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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Sonora
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Sonora

North American Ground, Sand, and Shovel-nosed Snakes

Westamerikanische Erdnattern, Sandnattern, und Schaufelnasen-Wühlnattern

Vestamerikanske Jordsnoge, Sandsnoge, og Skovlnæsesnoge

1853 Sonora Girard (type species: Sonora semiannulata Baird & Girard 1853)
1857 Lamprosoma Hallowell [not Lamprosoma Kirby 1819 (Insecta)] (type species: Rhinostoma occipitale Hallowell 1854)
1860 Chilomeniscus Cope (type species: Chilomeniscus stramineus Cope 1860; syn. Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
1860 Chionactis Cope [substitute name for Lamprosoma Hallowell 1857; syn. Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018]
1879 Procinura Cope (type species: Procinura aemula Cope 1879; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989; Cox, Rabosky, Reyes-Velasco, Ponce-Campos, Smith, Flores-Villela & Campbell 2012)
Contents: 15 species, of which 10 (66.7%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Chilomeniscus: North American Sand Snakes
Chionactis: North American Shovel-nosed Snakes
Distribution: W. and C. USA, Mexico.
Reported from: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo, Isla Danzante Isla Espiritu Santo, Isla Santa Margarita, Isla Partida Sur]), Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora [incl. Tiburon], Tamaulipas, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah).

Sonora aemula

File-tailed Ground Snake, File-tailed Snake, (False Coral Snake)

Feilschwanz-Erdnatter*

Filhale-jordsnog*

1879 Procinura aemula Cope
Contia aemula Cope 1879
Scolecophis aemulus Cope 1900
Sonora aemula Bogert & Oliver 1945

Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Sinaloa, Sonora).


Sonora annulata

Southern Shovel-nosed Snake*, Resplendent Desert Shovel-nosed Snake

Südliche Schaufelnasen-Wühlnatter

Sydlig Skovlnæsesnog*

1859 Lamprosoma annulatum Baird
Chionactis occipitalis annulatus Cope 1875
Sonora occipitalis annulata Stickel 1941
Chionactis annulatus Wood, Fisher & Vandergast 2014
Sonora annulata Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018
1941 Sonora occipitalis klauberi Stickel
Chionactis occipitalis klauberi Stickel 1943
Chionactis annulatus klauberi Wood, Fisher & Vandergast 2014
1967 Chionactis saxatilis Funk (Mahrdt, Beaman, Rosen & Holm 2001)

Other common names:
annulata: Colorado Desert Shovel-nosed Snake
klauberi: Tucson Shovel-nosed Snake
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Sonora), USA (Arizona, California).


Sonora cincta

Sonoran Banded Sand Snake*

Gebänderte Sandnatter*

Båndet Sandsnog*

1861 Chilomeniscus cinctus Cope
Sonora cincta Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of straminea (e.g., Grismer, Wong & Galina-Tessaro 2002). Revalidated by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Danzante], Sinaloa, Sonora [incl. Tiburon]), USA (Arizona).





Sonora episcopa

Great Plains Ground Snake

Prärie-Erdnatter*

Prærie-jordsnog*

1859 Lamprosoma episcopum Kennicott
Contia episcopa Cope 1880
Chionactis episcopus Cope 1890
Sonora episcopa Denburgh & Slevin 1913
Sonora semiannulata episcopa Frost & Devender 1979
1901 Contia nuchalis Schenkel (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
1880 Contia episcopa torquata Cope (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
Contia torquatus Boulenger 1894
Chionactis episcopus torquatus Cope 1890

Remarks: Previously included taylori. Previously regarded as a synonym of semiannulata (e.g., Frost 1983). Revalidated by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018). Exact distribution boundary between episcopa and semiannulata is unclear (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Tamaulipas), USA (Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).





Sonora fasciata

Baja California Banded Sand Snake*

Gebänderte Baja-California-Sandnatter*

Båndet Baja California-sandsnog*

1892 Chilomeniscus stramineus fasciatus Cope
Chilomeniscus fasciatus Holm 2008
Sonora fasciata Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018
1939 Chilomeniscus stramineus esterensis Hoard (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)

Other common names:
esterensis: Baja California Sand Snake, Estero Salina Sandsnake
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of straminea (e.g., Grismer, Wong & Galina-Tessaro 2002). Revalidated by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Santa Margarita]).





Sonora michoacanensis

Michoacan Ground Snake

Apatzingan-Erdnatter*

Apatzingan-jordsnog*

1884 Contia michoacanensis Duges
Elapomorphus michoacanensis Cope 1895
Homalocranium michoacanense Günther 1895
Chionactis michoacanensis Cope 1896
Scolecophis michoacanensis Boulenger 1896
Sonora michoacanensis Dunn 1928
1937 Sonora erythrura Taylor (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)

Remarks: Previously included mutabilis.
Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Guerrero, Michoacan, Morelos, Puebla).


Sonora mosaueri

Baja California Ground Snake*

Baja-California-Erdnatter*

Baja California-jordsnog*

1938 Sonora mosaueri Stickel

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of semiannulata (e.g., Frost 1983). Revalidated by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur).





