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Taxonomy of the family Emydidae
Bibliography of the genus Terrapene
Biodiversity of the family Emydidae








Genus
Terrapene

American Box Turtles

Dosenschildkröten

Amerikanske Æskeskildpadder

1820 Terrapene Merrem (type species: Testudo clausa Gmelin 1789)
1822 Cistuda Fleming (type species: "box turtle" ; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1825 Cistudo Say [substitute name for Cistuda Fleming 1822] (syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1832 Didicla Rafinesque (type species: Testudo clausa Gmelin 1789; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1835 Pyxidemys Fitzinger (type species: Testudo clausa Gmelin 1789; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1844 Emyoides Gray (type species: Emys kinosternoides Gray 1831; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1849 Onychotria Gray (type species: Cistudo mexicana Gray 1849; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1895 Pariemys Cope (type species: Terrapene bauri Taylor 1895; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1895 Toxaspis Cope (type species: Cistudo major Agassiz 1857; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)

Contents: 6 species, of which 5 (83.3%) are endemic.
Distribution: Mexico, USA.
Reported from: Mexico (Campeche, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Jalisco, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).

Terrapene carolina

Eastern Box Turtle, Common Box Turtle

Östliche Dosenschildkröte, Gewöhnliche Dosenschildkröte, Carolina-Dosenschildkröte (subsp. carolina)

Østamerikansk Æskeskildpadde

1758 Testudo carolina Linnaeus
Terrapene carolina Bell 1825
Cistudo carolina Gray 1831
1758 Testudo carinata Linnaeus (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Terrapene carinata Strauch 1862
1789 Testudo clausa Gmelin (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emydes clausa Brongniart 1805
Emys clausa Schweigger 1812
Didicla clausa Rafinesque 1815
Terrapene clausa Merrem 1820
Cistudo clausa Say 1825
Pyxidemys clausa Fitzinger 1843
1789 Testudo incarcerata Bonnaterre (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1789 Testudo incarcerato-striata Bonnaterre (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1801 Testudo virgulata Latreille (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1812 Emys schneideri Schweigger (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1812 Emys virgulata Schweigger (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Terrapene virgulata Fitzinger 1826
1825 Terrapene maculata Bell (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1825 Terrapene nebulosa Bell (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1831 Emys kinosternoides Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Cistudo carolina var. cinosternoides Boulenger 1889
Cistudo cinosternoides Garman 1892
Terrapene cinosternoides Siebenrock 1909
Terrapene kinosternoides Lindholm 1929
1857 Cistudo major Agassiz (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Cistudo carolina var. major Boulenger 1889
Terrapene major Baur 1891
Toxaspis major Cope 1895
Terrapene carolina major Carr 1940
Terrapene major major Wilms in Siebenrock 1999
1857 Cistudo triunguis Agassiz (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Terrapene triunguis Baur 1893
Onychotria triunguis Cope 1895
Terrapene carolina triunguis Strecker 1910
Terrapene mexicana triunguis Martin, Bernstein, Birkhead, Koukl, Mussmann & Placyk 2013
1857 Cistudo virginea Agassiz (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1869 Cistudo eurypygia Cope (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Terrapene eurypygia Hay 1902
1895 Terrapene bauri Taylor (Fritz & Havas 2006; Martin, Bernstein, Birkhead, Koukl, Mussmann & Placyk 2013)
Pariemys bauri Cope 1895
Cistudo bauri Ditmars 1907
Terrapene carolina bauri Carr 1940
1916 Terrapene innoxia Hay (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1916 Terrapene whitneyi Hay (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1920 Terrapene bulverda Hay (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1924 Terrapene impressa Hay (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1933 Terrapene goldmani Stejneger (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1953 Terrapene llanensis Oelrich (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Other common names:
bauri: Florida Box Turtle
carolina: Woodland Box Turtle
major: Gulf Coast Box Turtle
triunguis: Three-toed Box Turtle
Remarks: Butler, Dodd, Aresco & Austin (2011) suggested treating bauri as a separate species, however, the studies of Martin, Bernstein, Birkhead, Koukl, Mussmann & Placyk (2013) were inconclusive regarding its status. Many authors regard mexicana and yucatana as subspecies of carolina (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006), whereas others continue to treat them as separate species (e.g., Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013; Wilson, Mata-Silva & Johnson 2013). Due to the lack of consensus and to the widely allopatric distributions of the three forms, they are treated as separate species herein.
Martin, Bernstein, Birkhead, Koukl, Mussmann & Placyk (2013) proposed to treat mexicana as a separate species with three subspecies (mexicana, triunguis, yucatana), however, this was not followed by Fritz & Havas (2013), because of the broad-scale intergradation between the different subspecies of carolina.
Records from Maine and New Hampshire (USA) probably represent extirpated populations (Kiester & Willey 2015). No breeding has been recorded in Canada, and recent reports from Ontario and possibly Quebec are likely released or escaped pets. Remains from archaeological sites in Ontario may represent trade items.
Extinct in: USA (Maine, New Hampshire).
Introduced to: Bahamas (Little Bahama Bank), Canada (Ontario), Guam, Martinique, USA (Iowa).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia).


Terrapene coahuila

Coahuilan Box Turtle, Aquatic Box Turtle

Coahuila-Dosenschildkröte

Coahuila-æskeskildpadde*

1944 Terrapene coahuila Schmidt & Owens
Terrapene ornata coahuila Mertens & Wermuth 1955

Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila).


Terrapene mexicana

Tamaulipan Box Turtle*, Mexican Box Turtle

Tamaulipas-Dosenschildkröte*

Nordøstmexicansk Æskeskildpadde*

1849 Cistudo mexicana Gray
Onychotria mexicana Dugès 1888
Cistudo carolina var. mexicana Boulenger 1889
Onichotria mexicana Herrera 1890
Chelopus mexicanus Velasco 1892
Terrapene mexicana Baur 1893
Terrapene carolina mexicana Milstead 1967

Remarks: Many authors regard mexicana and yucatana as subspecies of carolina (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006; Kiester & Willey 2015), whereas others continue to treat them as separate species (e.g., Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013; Wilson, Mata-Silva & Johnson 2013). Due to the lack of consensus and to the widely allopatric distributions of the three forms, they are treated as separate species herein. Although mentioned to occur in Nuevo Leon by Wermuth & Mertens (1977) and Iverson (1992), it appears that Wylie & Grünwald (2017) were the first to confirm the presence of mexicana in the state.
Distribution: Mexico (Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).


Terrapene nelsoni

Spotted Box Turtle, Mexican Black Box Turtle, Sierra Box Turtle, (Nelson's Box Turtle)

Tropfen-Dosenschildkröte

Plettet Æskeskildpadde*

1925 Terrapene nelsoni Stejneger
1943 Terrapene klauberi Bogert
Terrapene nelsoni klauberi Mertens & Wermuth 1955

Other common names:
klauberi: Northern Spotted Box Turtle
nelsoni: Southern Spotted Box Turtle
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Sonora).


Terrapene ornata

Ornate Box Turtle, Western Box Turtle

Schmuck-Dosenschildkröte

Vestamerikansk Æskeskildpadde

1857 Cistudo ornata Agassiz
Terrapene ornata Baur 1891
1894 Terrapene ornata var. cimarronensis Cragin (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1908 Terrapene longinsulae Hay [extinct] (Dijk, Iverson, Shaffer, Bour & Rhodin 2012)
1952 Terrapene ornata luteola Smith & Ramsay

Other common names:
luteola: Desert Box Turtle
Distribution: Introduced to: South Africa (Gauteng).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Sonora), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Michigan, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Wisconsin, Wyoming).


Terrapene yucatana

Yucatan Box Turtle

Yucatan-Dosenschildkröte

Yucatan-æskeskildpadde*

1895 Cistudo yucatana Boulenger
Terrapene yucatana Siebenrock 1909
Terrapene mexicana yucatana Smith 1939
Terrapene carolina yucatana Milstead 1967

Remarks: Many authors regard yucatana and mexicana as subspecies of carolina (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006; Kiester & Willey 2015), whereas others continue to treat them as separate species (e.g., Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013; Wilson, Mata-Silva & Johnson 2013). Due to the lack of consensus and to the widely allopatric distributions of the three forms, they are treated as separate species herein.
Distribution: Mexico (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatan).