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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Leptodeira
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Leptodeira

Typical Cat-eyed Snakes

Eigentliche Katzenaugennattern

Egentlige Katteøjesnoge

1843 Leptodeira Fitzinger (type species: Coluber annulatus Linnaeus 1758)
1853 Sphecodes Dumeril [not Sphecodes Latreille 1804 (Insecta); not Sphecodes Huebner 1806 (Insecta)] (type species: Coluber albofuscus Lacepede 1789)
1861 Megalops Hallowell (type species: Megalops maculatus Hallowell 1861)
Contents: 15 species, of which 3 (20.0%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Pseudoleptodeira latifasciata and Tantalophis discolor. Although no taxonomic changes were proposed (but see maculata), Daza, Smith, Páez & Parkinson (2009) demonstrated that the number of species in this genus is currently underestimated. A comprehensive revision of the genus is still pending, however, some some forms have been recognized as separate species by some authors to reflect the high variation between different forms. Nevertheless, the following taxonomy should be regarded as tentative.
Distribution: North, Central, and South America, from Texas to Argentina.
Reported from: Argentina, Aruba, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia, [Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Pequeño)]), Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), USA (Texas), Venezuela (incl. Margarita).

Leptodeira annulata

South American Banded Cat-eyed Snake, Annulated Cat-eyed Snake, Common Cat-eyed Snake, Southern Cat-eyed Snake

Südamerikanische Gebänderte Katzenaugennatter, Bananennatter

Sydamerikansk Båndet Katteøjesnog

1758 Coluber annulatus Linnaeus
Leptodeira annulata Fitzinger 1843
1789 Coluber albofuscus Lacepede (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1863 Eteirodipsas annulata rhomboidalis Jan (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1872 Dipsas approximans Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1884 Eteirodipsas Wieneri Sauvage (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1947 Leptodeira rhombifera kugleri Shreve (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1958 Leptodeira annulata pulchriceps Duellman

Remarks: Previously included ashmeadi, cussiliris (now synonymized with maculata; see Daza, Smith, Páez & Parkinson 2009), and rhombifera. Records of annulata from Mexico and Central America refer to the latter two species. Without proposing taxonomic changes, Daza, Smith, Páez & Parkinson (2009) suggested that annulata (under which they included rhombifera) is most likely a complex of species. Subsequently, Barrio-Amorós (2019) reviewed the genus.
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita).


Leptodeira ashmeadi

Venezuelan Cat-eyed Snake

Venezuelanische Katzenaugennatter

Venezuelansk Katteøjesnog

1845 Coluber ashmeadi Hallowell
Leptodeira annulata ashmeadi Duellman 1958
Leptodeira ashmeadi Barrio-Amorós 2019

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of annulata (e.g., Duellman 1958; Midtgaard 2019). Revalidated as a separate species by Barrio-Amorós (2019).
Distribution: Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela (incl. Margarita).





Leptodeira bakeri

Aruba Cat-eyed Snake

Aruba-Katzenaugennatter

Aruba-katteøjesnog

1936 Leptodeira bakeri Ruthven

Remarks: A record from Surinam is regarded as erroneous (Duellman 1958a).
Distribution: Aruba, Venezuela.


Leptodeira frenata

Rain Forest Cat-eyed Snake

Regenwald-Katzenaugennatter

Regnskovs-katteøjesnog

1886 Sibon frenatum Cope
Leptodeira frenatum Cope 1891
1887 Sibon annulata yucatanensis Cope
Leptodeira yucatanensis Dunn & Stuart 1935
Leptodeira frenata yucatanensis Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
1935 Leptodeira yucatanensis malleisi Dunn & Stuart
Leptodeira frenata malleisi Duellman & Werler 1955

Other common names:
frenata: Cope's Rain Forest Cat-eyed Snake
malleisi: Malleis' Cat-eyed Snake
yucatanensis: Peninsular Cat-eyed Snake
Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan).


Leptodeira larcorum

Peruvian Cat-eyed Snake

Peruvianische Katzenaugennatter

Peruviansk Katteøjesnog

1943 Leptodeira larcorum Schmidt & Walker
Leptodeira septentrionalis larcorum Duellman 1958

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of septentrionalis (e.g., Duellman 1958) or, more recently, of polysticta (e.g., Midtgaard 2019). Revalidated as a separate species by Barrio-Amorós (2019).
Distribution: Ecuador, Peru.





Leptodeira maculata

Mexican Cat-eyed Snake

Mexikanische Katzenaugennatter

Mexicansk Katteøjesnog

1861 Megalops maculatus Hallowell
Leptodeira septentrionalis maculata Dunn 1936
Leptodeira maculata Taylor 1938
Leptodeira annulata maculata Shannon & Humphrey 1964
1868 Leptodeira personata Cope (Smith & Taylor 1945)
1939 Leptodeira smithi Taylor (Duellman 1966)
1958 Leptodeira annulata cussiliris Duellman (Daza, Smith, Páez & Parkinson 2009)
Leptodeira cussiliris Arechaga-Ocampo, Montalban-Huidobro & Castro-Franco 2008

Other common names:
cussiliris: Duellman's Cat-eyed Snake
Remarks: Daza, Smith, Páez & Parkinson (2009) synonymized maculata with cussiliris, however, the valid name of the species is not cussiliris, as indicated by these authors, but maculata, being the older of the two names, as pointed out by Wilson, Mata-Silva & Johnson (2013) and Lemos-Espinal & Dixon (2013), who accepted the synonymization.
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas, Colima, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).


