Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates

© Rune Midtgaard

Taxonomy of the family Agamidae
Bibliography of the genus Calotes
Biodiversity of the family Agamidae


South Asian Forest Agamas, Forest Lizards, Garden Lizards, Tree Agamas, Variable Lizards, Varied Lizards, Blood-suckers



1817 Calotes Cuvier (type species: Lacerta calotes Linnaeus 1758)
1856 Brachysaura Blyth (type species: Brachysaura ornata Blyth 1856; syn. Deepak, Vyas, Giri & Karanth 2015)
1864 Oriocalotes Günther (type species: Calotes minor Gray 1845; syn. Giri, Chaitanya, Mahony, Lalronunga, Lalrinchhana, Das, Sarkar, Karanth & Deepak 2019)
1870 Oreocalotes Jerdon [substitute name for Oriocalotes Günther 1864] (syn. Wermuth 1965)
1997 Complicitus Manthey & Grossmann (type species: Calotes nigrigularis Ota & Hikida 1991)
Contents: 26 species, of which 17 (65.4%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Pseudocalotes (e.g. Wermuth 1967), and the species now assigned to Microauris and Monilesaurus. Includes C. minor, formerly assigned to a separate, monotypic genus, Brachysaura, and C. paulus, formerly assigned to a separate, monotypic genus, Oriocalotes.
Distribution: S. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Macau, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands], Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Natuna Islands), Iran, Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago, Penang Island]), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Con Dao Islands [incl. Con Son]).

Calotes bachae

Eastern Blue Crested Agama

Östliche Blaue Schönechse

Østlig Blå Pragtagam

2013 Calotes bachae Hartmann, Geissler, Poyarkov, Ihlow, Galoyan, Rödder & Böhme

Remarks: Previously regarded as eastern populations of mystaceus.
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam.

Calotes bhutanensis

Bhutanese Tree Agama, Bhutanese Calotes, Bhutan Beaty Lizard


Bhutanesisk Pragtagam

1976 Calotes bhutanensis Biswas

Remarks: Although reported from India by Tikader & Sharma (1992), there are no verified records from the country (Venugopal 2010).
Distribution: Bhutan.

Calotes calotes

Southern Green Tree Agama, Common Green Tree Agama, Green Forest Lizard, Common Tree Agama, Southern Green Tree Agama, Sawback Agama, (Malabar Green Calotes)


Sydlig Grøn Pragtagam

1758 Lacerta calotes Linnaeus
Iguana calotes Laurenti 1768
Agama calotes Daudin 1802
Calotes calotes Wagler 1830
1820 Agama lineata Kuhl (Wermuth 1967)
1820 Agama ophiomachus Merrem (Wermuth 1967)

Remarks: Reports from the Nicobar Islands are considered erroneous (Das 1999).
Distribution: India (Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Odisha, Tamil Nadu), Sri Lanka.

Calotes ceylonensis

Painted-lipped Tree Agama, Painted-lipped Lizard, Ceylon Bloodsucker


Rødlæbet Pragtagam

1887 Calotes mystaceus var. ceylonensis Müller
Calotes ceylonensis Boulenger 1890
1887 Calotes kelaartii Nevill (Wermuth 1967)
1896 Calotes saleoides Werner (Wermuth 1967)

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes chincollium

Collared Forest Agama, Chin Hills Garden Lizard

Chin Berge-Schönechse

Chin Hills-pragtagam

2003 Calotes chincollium Vindum, Win, Thin, Lwin, Shein & Tun

Distribution: Myanmar.

Calotes desilvai

Sri Lankan Spotted Tree Agama, Maculate Lizard, (De Silva's Tree Agama)

De Silvas Schönechse

Srilankansk Plettet Pragtagam

2005 Calotes desilvai Bahir & Maduwage

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes emma

Forest Crested Agama, Forest Crested Lizard, Forest Garden Lizard, Black-banded Garden Lizard, Spiny-headed Forest Lizard, (Emma Forest Lizard, Light Olive Assam Garden Lizard)

Wald-Schönechse, (Emmas Schönechse)


1845 Calotes emma Gray
1927 Calotes alticristatus Schmidt (Wermuth 1967)
Calotes emma alticristata Taylor 1963

Other common names:
alticristatus: Northern Forest Crested Lizard
emma: Southern Forest Crested Lizard
Distribution: Bangladesh, Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Yunnan), India (Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura), Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Con Dao Islands: Con Son).

