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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Trimeresurus
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Trimeresurus

Oriental Pitvipers

Orientalische Bambusottern

Orientalske Træhugorme

1804 Trimeresurus Lacépède (type species: Vipera viridis Daudin 1803)
Trimesurus Gray 1842 [unjustified emendation]
1843 Bothrophis Fitzinger (type species: Trimeresurus viridis Lacépède 1804; syn. David, Vogel & Dubois 2011)
1860 Cryptelytrops Cope 1859 (type species: Trimesurus carinatus Gray 1842; syn. David, Vogel & Dubois 2011)
Contents: 19 species, of which 10 (52.6%) are endemic.
Remarks: Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) proposed a division of Trimeresurus (s.l.) into several new or revalidated genera: Cryptelytrops, Garthius, Himalayophis, Parias, Peltopelor, Popeia, Trimeresurus (s.s.), and Viridovipera. This arrangement has been followed by most subsequent authors (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), as well as herein, although some authors prefer to regard these genera as subgenera of Trimeresurus (e.g., David & Vogel in Visser 2015), with the exception of Garthius, which is generally recognized as a valid genus. More recently, David, Vogel & Dubois (2011) showed that Cryptelytrops is a synonym of Trimeresurus. Consequently, all species formerly placed in Cryptelytrops are now placed in Trimeresurus, whereas the species previously placed in Trimeresurus by Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) are now assigned to Craspedocephalus, the next available name for this group of snakes.
Distribution: S. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong [incl. Nan Ao Island], Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Jiangxi, Macau, Yunnan), East Timor (incl. Atauro Island), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Punjab, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Adonara, Alor, Bali, Flores, Java, Kisar, Komodo, Lembata, Lombok, Madura, Padar, Pantar, Penida, Riau Islands, Rinca, Roma, Romang, Rote, Savu, Semau, Sumatra, Sumba, Sumbawa, Tanahjampea, West Timor, Wetar), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island, Hon Son Island, Phu Quoc Island).

Trimeresurus albolabris

Southeast Asian White-lipped Tree Pitviper, White-lipped Pitviper, White-lipped Bamboo Pitviper, Yellow-lipped Green Pitviper, Green Pitviper

Weißlippen-Bambusotter

Sydøstasiatisk Hvidlæbet Træhugorm, (Hvidlæbet Palmehugorm)

1842 Trimesurus [sic] albolabris Gray
Trimeresurus gramineus albolabris Mell 1922
Cryptelytrops albolabris Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Previously included insularis and septentrionalis. Records from Himachal Pradesh and Punjab are tentatively referred to septentrionalis. Records from West Malaysia and Borneo (East Malaysia and Kalimantan) need verification (Wüster in David & Ineich 1999). Records from N. and NE. India, N. Bangladesh, and N. Burma needs confirmation and are in the process of being reviewed (Gumprecht, Tillack, Orlov, Captain & Ryabov 2004). Taxonomic status of the Nicobar Islands population needs further studies (Harikrishnan, Vasudevan & Choudhury 2010).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong [incl. Nan Ao Island], Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong [incl. Shek Kwu Chau Island], Jiangxi, Macau, Yunnan), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Nicobar Islands], Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java, Madura, Sumatra), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Trimeresurus andersoni

Andaman Pitviper, (Anderson’s Pitviper)

Andamanische Bambusotter, (Andersons Bambusotter)

Andamansk Træhugorm

1868 Trimeresurus Andersoni Theobald
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus andersoni Smith 1943
Cryptelytrops andersoni Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Malhotra & Thorpe (1996) suggested that andersoni should be regarded as a distinct species, rather than a subspecies of purpureomaculatus. The validity was later confirmed by the same authors (Malhotra & Thorpe 2004).
Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands]).


Trimeresurus arunachalensis

Ramda Pitviper

Ramda-Bambusotter

Ramda-træhugorm

2019 Trimeresurus arunachalensis Captain, Deepak, Pandit, Bhatt & Athreya

Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).





Trimeresurus cantori

Central Nicobar Pitviper, (Cantor's Pitviper)

Nicobarische Bambusotter, (Cantors Bambusotter)

Centralnicobarisk Træhugorm

1846 Trigonocephalus Cantori Blyth
Trimeresurus viridis cantori Blyth 1861
Trimeresurus cantori Stoliczka 1870
Lachesis cantori Boulenger 1896
Cryptelytrops cantori Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Nicobar Islands).


Trimeresurus cardamomensis

Cardamom Mountains Green Pitviper

Kambodschanische Bambusotter

Cambodiansk Grøn Træhugorm

2011 Cryptelytrops cardamomensis Malhotra, Thorpe, Mrinalini & Stuart
Trimeresurus cardamomensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Until its description in 2011, this species was confused with macrops (Malhotra, Thorpe, Mrinalini & Stuart 2011). Validity confirmed by Mrinalini, Thorpe, Creer, Lallias, Dawnay, Stuart & Malhotra (2015).
Distribution: Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam (Phu Quoc Island).