Leptodeira nigrofasciata

Black-banded Cat-eyed Snake

Schwarzgebänderte Katzenaugennatter

Sortbåndet Katteøjesnog

1868 Leptodeira nigrofasciata Günther
1869 Leptodeira mystacina Cope (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
Leptodeira nigrofasciata mystacina Shannon & Humphrey 1964

Remarks: Although reported from Panama (Auth 1994; Villa, Wilson & Johnson 1988), presence in the country is unconfirmed (Solís, Ibáñez & Jaramillo 1996).
Distribution: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacan, Oaxaca), Nicaragua.


Leptodeira ornata

Central American Small-spotted Cat-eyed Snake

Zentralamerikanische Gesprenkelte Katzenaugennatter

Centralamerikansk Spættet Katteøjesnog

1884 Comastes ornatus Bocourt
Leptodeira septentrionalis ornata Duellman 1958
Leptodeira ornata Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of septentrionalis (e.g., Duellman 1958) or, more recently, of polysticta (e.g., Midtgaard 2019). Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014) treated ornata as a separate species, based on Daza, Smith, Paez & Parkinson (2009), who, however, did not formally separate ornata from polysticta, pending a comprehensive revision of the genus. Subsequently, Barrio-Amorós (2019) revised the genus and revalidated ornata as a separate species.
Distribution: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela.





Leptodeira polysticta

Central American Small-spotted Cat-eyed Snake

Südamerikanische Gesprenkelte Katzenaugennatter

Sydamerikansk Småplettet Katteøjesnog

1895 Leptodeira polysticta Günther
Leptodeira annulata polysticta Stuart 1935
Leptodeira septentrionalis polysticta Duellman 1958
1895 Leptodeira affinis Günther
1913 Leptodeira dunckeri Werner
1941 Leptodeira annulata taylori Smith (Duellman 1966)
Leptodeira septentrionalis taylori Shannon & Humphrey 1964

Remarks: Previously included larcorum and ornata. Formerly regarded itself as a subspecies of annulata (e.g., Stuart 1935) or, more recently, of septentrionalis (e.g., Duellman 1958). Revalidated as a separate species by Campbell (1998), followed by many authors (e.g., Crother (ed.) 2008, 2012; García-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez, Aguilar-López, Solano-Zavaleta & Maceda-Cruz 2009; García-Vázquez, Canseco-Márquez, Gutiérrez-Mayén & Trujano-Ortega 2009; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). However, some authors have retained polysticta as a subspecies of septentrionalis, pending further evidence (e.g., Flores-Villela & Marquez 2004; McCranie 2011, 2015; Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012). Validity as separate species supported by Barrio-Amorós (2019). Although reported from Costa Rica (e.g., Duellman 1958a; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970), the species has not been verified from the country, although it may occur in the northern parts (Barrio-Amorós 2019).
Distribution: Belize, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Pequeño)]), Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo, Sinaloa, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua.


Leptodeira punctata

Western Cat-eyed Snake

Westliche Katzenaugennatter

Vestlig Katteøjesnog

1867 Crotaphopeltis punctatus Peters
Leptodeira punctata Boulenger 1887
1868 Leptodeira pacifica Cope (Smith & Taylor 1945)

Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Sonora).


Leptodeira rhombifera

Central American Banded Cat-eyed Snake

Zentralamerikanische Gebänderte Katzenaugennatter

Centralamerikansk Katteøjesnog

1872 Leptodeira rhombifera Günther
Leptodeira annulata rhombifera Duellman 1958
1895 Leptodeira ocellata Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of annulata. Regarded here as a separate species, following McCranie (2011).
Distribution: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama.


Leptodeira rubricata

Costa Rican Cat-eyed Snake

Costaricanische Katzenaugennatter

Costaricansk Katteøjesnog

1893 Sibon septentrionale rubricatum Cope
Leptodeira rubricata Taylor 1951

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of rhombifera (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Savage & Villa (1986) and Villa, Wilson & Johnson (1988).
Distribution: Costa Rica, Panama.


Leptodeira septentrionalis

Northern Cat-eyed Snake

Nördliche Katzenaugennatter

Nordlig Katteøjesnog

1859 Dipsas septentrionalis Kennicott
Leptodeira septentrionalis Stejneger 1891
Leptodeira annulata septentrionalis Smith 1941

Remarks: Previously included polysticta. Records from Guerrero (e.g., Mulcahy 2007; Mulcahy, Beckstead & Sites 2011) probably refer to polysticta (Barrio-Amorós 2019).
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Texas).


Leptodeira splendida

Splendid Cat-eyed Snake

Pracht-Katzenaugennatter

Pragt-katteøjesnog

1895 Leptodeira splendida Günther
1938 Leptodeira bressoni Taylor
Leptodeira splendida bressoni Liner 1994
1944 Leptodeira ephippiata Smith & Tanner
Leptodeira splendida ephippiata Liner 1994

Other common names:
bressoni: Bresson's Splendid Cat-eyed Snake
ephippiata: Saddled Cat-eyed Snake
splendida: Günther's Splendid Cat-eyed Snake
Remarks: Ponce-Campos, Huerta-Ortega, Heinze-Yothers & Smith (2003) listed bressoni as a separate species, but with no discussion.
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Zacatecas).


Leptodeira uribei

Chamela Cat-eyed Snake, (Uribe's False Cat-eyed Snake)

Chamela-Katzenaugennatter

Chamela-katteøjesnog

1992 Pseudoleptodeira uribei Bautista & Smith
Leptodeira uribei Reyes-Velasco & Mulcahy 2010

Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Oaxaca).