Sonora mutabilis

Mexican Ground Snake

Mexikanische Erdnatter*

Mexicansk Jordsnog*

1943 Sonora michoacanensis mutabilis Stickel
Sonora mutabilis Ponce-Campos, Smith, Harris & Chiszar 2004
1945 Sonora aequalis Smith & Taylor (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)

Other common names:
aequalis: Jalisco-Zacatecas Ground Snake
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies or synonym of michoacanensis. Revalidated again by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018). Ponce-Campos, Smith, Harris & Chiszar (2004) revalidated aequalis as a separate species, however, Cox, Davis-Rabosky, Reyes-Velasco, Ponce-Campos, Smith, Flores-Villela & Campbell (2012) subsequently reassigned it as a synonym of mutabilis. Records from Distrito Federal (e.g., Smith & Taylor 1945) are erroneous (Ponce-Campos, Smith, Harris & Chiszar 2004). Records from Distrito Federal (e.g., Smith & Taylor 1945) are erroneous (Ponce-Campos, Smith, Harris & Chiszar 2004).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Jalisco, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Zacatecas).


Sonora occipitalis

Northern Shovel-nosed Snake*, (Mojave Shovel-nosed Snake, Western Shovel-nosed Snake)

Nördliche Schaufelnasen-Wühlnatter

Nordlig Skovlnæsesnog*

1854 Rhinostoma occipitale Hallowell
Lamprosoma occipitale Hallowell 1856
Chionactis occipitale Cope 1860
Holasoma occipitale Müller 1882
Contia occipitalis Garman 1884
Sonora occipitalis Denburgh & Slevin 1913
1951 Chionactis occipitalis talpina Klauber

Other common names:
occipitalis: Mojave Shovel-nosed Snake
saxatilis: Gila Mountains Shovel-nosed Snake
talpina: Nevada Shovel-nosed Snake
Remarks: Previously included annulata. Now restricted to the USA. Records from Mexico refer to annulata (Wood, Fisher & Vandergast 2014).
Distribution: USA (Arizona, California, Nevada).


Sonora palarostris

Sonoran Shovel-nosed Snake

Sonora-Schaufelnasen-Wühlnatter

Sonora-skovlnæsesnog*

1937 Sonora palarostris Klauber
Sonora occipitalis palarostris Stickel 1941
Chionactis occipitalis palarostris Stickel 1943
Chionactis palarostris Klauber 1951
1951 Chionactis palarostris organica Klauber

Other common names:
organica: Organ Pipe Shovel-nosed Snake
palarostris: Common Sonoran Shovel-nosed Snake
Distribution: Mexico (Sonora), USA (Arizona).


Sonora punctatissima

Espiritu Santo Island Sandsnake, Island Burrowing Sand Snake

Espiritu-Santo-Sandnatter*

Espiritu Santo-sandsnog*

1921 Chilomeniscus punctatissimus Van Denburgh & Slevin
Sonora punctatissima Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of straminea (e.g., Grismer, Wong & Galina-Tessaro 2002). Revalidated by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur [Isla Espiritu Santo, Isla Partida Sur]).





Sonora savagei

Cerralvo Island Sand Snake

Cerralvo-Sandnatter*

Cerralvo-sandsnog*

1954 Chilomeniscus savagei Cliff
Sonora savagei Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018

Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur: Isla Cerralvo).


Sonora semiannulata

Western Ground Snake, Common Ground Snake

Westliche Erdnatter*

Vestlig Jordsnog*

1853 Sonora semiannulata Baird & Girard
1866 Contia isozona Cope (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
Contia episcopa isozona Cope 1880
Chionactis episcopus isozonus Cope 1890
Chionactis isozonus Richardson 1915
Sonora semiannulata isozona Stickel 1943
1938 Sonora miniata linearis Stickel (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
Sonora semiannulata linearis Stickel 1943
1938 Sonora miniata miniata Stickel (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
1938 Sonora semiannulata blanchardi Stickel (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
1938 Sonora semiannulata gloydi Stickel (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)
1943 Sonora bancroftae Klauber (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018)

Other common names:
blanchardi: Trans-Pecos Ground Snake
gloydi: Grand Canyon Ground Snake
isozona: Great Basin Ground Snake
linearis: Vermillion-lined Ground Snake
semiannulata: Variable Ground Snake, Santa Rita Ground Snake
Remarks: Previously included episcopa, mosaueri, and taylori. Exact distribution boundary between episcopa and semiannulata is unclear (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chihuahua, Durango, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah).


Sonora straminea

Baja California Bandless Sand Snake*, Bandless Sand Snake, (Variable Sand Snake, Spotted Sand Snake)

Südliche Baja-California-Sandnatter*

Sydlig Baja California-sandsnog*

1860 Chilomeniscus stramineus Cope
Sonora straminea Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell 2018

Remarks: Previously included cincta, fasciata, and punctatissima.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur).


Sonora taylori

South Texas Ground Snake

Südtexanische Erdnatter*

Sydtexansk Jordsnog*

1894 Contia taylori Boulenger
Chionactis taylori Cope 1900
Sonora taylori Stejneger & Barbour 1917
Sonora episcopa taylori Stickel 1943
Sonora semiannulata taylori Dixon 2000

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of episcopa (Stickel 1943) or of semiannulata (e.g., Frost 1983). Revalidated by Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018). Presence in Mexico (Nuevo Leo, Tamaulipas) needs confirmation (Cox, Davis Rabosky, Holmes, Reyes-Velasco, Roelke, Smith, Flores-Villela, McGuire & Campbell (2018).
Distribution: USA (Texas).