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Taxonomy of the family Pareidae
Bibliography of the genus Pareas
Biodiversity of the family Pareidae


Typical Oriental Slug Eaters, Oriental Slug-eating Snakes, Oriental Slug Snakes, Asian Snail-eating Snakes, Oriental Blunt-headed Snakes, Oriental Chunk-headed Snakes, Oriental Night Snakes, (Broad-headed Snakes)

Eigentliche Asiatische Schneckennattern

Egentlige Orientalske Sneglesnoge

1830 Pareas Wagler (type species: Amblycephalus carinatus Wagler 1830)
1920 Eberhardtia Angel (type species: Eberhardtia tonkinensis Angel 1920; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
Contents: 17 species, of which 12 (70.6%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Asthenodipsas. Erroneously placed in the family Acrochordidae by Aengals, Kumar, Palot & Ganesh (2018).
Distribution: E. and SE. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Tibet, Yunnan, Zhejiang), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Indonesia (Bali, Java, Kalimantan, Karimunjawa Islands, Lombok, Penida, Sumatra), Japan (Ryukyu Islands [incl. Sakishima Islands (incl. Yaeyama Islands)]), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Pareas atayal

Atayal Slug Eater



2015 Pareas atayal You, Poyarkov & Lin

Distribution: Taiwan.

Pareas boulengeri

Guizhou Slug Eater



1920 Amblycephalus boulengeri Angel
Pareas boulengeri Hu, Zhao & Liu 1973

Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang).

Pareas carinatus

Keeled Slug Eater, Keeled Slug Snake

Gekielte Schneckennatter

Kølet Sneglesnog

1830 Amblycephalus carinatus Wagler
Pareas carinata Wagler 1830
Dipsas carinata Schlegel 1837
Leptognathus carinatus Jan 1863
1868 Pareas berdmorei Theobald (Smith 1943)
Amblycephalus carinatus berdmorei Smith 1930
1934 Amblycephalus carinatus unicolor Bourret
Pareas carinatus unicolor Welch 1988

Remarks: It is possible that all Bornean records of carinatus refer to nuchalis (Stuebing, Inger & Lardner 2014).
Distribution: Brunei, Cambodia, China (Yunnan), Indonesia (Bali, Java, Kalimantan, Karimunjawa Islands, Lombok, Penida, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

Pareas chinensis

Chinese Slug Eater

Chinesische Schneckennatter

Kinesisk Sneglesnog

1912 Amblycephalus chinensis Barbour
Pareas chinensis Hu, Huang, Xie, Zhao, Jiang, Huang, Zong & Ma 1980
1922 Amblycephalus kuangtungensis Vogt (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Pareas kuangtungensis Welch 1988
1922 Amblycephalus yunnanensis Vogt (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Pareas yunnanensis Welch 1988
1928 Amblycephalus niger Pope (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Pareas niger Welch 1988

Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of formosensis by Jiang (2004), but Zhao (2006) retained both as valid species, pending further studies. Guo, Wu, He, Shi & Zhao (2011) confirmed the validity of chinensis. Rao & Yang (1992) revalidated kuangtungensis and yunnanensis as separate species, but most subsequent works have retained the two nominal species as synonyms of chinensis.
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hong Kong, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang).

Pareas formosensis

Taiwanese Red-eyed Slug Eater

Taiwanische Rotaugen-Schneckennatter

Taiwansk Rødøjet Sneglesnog

1909 Amblycephalus formosensis Van Denburgh
Pareas formosensis Hu, Huang, Xie, Zhao, Jiang, Huang, Zong & Ma 1980
1910 Psammodynastes compressus Oshima (You, Poyarkov & Lin 2016)

Remarks: Previously included komaii.
Distribution: Taiwan.

Pareas hamptoni

Burmese Slug Eater, (Hampton's Slug Eater)

Burmesische Schneckennatter, (Hamptons Schneckennatter)

Burmesisk Sneglesnog

1905 Amblycephalus hamptoni Boulenger
Pareas hamptoni Smith 1930
1920 Eberhardtia tonkinensis Angel
Amblycephalus tonkinensis Bourret 1936
Pareas hamptoni tonkinensis Orlov, Murphy & Papenfuss 2000
1923 Amblycephalus carinatus hainanus Smith (Smith 1943)

Remarks: First confirmed for Thailand by Vogel (2010). Older records from southern Thailand (e.g., Nabhitabhata, Chan-ard & Chuaynkern 2004) refer to carinatus (Vogel 2010). Older records from northern Thailand refer to localities which are now part of Laos. Records from Hong Kong (e.g., Zhao & Adler 1993) refer to chinensis (Ota, Bogadek & Lau 1997; Vogel 2010).
Distribution: Cambodia, China (Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Pareas iwasakii

Ryukyu Slug Eater, (Iwasaki's Snail-eating Snake)



1937 Amblycephalus formosensis iwasakii Maki
Pareas iwasakii Takara 1962

Distribution: Japan (Ryukyu Islands: Sakishima Islands: Yaeyama Islands).

Pareas komaii

Alishan Slug Eater



1931 Amblycephalus komaii Maki
Pareas komaii Nakamura & Ueno 1971

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of formosensis (e.g., Ota, Lin, Hirata & Chen 1997). Revalidated as a separate species by You, Poyarkov & Lin (2016).
Distribution: Taiwan.

Pareas macularius

Black-spotted Slug Eater, Spotted Slug Eater, Darjeeling Slug Eater

Schwarzfleckige Schneckennatter

Sortplettet Sneglesnog

1868 Pareas macularius Blyth
Amblycephalus macularius Boulenger 1890
1868 Pareas modestus Theobald (Smith 1943)
Amblycephalus modestus Boulenger 1890
1888 Pareas andersonii Boulenger (Smith 1943)
Amblycephalus andersoni Boulenger 1890
1935 Amblycephalus tamdaoensis Bourret (Smith 1943)
Pareas macularius tamdaoensis Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009
Pareas tamdaoensis Welch 1988

Other common names:
tamdaoensis: Tamdao Slug Eater
Remarks: Regarded as a synonym of margaritophorus by Huang (2004), however, Hauser (2017) presented evidence that the two taxa are separate species. Welch (1988) and Das (2010) treated tamdaoensis as a separate species.
Distribution: Bangladesh, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan), India (Sikkim, West Bengal), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

Pareas margaritophorus

White-spotted Slug Eater, Northern Mountain Slug Snake

Weißfleckige Schneckennatter

Hvidplettet Sneglesnog

1866 Leptognathus margaritophorus Jan in Bocourt
Pareas margaritophorus Theobald 1876
Amblycephalus margaritophorus Boulenger 1896
1885 Pareas moellendorffi Boettger (Zhao & Adler 1993)
Amblycephalus moellendorffi Boulenger 1896

Remarks: Das (2007) included Brunei in the distribution of margaritophorus, but the species was not regarded as a Bornean species by Stuebing, Inger & Lardner (2014). The latter authors are followed herein.
Introduced to: Singapore.
Distribution: Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

Pareas menglaensis

Mengla Slug Eater



2020 Pareas menglaensis Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo

Distribution: China (Yunnan).

Pareas mengziensis

Mengzi Slug Eater



2020 Pareas mengziensis Wang, Che, Liu, Li, Jin, Jiang, Shi & Guo

Distribution: China (Yunnan).

Pareas monticola

Assam Slug Eater, (Mountain Slug Snake)



1839 Dipsas monticola Cantor
Pareas monticola Günther 1864
Amblycephalus monticola Boulenger 1890

Distribution: Bangladesh, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Myanmar, Vietnam.

Pareas nigriceps

Black-headed Slug Eater


Sorthovedet Sneglesnog

2009 Pareas nigriceps Guo & Deng

Distribution: China (Yunnan).

Pareas nuchalis

Barred Slug Eater

Gebänderte Schneckennatter

Asiatisk Båndet Sneglesnog

1900 Amblycephalus nuchalis Boulenger
Pareas nuchalis Haas 1950

Distribution: Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak).

Pareas stanleyi

Fujian Slug Eater



1914 Amblycephalus stanleyi Boulenger
Pareas stanleyi Hu, Huang, Xie, Zhao, Jiang, Huang, Zong & Ma 1980
1917 Amblycephalus sinensis Stanley (Zhao & Adler 1993)

Distribution: China (Fujian, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Zhejiang).

Pareas vindumi

Kachin Slug Eater, (Vindum's Slug Eater)



2015 Pareas vindumi Vogel

Distribution: Myanmar.