Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates

© Rune Midtgaard

Taxonomy of the family Leptotyphlopidae
Bibliography of the genus Rena
Biodiversity of the family Leptotyphlopidae


Maroon Thread Snakes

Kastanienbraune Fadenschlangen

Rødbrune Trådslanger

1853 Rena Girard in Baird & Girard (type species: Rena humilis Baird & Girard 1853)
Contents: 11 species, of which 7 (63.6%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: Previously included four other species, now assigned to the genera Siagonodon (unguirostris), and Trilepida (affinis, dimidiata, nicefori).
Distribution: North America.
Reported from: Mexico (Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros], Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Carmen, Isla Cerralvo, Isla Santa Catalina], Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah).

Rena boettgeri

Cerralvo Island Thread Snake



1899 Glauconia boettgeri Werner
Leptotyphlops humilis boettgeri Smith & Larsen 1974
Rena boettgeri Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1931 Leptotyphlops humilis slevini Klauber (Hahn 1980)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of humilis (e.g., Hahn 1980). Revalidated as a separate species by Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges (2009), subsequently followed by most authors, although some still treat it as a synonym of humilis (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo]).

Rena bressoni

Michoacan Thread Snake, Michoacan Slender Thread Snake



1939 Leptotyphlops bressoni Taylor
Rena bressoni Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco, Michoacan).

Rena dissecta

New Mexico Thread Snake, Split-lipped Thread Snake


New Mexico-trådslange

1896 Glauconia dissecta Cope
Leptotyphlops dulcis dissectus Klauber 1940
Leptotyphlops myopicus dissectus Smith & Sanders 1952
Leptotyphlops dissectus Dixon & Vaughhan 2003
Rena dissecta Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).

Rena dugesii

Mexican Thread Snake, (Duges' Thread Snake)

Mexicanische Fadenschlange

Mexicansk Trådslange

1881 Catodon dugesii Bocourt
Siagonodon dugesii Bocourt 1882
Rena dugesii Cope 1887
Leptotyphlops dugesii Taylor 1940
Leptotyphlops humilis dugesi Klauber 1940

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies or synonym of humilis (e.g., Hahn 1980; Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009 [by implication]). Regarded herein as separate species, following several recent works (e.g., Lemos-Espinal, Smith, Chiszar & Woolrich-Piña 2004; Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007; Liner 2007; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Not listed for Jalisco by Cruz-Sáenz, Muñoz-Nolasco, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2017). Not listed for Sonora by Lemos-Espinal, Smith & Rorabaugh (2019).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Colima, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias], Sinaloa, Sonora).

Rena dulcis

Texas Thread Snake



1853 Rena dulcis Baird & Girard
Stenostoma dulce Cope 1861
Leptotyphlops dulcis Stejneger 1891
Glauconia dulcis Cope 1892
1884 Stenostoma rubellum Garman "1883" (Hahn 1980)
Leptotyphlops dulcis rubellum Dixon & Vaghhan 2003
Rena dulcis rubella Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1985 Leptotyphlops dulcis supraocularis Tanner

Other common names:
dulcis: Plains Thread Snake
rubella: South Texas Thread Snake
supraocularis: Tanner's Thread Snake
Remarks: Previously included dissecta and myopica. Dixon & Vaughan (2003) diagnosed three subspecies of dulcis, one of which remains unnamed.
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Oklahoma, Texas).

Rena humilis

Western Thread Snake

Westamerikanische Fadenschlange

Vestamerikansk Trådslange

1853 Rena humilis Baird & Girard
Stenostoma humile Peters 1857
Glauconia humilis Boulenger 1893
Siagonodon humilis van Denburgh 1897
Leptotyphlops humilis Ruthven 1907
1931 Leptotyphlops humilis cahuilae Klauber
1938 Leptotyphlops humilis utahensis Tanner
1975 Leptotyphlops humilis levitoni Murphy
1975 Leptotyphlops humilis lindsayi Murphy

Other common names:
cahuilae: Desert Thread Snake
humilis: Southwestern Thread Snake
levitoni: Santa Catalina Island Thread Snake
lindsayi: Carmen Island Thread Snake
utahensis: Utah Thread Snake
Remarks: Previously included boettgeri, dugesii and segrega.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros], Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Carmen, Isla Santa Catalina], Sonora), USA (Arizona, California, Nevada, Utah).

Rena iversoni

Tamaulipan Thread Snake



1998 Leptotyphlops dulcis iversoni Smith, van Breukelen, Auth & Chiszar
Leptotyphlops myopicus iversoni Liner 2007
Rena myopica iversoni Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
Rena iversoni Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014), followed by Terán-Juárez, García-Padilla, Mata-Silva, Johnson & Wilson (2016), regarded iversoni as a separate species, based on Pinto (2010), however, the former authors omitted this reference in their literature list, as did the latter authors.
Distribution: Mexico (Tamaulipas).

Rena klauberi

Jalisco Thread Snake



2022 Rena klauberi Flores-Villela, Smith, Canseco-Márquez & Campbell

Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco).

Rena maxima

Giant Thread Snake, Guerreran Thread Snake



1932 Leptotyphlops maximus Loveridge
Rena maxima Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla).

Rena myopica

Tampico Thread Snake



1884 Stenostoma myopicum Garman "1883"
Glauconia myopica Boulenger 1893
Leptotyphlops myopica Barbour & Loveridge 1929
Leptotyphlops dulcis myopicus Klauber 1940
Rena myopica Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Dixon & Vaugham (2003). Previously included dissecta and iversoni. Not mentioned for Queretaro by Cruz-Elizalde, Ramírez-Bautista, Hernández-Salinas, Berriozabal-Islas & Wilson (2019).
Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).

Rena segrega

Trans-Pecos Thread Snake



1884 Stenostoma tenuiculum Garman "1883" (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013)
Rena tenuicula Cope 1887
Leptotyphlops humilis tenuiculus Klauber 1940
1939 Leptotyphlops humilis segregus Klauber
Leptotyphlops segregus Lemos-Espinal & Smith 2007
Rena humilis segregus Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
Rena segrega Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013
1985 Leptotyphlops humilis chihuahuaensis Tanner (Lemos Espinal & Smith 2007)

Other common names:
chihuahuaensis: Chihuahuan Thread Snake
tenuiculus: San Luis Potosi Thread Snake
Remarks: Regarded as a subspecies of humilis by some authors (e.g., Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009 [by implication]), but as a separate species herein, following Lemos-Espinal, Smith, Chiszar & Woolrich-Piña (2004) and others. Lemos-Espinal & Dixon (2013) regarded tenuiculum as a synonym of segrega, and transferred it from the synonymy of humilis. Being an older name than segrega, this would require a name change for this species, however, since the name segrega has appeared in many publications since its description in 1939, it is retained herein for the sake of taxonomic stability. Hahn (1980) reported tenuiculum from both San Luis Potosi and Tamaulipas, however, it is known only from the type specimen, which came from San Luis Potosi (Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi), USA (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas).