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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Xenodon
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Xenodon

Northern Mock Lanceheads* & South American Hognose Snakes

Falsche Lanzenottern & Südamerikanische Hakennattern

Nordlige Hugormesnoge* & Sydamerikanske Trynesnoge*

1824 Ophis Wagler in Spix [not Ophis Turton 1807 (Pisces)] (type species: Ophis merremii Wagler 1824)
1826 Xenodon Boie (type species: Coluber severus Linnaeus 1758)
1826 Rhinostoma Fitzinger [rejected name; ICZN (1964): Opinion 698] (type species: Vipera nasua Wagler 1830, by subsequent designation)
1885 Lystrophis Cope (type species: Heterodon dorbignyi Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854; syn. Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009)
1893 Acanthophallus Cope (type species: Xenodon colubrinus Günther 1858)
1972 Waglerophis Romano & Hoge (type species: Ophis merremii Wagler 1824; syn. Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009)
Contents: 13 species, of which 3 (23.1%) are endemic.
Other common names:
False Fer-de-Lances, False Vipers (Xenodon, s.s.)
South American Hognose Snakes (Lystrophis)
Remarks: Some authors regard Thalesius as a synonym of Xenodon. Lystrophis is sometimes retained as a valid genus (e.g., Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: S. Mexico, Central America, South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Parana, Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao], Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz), Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela.

Xenodon angustirostris

Central American Mock Lancehead*

Zentralamerikanische Vipern-Natter*

Centralamerikansk Hugormesnog*

1864 Xenodon angustirostris Peters
1940 Xenodon mexicanus Smith (Myers & McDowell 2014, by implication)
Xenodon rabdocephalus mexicanus Schmidt 1941

Other common names:
mexicanus: Mexican False Fer-de-Lance
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of rabdocephalus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated as a separate species by Myers & McDowell (2014).
Distribution: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz), Nicaragua, Panama.


Xenodon dorbignyi

Spotted Hognose Snake*, South American Hognose Snake

Gefleckte Hakennatter*

Plettet Trynesnog*

1854 Heterodon Dorbignyi Bibron in Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
1854 Heterodon dorbignyi Duméril, Bibron & Duméril
Lystrophis dorbignyi Cope 1885
Xenodon dorbignyi Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*
1994 Lystrophis dorbignyi chacoensis Lema
1994 Lystrophis dorbignyi orientalis Lema
1994 Lystrophis dorbignyi uruguayensis Lema

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Xenodon guentheri

Santa Catarina Mock Lancehead*

Santa-Catarina-Vipern-Natter*

Santa Catarina-hugormesnog*

1894 Xenodon guentheri Boulenger

Distribution: Brazil (Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina).


Xenodon histricus

Rayed Hognose Snake, (Jan's Hognose Snake)

Strahlen-Hakennatter*

Stråle-trynesnog*

1863 Heterodon histricus Jan
Lystrophis histricus Boulenger 1894
Xenodon histricus Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*

Remarks: Previously included nattereri. Presence in Sao Paulo (e.g., Zaher, Barbo, Martínez, Nogueira, Rodrigues & Sawaya 2011) is considered doubtful (Costa & Bérnils 2018).
Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso do Sul, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina), Paraguay, Uruguay.


Xenodon matogrossensis

Mato Grosso Hognose Snake*

Mato-Grosso-Hakennatter*

Mato Grosso-trynesnog*

1993 Lystrophis matogrossensis Scrocchi & Cruz
Xenodon matogrossensis Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*

Remarks: Not mentioned from Bolivia by Pincheira-Donoso (2002). A record from southern Mato Grosso do Sul (Souza, Uetanabaro, Landgref-Filho, Piatti & Prado 2010) refer to pulcher (Cabral, Piatti, Souza, Scrocchi & Ferreira 2015).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul).


Xenodon merremii

Toad-eating Mock Lancehead*, Toad-eating Snake, (Wagler's Snake)

Haubennatter

Sydamerikansk Tudsesnog*

1824 Ophis Merremii Wagler
Xenodon merremii Fitzinger 1826
Waglerophis merremii Romano & Hoge 1972
1827 Xenodon aeneus Boie (status uncertain; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1827 Xenodon ocellatus Boie (status uncertain; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1863 Xenodon irregularis Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1906 Trigonocephalus alternatus binocularius Bacqué (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1906 Trigonocephalus flavescens Bacqué (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Remarks: Hoogmoed (1985) suggested merremi to be absent from Surinam, however, it was included for the country by Abuys (1986d).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para, Paraiba, Parana, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rondonia, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins), French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Surinam, Uruguay, Venezuela.


Xenodon nattereri

Banded Hognose Snake*

Gebänderte Hakennatter*

Båndet Trynesnog*

1867 Heterodon nattereri Steindachner
Lystrophis nattereri Hoge 1976
Xenodon nattereri Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of histricus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Hoge, Cordeiro & Romano (1976).
Distribution: Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Piaui, Sao Paulo).


Xenodon neuwiedii

East Brazilian Mock Lancehead*

Ostbrasilianische Vipern-Natter*

Østbrasiliansk Hugormesnog*

1863 Xenodon Neuwiedii Günther
1922 Xenodon hemileucurus Lutz & Mello (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Distribution: Argentina, Brazil (Alagoas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo [incl. Sao Sebastiao]), Paraguay.


Xenodon pulcher

Bolivian Hognose Snake*

Bolivianische Hakennatter*

Boliviansk Trynesnog*

1863 Heterodon pulcher Jan
Lystrophis pulcher Scrocchi & Cruz 1993
Xenodon pulcher Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of semicinctus (e.g., Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970). Revalidated by Scrocchi & Cruz (1993). Not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul by Ferreira, Terra, Piatti, Delatorre, Strüssmann, Béda, Kawashita-Ribeiro, Landgref-Filho, Aoki, Campos, Souza, Ávila, Duleba, Martins, Rita & Albuquerque (2017).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul), Paraguay.


Xenodon rabdocephalus

Common Mock Lancehead*, Common False Viper, False Terciopelo

Gewöhnliche Vipern-Natter*

Almindelig Sydamerikansk Hugormesnog*

1824 Coluber rabdocephalus Wied
Xenodon rabdocephalus Fitzinger 1826
1858 Xenodon colubrinus Günther (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1885 Xenodon bipraeoculis Cope (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Remarks: Previously included angustirostris and suspectus. Records from Central America and some from Colombia refer to angustirostris (Myers & McDowell 2014).
Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Espirito Santo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Para, Rondonia, Roraima), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Xenodon semicinctus

Ringed Hognose Snake, Tri-coloured Hognose Snake

Ringel-Hakennatter*

Ring-trynesnog*

1854 Heterodon semi-cinctus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Lystrophis semicinctus Boulenger 1894
Xenodon semicinctus Zaher, Grazziotin, Cadle, Murphy, Moura-Leite & Bonatto 2009*

Remarks: Previously included pulcher. Records from Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, refer to matogrossensis, and from Paraguay (e.g., Scott & Lovett 1975; Norman 1994; Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970) to pulcher (Scrocchi & Cruz 1993; Cacciali, Scott, Aquino-Ortiz, Fitzgerald & Smith 2016).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia.


Xenodon severus

Giant Mock Lancehead*, Giant False Viper, Amazon False Viper

Riesen-Vipern-Natter*

Kæmpe-hugormesnog*

1758 Coluber severus Linnaeus
Xenodon severus Fitzinger 1826
Ophis severus Johnson 1952
1802 Coluber breviceps Shaw (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1820 Coluber versicolor Merrem (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1824 Coluber saurocephalus Wied (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)

Distribution: Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Amapa, Amazonas, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Surinam, Venezuela.


Xenodon suspectus

East Peruvian Mock Lancehead*

Ostperuvianische Vipern-Natter*

Østperuviansk Hugormesnog*

1868 Xenodon suspectus Cope

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of rabdocephalus (e.g., Dixon 1983; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Revalidated as a separate species by Myers & McDowell (2014).
Distribution: Peru.