Trimeresurus caudornatus

Nabang Pitviper, (Ornament-tailed Pitviper)

Nabang Bambusotter

Nabang-træhugorm

2020 Trimeresurus caudornatus Chen, Ding, Vogel & Shi in Chen, Yu, Vogel, Shi, Song, Tang, Yang, Ding & Chen

Distribution: China (Yunnan).





Trimeresurus erythrurus

Red-tailed Pitviper, Red-tailed Bamboo Pitviper, Spot-tailed Pitviper, Burmese Green Pitviper

Rotschwanz-Bambusotter

Rødhalet Træhugorm

1839 Trigonocephalus erythrurus Cantor
Trimeresurus erythrurus Günther 1864
Cryptelytrops erythrurus Malhotra & Thorpe 2004
1853 Trimeresurus bicolor Gray [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
1874 Trimeresurus carinatus Fayer [not Cryptelytrops carinatus Cope 1860] (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Presence in Nepal needs confirmation (Whitaker & Captain 2004; Kästle, Rai & Schleich 2013), although the species has been listed from the country (e.g., Das 1996). Records from Thailand are erroneous (Vogel 1990; Cox 1991), although listed from the country in the past (e.g., Nutphand 1971; Taylor 1965; Minton, Dowling & Russell 1968).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, West Bengal), Myanmar.


Trimeresurus fasciatus

Banded Pitviper

Gebänderte Bambusotter

Båndet Træhugorm

1896 Lachesis fasciatus Boulenger
Trimeresurus gramineus fasciatus Dunn 1927
Trimeresurus fasciatus Maslin 1942
Cryptelytrops fasciatus Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Distribution: Indonesia (Tanahjampea).


Trimeresurus honsonensis

Hon Son Pitviper

Hon Son-Bambusotter

Hon Son-træhugorm

2008 Cryptelytrops honsonensis Grismer, Ngo & Grismer
Trimeresurus honsonensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Vietnam (Hon Son Island).


Trimeresurus insularis

Lesser Sundas White-lipped Pitviper, White-lipped Island Pitviper

Insel-Bambusotter

Indonesisk Hvidlæbet Træhugorm

1804 Trimeresurus viridis Lacepede [nomen oblitum; not Coluber viridis Bechstein 1802] (syn. David, Vogel & Dubois 2011)
1977 Trimeresurus albolabris insularis Kramer
Trimeresurus insularis Giannasi, Thorpe & Malhotra 2001
Cryptelytrops insularis Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Presence in Sulawesi needs confirmation, since only a single voucher specimen, is available from the island (De Lang & Vogel 2005).
Distribution: East Timor (incl. Atauro Island), Indonesia (Adonara, Alor, Bali, Flores, Java, Kisar, Komodo, Lembata, Lombok, Padar, Pantar, Penida, Rinca, Roma, Romang, Rote, Savu, Semau, Sumba, Sumbawa, West Timor, Wetar).


Trimeresurus kanburiensis

Kanburi Pitviper, Tiger Pitviper, Kanburi Green Pitviper

Kanburi-Bambusotter

Kanburi-træhugorm

1943 Trimeresurus kanburiensis Smith
Cryptelytrops kanburiensis Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Previously included venustus, a species confirmed distinct by Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) and David, Vogel, Sumontha, Pauwels & Chanhome (2004). Confused with purpureomaculatus in several older publications which show pictures of kanburiensis, which are in fact purpureomaculatus (e.g., Nutphand 1971; Thumwipat & Nutphand 1982; Reitinger 1978). See comments in David, Cox, Pauwels, Chanhome & Thirakhupt (2004). Records of from Vietnam, tentatively assigned to kanburiensis, have since been described as a separate species, Viridovipera truongsonensis.
Distribution: Thailand.


Trimeresurus labialis

Car Nicobar Pitviper, (Nicobar Bamboo Pitviper, Nicobar Pitviper)

Car-Nikobar-Bambusotter

Car Nicobar-træhugorm

1861 Bothrophis labialis Fitzinger [nomen nudum]
Trimeresurus labialis Fitzinger in Steindachner 1867
Cryptelytrops labialis Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Previously included mutabilis. Photos of labialis from the Andaman Islands in Vogel (2006) were with wrong locality; the specimens were taken in Car Nicobar Island (Vogel, David & Chandramouli 2014)
Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Nicobar Islands).


Trimeresurus macrops

Big-eyed Green Pitviper, Large-eyed Green Pitviper, Large-eyed Pitviper, Large-eyed Bamboo Pitviper, Dark-green Bamboo Pitviper, (Kramer's Pitviper)

Großaugen-Bambusotter

Storøjet Grøn Træhugorm

1977 Trimeresurus macrops Kramer
Cryptelytrops macrops Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Until its description in 1977, this species was confused with popeiorum (Gumprecht, Tillack, Orlov, Captain & Ryabov 2004). Subsequently. it has been confused with cardamomensis and rubeus (Malhotra, Thorpe, Mrinalini & Stuart 2011). Records from Vietnam refer to rubeus.
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Thailand.


Trimeresurus mutabilis

Camorta Island Pitviper

Camorta-Bambusotter

Camorta-træhugorm

1870 Trimeresurus mutabilis Stoliczka

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of labialis (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Revalidated as a separate species by Vogel, David & Chandramouli (2014).
Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Nicobar Islands).


Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus

Mangrove Pitviper, Purple-spotted Pitviper, Shore Pitviper

Mangrovenotter

Mangrovetræhugorm, (Mangrovepalmehugorm)

1832 Trigonocephalus purpureo-maculatus Gray
Trimeresurus purpureomaculatus Boulenger 1890
Lachesis purpureomaculatus Boulenger 1896
Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus Malhotra & Thorpe 2004
1842 Trimesurus purpureus Gray [unjustified emendation of Trimeresurus and of purpureo-maculatus Gray 1832]
Trimeresurus purpureus Günther 1864
1842 Trimesurus carinatus Gray (McDiarmid, Campbel & Touré 1999)
Cryptelytrops carinatus Cope 1860
Trimeresurus carinatus Theobald 1868
1853 Trimeresurus bicolor Gray [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
1861 Trimeresurus porphyraceus Blyth "1860" (McDiarmid, Campbel & Touré 1999)
1868 Trimeresurus obscurus Theobald (Golay & al. 1993)
1927 Trimeresurus acutimentalis Werner (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included andersoni. Reports from the Andaman Islands refer to andersoni (Das 1999).
Distribution: Indonesia (Riau Islands, Sumatra), Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Singapore, Thailand.


Trimeresurus rubeus

Ruby-eyed Green Pitviper

Rotaugen-Bambusotter

Rødøjet Træhugorm

2011 Cryptelytrops rubeus Malhotra, Thorpe, Mrinalini & Stuart
Craspedocephalus rubeus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014 [lapsus?]
Trimeresurus rubeus Mrinalini, Thorpe, Creer, Lallias, Dawnay, Stuart & Malhotra 2015

Remarks: Until its description in 2011, this species was confused with macrops (Malhotra, Thorpe, Mrinalini & Stuart 2011). Validity confirmed by Mrinalini, Thorpe, Creer, Lallias, Dawnay, Stuart & Malhotra (2015). Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014), presumably by mistake, assigned rubeus to Craspedocephalus, without discussion or transferring closely related species to the same genus. As shown by Mrinalini, Thorpe, Creer, Lallias, Dawnay, Stuart & Malhotra (2015), the species belongs in the genus Trimeresurus (sensu David, Vogel & Dubois 2011, previously Cryptelytrops).
Distribution: Cambodia, Vietnam.


Trimeresurus salazar

Seijosa Pitviper, (Salazar's Pitviper)

Seijosa Bambusotter

Seijosa-træhugorm

2020 Trimeresurus salazar Mirza, Bhosale, Phansalkar, Sawant, Gowande & Patel

Remarks: Two specimens from Assam without information about exact origin are also included, but not in the map.
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam).





Trimeresurus septentrionalis

Northern White-lipped Pitviper, Himalayan White-lipped Pitviper, Nepal Pitviper

Nepal-Bambusotter

Nordlig Hvidlæbet Træhugorm

1977 Trimeresurus albolabris septentrionalis Kramer
Trimeresurus septentrionalis Giannasi, Thorpe & Malhotra 2001
Cryptelytrops septentrionalis Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Records of albolabris from Himachal Pradesh and Punjab are tentatively referred to septentrionalis.
Distribution: India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttarakhand), Nepal.


Trimeresurus venustus

Venus Pitviper, (Beautiful Pitviper)

Bunte Bambusotter, Schöne Bambusotter

Venus-træhugorm

1991 Trimeresurus venustus Vogel
Cryptelytrops venustus Malhotra & Thorpe 2004

Remarks: Previously thought to be a synonym of kanburiensis (e.g., Warrell, Looareesuwan, Stimson & Hutton 1992; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999). Validity confirmed by David, Vogel, Sumontha, Pauwels & Chanhome (2004) and Malhotra & Thorpe (2004).
Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Thailand.