Calotes grandisquamis

Large-scaled Forest Agama, Bramagherry Green Calotes


Storskællet Pragtagam

1875 Calotes grandisquamis Günther

Distribution: India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu).

Calotes htunwini

Chatthin Forest Agama, (Htunwin's Forest Lizard)

Htun Wins Schönechse


2006 Calotes htunwini Zug & Vindum in Zug, Brown, Schulte & Vindum

Distribution: Myanmar.

Calotes irawadi

Ayeyarwady Forest Agama



2006 Calotes irawadi Zug, Brown, Schulte & Vindum

Distribution: India (Assam), Myanmar.

Calotes jerdoni

Eastern Green Tree Agama, Montane Green Tree Agama, (Jerdon's Forest Lizard, Jerdon's Tree Agama, Khasi Hill Garden Lizard)

Jerdons Schönechse

Østlig Grøn Pragtagam

1870 Calotes jerdoni Günther
1905 Calotes yunnanensis Annandale (Wermuth 1967)

Remarks: Records from Tibet (e.g., Zhao & Adler 1993; Ananjeva, Guo & Wang 2011) refer to Japalura tricarinata (Schleich & Kästle (eds.) 2002; Manthey 2008). There is a questionable, unvouchered record from Uttar Pradesh (Kanaujia, Kumar & Kumar 2017), which is disregarded herein, since all other records of this species are far to the east of this state.
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China (Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland), Myanmar.

Calotes liocephalus

Crestless Tree Agama, Crestless Lizard, (Lionhead Agama)


Glathovedet Pragtagam

1872 Calotes liocephalus Günther

Remarks: A record from Lakshadweep (Rao 1991), India, is regarded as questionable. If the record is valid, it is most like an introduction.
Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes liolepis

Whistling Tree Agama, Whistling Lizard

Sri Lanka-Schönechse

Glatskællet Pragtagam

1885 Calotes liolepis Boulenger

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes manamendrai

Knuckles Tree Agama, (Manamendra-Arachchi’s Whistling Lizard)



2014 Calotes manamendrai Amarasinghe, Karunarathna & Fujinuma

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes maria

Assam Forest Agama, Assam Garden Lizard, Khasi Hills Forest Lizard, (Maria's Forest Lizard)



1845 Calotes maria Gray
1852 Calotes platyceps Blyth (Wermuth 1967)

Distribution: Bhutan, India (Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Uttar Pradesh).

Calotes medogensis

Medog Forest Agama



1984 Calotes medogensis Zhao & Li

Distribution: China (Tibet).

Calotes minor

Short-tailed Ground Agama, Gujarat Dwarf Agama, Lesser Agama


Korthalet Jordagam

1827 Agama minor Hardwicke & Gray
Charasia minor Theobald 1876
Acanthosaura minor Boulenger 1890
Brachysaura minor Koul & Murphy 1979
Laudakia minor Das 1996
Calotes minor Deepak, Vyas, Giri & Karanth 2015
1856 Brachysaura ornata Blyth (Wermuth 1967)
Charasia ornata Boulenger 1885

Remarks: Although the type locality is in Bangladesh, presence of minor in that country is doubtful (Deepak, Vyas, Giri & Karanth 2015). A record from Odisha (Chakraborty & Dasgupta 2009) refer to Psammophilus cf. blanfordanus (Deepak, Vyas, Giri & Karanth 2015).
Distribution: India (Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh), Pakistan.

Calotes mystaceus

Western Blue Crested Agama, (Blue Crested Lizard, Blue Forest Lizard, Blue Garden Lizard, Moustached Lizard, Olivaceous Garden Lizard, Indochinese Forest Lizard)

Westliche Blaue Schönechse

Vestlig Blå Pragtagam

1837 Calotes mystaceus Dumeril & Bibron

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to bachae. Known records from Vietnam refer to bachae, but it remains to be seen if both species occur in the country (Hartmann, Geissler, Poyarkov, Ihlow, Galoyan, Rödder & Böhme 2013). Reports from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are considered erroneous, as no voucher specimens exist (Das 1999).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: Cambodia, China (Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand.

Calotes nemoricola

Nilgiri Forest Agama, Nilgiri Garden Lizard



1853 Calotes nemoricola Jerdon

Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu).

Calotes nigrigularis

Black-throated Forest Agama, Kinabalu Forest Agama


Sortstrubet Pragtagam

1991 Calotes nigrigularis Ota & Hikida
Complicitus nigrigularis Manthey & Grossmann 1997

Remarks: Status uncertain. Some authors have placed it in a separate, monotypic genus, Complicitus (e.g., Manthey & Grossmann 1997; Manthey & Denzer 2000; Iskandar & McGuire 2018).
Distribution: Malaysia (Sabah).

Calotes nigrilabris

Black-lipped Tree Agama, Black-lipped Lizard


Sortlæbet Pragtagam

1860 Calotes nigrilabris Peters
Otocryptis nigrilabris Peters 1864

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes nigriplicatus

Black-shouldered Tree Agama


Sortskuldret Pragtagam

2000 Calotes nigriplicatus Hallerman

Distribution: Indonesia (Ambon).

Calotes paulus

Northern Lesser Forest Agama, Pygmy Forest Lizard, Small Forest Lizard, Dwarf Calotes, (Khasi Hills Forest Lizard)

Nördlicher Zwergwaldagame

Nordlig Dværgskovagam

1845 Calotes minor Gray [misinterpretation of Agama minor Hardwicke & Gray 1827] (Wermuth 1967)
Acanthosaura minor Boulenger 1885
1935 Oriocalotes paulus Smith
Calotes paulus Giri, Chaitanya, Mahony, Lalronunga, Lalrinchhana, Das, Sarkar, Karanth & Deepak 2019

Remarks: Currently known with certainty only from Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, India (Giri, Chaitanya, Mahony, Lalronunga, Lalrinchhana, Das, Sarkar, Karanth & Deepak 2019). Several other distribution records have been published, but they all need confirmation. These include Tibet (Zhao & Adler 1993; Rao 2000; Ananjeva, Guo & Wang 2011), Arunachal Pradesh, India (Sanyal & Gayen 2006), Assam, India (Tikader & Sharma 1992), and Sikkim, India (Zhao & Adler 1993).
Distribution: India (Meghalaya).

Calotes pethiyagodai

Knuckles Crestless Agama, Pethiyagoda's Crestless Lizard

Kammlose Schönechse

Kamløs Pragtagam

2014 Calotes pethiyagodai Amarasinghe, Karunarathna, Hallermann, Fujinuma, Grillitsch & Cambell

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Calotes versicolor

Oriental Crested Agama, Oriental Garden Lizard, Indian Garden Lizard, Indian Bloodsucker, Garden Fence Lizard, Changeable Lizard, Red-headed Lizard

Verschiedenfarbige Schönechse, Gewöhnliche Schönechse, Blutsaugeragame

Almindelig Pragtagam, Indisk Pragtagam

1802 Agama versicolor Daudin
Calotes versicolor Fitzinger 1826
1820 Agama tiedemanni Kuhl (Wermuth 1967)
1825 Agama vultuosa Harlan (Wermuth 1967)
1827 Agama indica Gray (Wermuth 1967)
1846 Calotes viridis Gray (Wermuth 1967)
1853 Calotes gigas Blyth (Wermuth 1967)
1921 Calotes versicolor major Annandale
1993 Calotes versicolor nigrigularis Auffenberg & Rehman [not Calotes nigrigularis Ota & Hikida 1991] (Auffenberg & Rehman 1995)
1995 Calotes versicolor farooqi Auffenberg & Rehman [substitute name for Calotes versicolor nigrigularis Auffenberg & Rehman 1993]

Other common names:
farooqi: Black-throated Garden Lizard, (Farooq's Tree Lizard)
Remarks: Highly variable in several respects. May represent a complex of species or subspecies, but so far only two subspecies are recognized (Schleich & Kästle (eds.) 2002). Known from a single specimen from Oman, which was probably introduced (Arnold 1986).
Introduced to: Brunei, Chagos Archipelago, Indonesia (Sulawesi, Sumatra), Kenya, Maldives, Mauritius, New Zealand, Oman, Reunion, Seychelles, Singapore, USA (Florida).
Distribution: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hunan, Macau, Yunnan), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Indonesia (Natuna Islands), Iran, Laos, Malaysia (West Malaysia [incl. Penang Island]), Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam.

Calotes zolaiking

Mizoram Lesser Forest Agama, Mizoram Montane Forest Lizard



2019 Calotes zolaiking Giri, Chaitanya, Mahony, Lalrounga, Lalrinchhana, Das, Sarkar, Karanth & Deepak

Distribution: India (Mizoram).