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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Oxyrhopus
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Oxyrhopus

Calico Snakes, Calico False Coral Snakes

Mondnattern

Calicosnoge*

1830 Oxyrhopus Wagler (type species: Coluber petolarius Linnaeus 1758)
1843 Sphenocephalus Wiegmann in Fitzinger (type species: Coluber formosus Wied 1820)
1913 Erythroxyrhopus Thompson (type species: Oxyrhopus trigeminus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854)
Contents: 14 species, of which 2 (14.3%) are endemic.
Distribution: S. Mexico, Central America, South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao], Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Uruguay, Venezuela.

Oxyrhopus clathratus

Southern Brazilian Calico Snake*

Südbrasilianische Mondnatter*

Sydbrasiliansk Calicosnog*

1854 Oxyrhopus clathratus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Pseudoboa formosa clathrata Amaral 1930
Clelia clathrata Müller 1923
Cloelia clathrata Prado 1945
Pseudoboa clathrata Anthony 1955
1903 Oxyrhopus doliatus viperina Werner (Bernardo, Machado, Murphy & Zaher 2012)
1923 Clelia clathrata pulcherrima Müller (Bernardo, Machado, Murphy & Zaher 2012)

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao]).


Oxyrhopus doliatus

Venezuelan Calico Snake*

Venezuelanische Mondnatter*

Venezuelansk Calicosnog*

1854 Oxyrhopus doliatus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
1947 Oxyrhopus venezuelanus Shreve (Zaher & Caramaschi 2000)

Remarks: Previously included erdisii.
Distribution: Peru, Venezuela.


Oxyrhopus erdisii

Cuzco Calico Snake*

Cuzco-Mondnatter*

Cuzco-calicosnog*

1913 Drepanodon erdisii Barbour
Oxyrhopus erdisii Zaher & Caramaschi 2000

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of doliatus (e.g., Bailey in Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970).
Distribution: Peru.


Oxyrhopus fitzingeri

Peruvian Calico Snake*

Peruvianische Mondnatter*

Peruviansk Calicosnog*

1845 Siphlophis Fitzingeri Tschudi
Oxyrhopus fitzingeri Jan 1863
1943 Oxyrhopus fitzingeri frizzelli Schmidt & Walker

Distribution: Ecuador, Peru.


Oxyrhopus formosus

Yellow-headed Calico Snake

Gelbkopf-Mondnatter*

Gulhovedet Calicosnog*

1820 Coluber formosus Wied
Oxyrhopus formosus Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
1854 Oxyrhopus leucocephalus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1863 Oxyrhopus labialis Jan (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1871 Oxyrhopus submarginatus Peters (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1916 Clelia peruviana Griffin (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1927 Oxyrhopus iridescens Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Remarks: Previously confused with occipitalis. Records from eastern Ecuador (Duellman 1978) and Colombia (e.g., Pérez-Santos & Moreno 1988) refer to occipitalis, or, in the case of Ayerbe-González, Arrieta-Guevara, Chantré-Ortiz, Coral-Plaza, Guerrero-Vargas (2007), to a species of the genus Atractus (Lynch 2009). Records from Venezuela and the Guiana Region also refer to occipitalis (MacCulloch, Lathrop, Kok, Ernst & Kalamandeen 2009; Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012).
Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru.


Oxyrhopus guibei

Parana Calico Snake*

Parana-Mondnatter*

Parana-calicosnog*

1977 Oxyrhopus trigeminus guibei Hoge & Romano
Oxyrhopus guibei Zaher & Caramaschi 1992

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay.


Oxyrhopus leucomelas

Tolima Calico Snake*

Tolima-Mondnatter*

Tolima-calicosnog*

1916 Tropidodipsas leucomelas Werner
Tripanurgos leucomelas Downs 1961
Oxyrhopus leucomelas Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970

Distribution: Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.


Oxyrhopus marcapatae

Marcapata Valley Calico Snake*

Marcapata-Mondnatter*

Marcapata-calicosnog*

1902 Homalocranium marcapatae Boulenger
Oxyrhopus marcapatae Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
1914 Drepanodon eatoni Ruthven (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Distribution: Peru.


Oxyrhopus melanogenys

Black-headed Calico Snake

Schwarzkopf-Mondnatter*

Sorthovedet Calicosnog*

1845 Sphenocephalus melanogenys Tschudi
Oxyrhopus melanogenys Boulenger 1896
1872 Tachymenis bitorquata Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1983 Oxyrhopus melanogenys orientalis Cunha & Nascimento

Remarks: Records from Colombia (e.g., Pérez-Santos & Moreno 1988) refer to vanidicus (Lynch 2009). Not listed for Venezuela by Mumaw, González & Fernández (2015).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Ceara, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Rondonia, Roraima), Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Oxyrhopus occipitalis

