bedriaga 1912] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
2002 Phrynocephalus theobaldi lhasaensis Barabanov, Ananjeva, Papenfuss & Wang [replacement name for Phrynocephalus theobaldi orientalis Wang, Papenfuss & Zeng in Wang, Zheng, Fang, Wu, Papenfuss & Macey 1999] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Remarks: Previously included erythrurus. Ananjeva, Guo & Wang (2011) questioned the presence of theobaldi in Xinjiang, referring to Zhao (1979).
Distribution: China (Tibet, Xinjiang), India (Jammu & Kashmir), Nepal.


Phrynocephalus turcomanus

Turkmen Sunwatcher*

Turkmenische Sonnengucker*

Turkmensk Solkigger*

2012 Phrynocephalus helioscopus turcomanus Solovyeva, Dunayev & Poyarkov
Phrynocephalus turcomanus Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss 2018

Distribution: Iran, Turkmenistan.





Phrynocephalus versicolor

Piebald Toad-headed Agama

Mongolischer Krötenkopfagame

Mongolsk Tudsehovedagam*

1876 Phrynocephalus versicolor Strauch
1906 Phrynocephalus guentheri Bedriaga "1905" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1906 Phrynocephalus versicolor var. doriai Bedriaga "1905" [nomen nudum] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus Blanfordi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus versicolor var. Bogdanowi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus versicolor var. Doriai Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus versicolor var. hispida Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus versicolor var. Kulagini Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1909 Phrynocephalus versicolor var. Siebenrocki Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1930 Phrynocephalus rostralis Zarevsky (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1958 Phrynocephalus stejnegeri Bannikov [nomen nudum] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1984 Phrynocephalus steynegeri Peters [unavailable name] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
1995 Phrynocephalus immaculatus Zhao (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Remarks: Records from Kazakhstan refer to the former subspecies paraskiwi, now considered a synonym of guttatus (Golubev 1989; Szczerbak 2003; Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007).
Introduced to: Philippines (Luzon).
Distribution: China (Gansu, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang), Mongolia, Russia.


Phrynocephalus vindumi

Northern Striped Toad-headed Agama*

Nördliche Gestreifte Krötenkopfagame*

Nordlig Stribet Tudsehovedagam*

1998 Phrynocephalus ornatus vindumi Golubev
Phrynocephalus vindumi Macey, Schulte, Ananjeva, Dyke, Wang, Orlov, Shafiei, Robinson, Dujsebayeva, Freund, Fischer, Liu & Papenfuss 2018

Distribution: Iran.





Phrynocephalus vlangalii

Quinghai Toad-headed Agama*

Quinghai-Krötenkopfagame*

Quinghai-tudsehovedagam*

1876 Phrynocephalus Vlangalii Strauch
1906 Phrynocephalus vlangalii var. nanschanica Bedriaga "1905" (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus nanschanicus Tsarevsky 1927
1909 Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. geckoides Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus geckoides Tsarevsky 1927
1909 Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. Grombtschewskii Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus grombtschewskii Tsarevsky 1927
1909 Phrynocephalus Vlangalii var. Pylzowi Bedriaga (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)
Phrynocephalus pylzowi Tsarevsky 1927
Phrynocephalus parvus pylzowi Tsarevsky 1927
1984 Phrynocephalus occidentalis Peters [unavailable name] (Barabanov & Ananjeva 2007)

Remarks: Previously included hongyuanensis, now a valid species, and parva, now a synonym of erythrurus.
Distribution: China (Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Xinjiang).