Northern Calico Snake*

Nördliche Mondnatter*

Nordlig Calicosnog*

1824 Natrix occipitalis Wagler
Oxyrhopus occipitalis Hoge, Santos, Heitor, Lopes & Souza 1973

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of formosus (e.g., Bailey in Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Hoge, Santos, Heitor, Lopes & Souza (1973) and Lynch (2009). Records of Mussurana bicolor from northeastern Peru (Dixon & Soini 1977, 1986) are regarded as Oxyrhopus occipitalis, following Lynch (2009).
Distribution: Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Para, Rondonia), Colombia, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Oxyrhopus petolarius

Banded Calico Snake, Calico False Coral Snake, White-bellied False Coral Snake, Narrow-banded False Coral Snake, Red-banded Snake, Forest Flame Snake

Gebänderte Mondnatter*

Bĺndet Calicosnog*

1758 Coluber petolarius Linnaeus
Lycodon petolarius Filippi 1840
Oxyrhopus petolarius Smith, Williams & Pérez-Higareda 1986
1758 Coluber petola Linnaeus (Savage 2011)
Oxyrhopus petola Lönnberg 1896
Clelia petola Stuart 1937
Pseudoboa petola Mertens 1970
1766 Coluber pethola Linnaeus (Savage 2011)
1766 Coluber petalarius Linnaeus (Savage 2011)
1834 Coluber digitalis Reuss
Oxyrhopus petola digitalis Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
Oxyrhopus petolarius digitalis Smith, Williams & Pérez-Higareda 1986
1854 Lycodon semifasciatus Tschudi (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
Oxyrhopus petola semifasciatus Campbell & Lamar 2004
1854 Oxyrhopus bi-prae-ocularis Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1854 Oxyrhopus immaculatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1854 Oxyrhopus multifasciatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1854 Oxyrhopus Sebae Duméril, Bibron & Duméril
Oxyrhopus petola sebae Dunn 1944
Oxyrhopus petolarius sebae Smith, Williams & Pérez-Higareda 1986
1854 Oxyrhopus spadiceus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1887 Oxyrhopus doliatus semicinctus Cope (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1899 Oxyrhopus intermedius Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1901 Leptodira nycthemera Werner (Costa, Kucharzewski & Prudente 2015)
1909 Oxyrhopus doliatus aequifasciata Werner (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
Oxyrhopus petola aequifasciatus Stuart 1963
Oxyrhopus petolarius aequifasciatus Smith, Williams & Pérez-Higareda & Smith 1986
1924 Tarbophis splendidus Ahl (Mertens 1970)
1928 Clelia cornelii Müller (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1942 Clelia baileyi Smith (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
Oxyrhopus baileyi Smith & Taylor 1945

Other common names:
sebae: Seba's False Coral Snake
Remarks: Smith, Williams & Pérez-Higareda (1986) spoke in favour of using petolarius, instead of the long used petola for this species, but see Bailey (1986) for a contrary view. Savage (2011) clarified the status of these names, showing petolarius to be the valid name. Duellman (2005) listed petola and petolarius as separate species.
Distribution: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Roraima, Sao Paulo, Sergipe), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Tobago, Trinidad), Venezuela.


Oxyrhopus rhombifer

Rhombic Calico Snake*, Amazon Calico Snake

Amazonas-Mondnatter*

Amazonas-calicosnog*

1854 Oxyrhopus rhombifer Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Pseudoboa rhombifer Schouten 1937
1854 Oxyrhopus d'Orbignyi Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1854 Oxyrhopus sub-punctatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1876 Coronella bachmanni Weyenbergh
Oxyrhopus rhombifer bachmanni Bailey 1970
1909 Oxyrhopus rhombifer inaequifasciata Werner
Pseudoboa rhombifer inaequifasciatus Bailey 1970
1923 Leptodira weiseri Müller (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1943 Oxyrhopus rhombifer septentrionalis Vellard
1955 Pseudoboa ornata Hoge & Mertens (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Tocantins), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Oxyrhopus trigeminus

Northern Brazilian Calico Snake, Brazilian False Coral Snake

Nordbrasilianische Mondnatter*

Nordbrasiliansk Calicosnog*

1854 Oxyrhopus trigeminus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Pseudoboa trigemina Amaral 1933

Remarks: Now restricted to south of the Amazon (Zaher & Caramaschi 1992). Previously included guibei. Confused with melanogenys and vanidicus in the past (e.g.; Hoge, Santos, Lopes & Souza 1973; Dixon & Soini 1977; and presumably Henle & Ehrl 1991). Records from Peru refer to vanidicus (Lynch 2009). Records from the Guianas (e.g., Avila-Pires 2005; Donnelly, Chen & Watkins 2005; Reynolds, MacCulloch, Tamessar, Watson, Cole & Townsend 2008) and Venezuela (e.g., Lancini 1979; Kornacker 1999) refer to melanogenys (MacCulloch, Lathrop, Kok, Ernst & Kalamandeen 2009).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins).


Oxyrhopus vanidicus

Leticia Calico Snake*

Leticia-Mondnatter*

Leticia-calicosnog*

2009 Oxyrhopus vanidicus Lynch

Remarks: Previously confused with melanogenys, petola semifasciatus, and trigeminus.
Distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Para, Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela.