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Taxonomy of the family Agamidae
Bibliography of the genus Pseudocalotes
Biodiversity of the family Agamidae


Long-headed Agamas, Long-headed Lizards, False Garden Lizards, False Blood-suckers, Forest Agamids



1843 Pseudocalotes Fitzinger (type species: Calotes tympanistra [sic] Gray 1831)
1935 Mictopholis Smith (type species: Salea austeniana Annandale 1908; syn. Mahony 2010)
1939 Paracalotes Bourret (type species: Paracalotes poilani Bourret 1939; syn. Hallermann & Böhme 2000)
1997 Pseudocophotis Manthey & Grossmann (type species: Cophotis sumatrana Hubrecht 1879; syn. Hallermann & Böhme 2000)
Contents: 24 species, of which 19 (79.2%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Pseudocophotis: Prehensile-tailed Agamas
Remarks: Previously included in the genus Calotes (e.g., Wermuth 1967). Includes Paracalotes, regarded as a synonym of Pseudocalotes already by Welch, Cooke & Wright (1990), but with no discussion or references. Synonymy confirmed by (Hallermann & Böhme 2000). Hypsicalotes kinabaluensis was previously included in Calotes (e.g., Wermuth 1967), or more recently, in Pseudocalotes (e.g., Inger & Stuebing 1994). Status of Pseudocophotis is uncertain. It was tentatively recognized by Ananjeva, Orlov, Nguyen & Nazarov (2007), who described a new species of the nominal genus (kontumensis). Also Das (2010) and Manthey (2010) treated Pseudocophotis as a valid genus. Until more detailed studies have been published, the review of Hallermann & Böhme (2000) is followed here, treating Pseudocophotis as a synonym of Pseudocalotes.
Distribution: SE. Asia, Indonesia.
Reported from: Cambodia, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Tibet, Yunnan), India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], Arunachal Pradesh), Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Laos, Malaysia (Sarawak, West Malaysia), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Pseudocalotes andamanensis

Andaman Long-headed Agama*, Green Crestless Forest Agama, (Andaman Green Calotes)

Andamanische Spitzkopfagame

Andamansk Spidshovedagam

1891 Calotes andamanensis Boulenger
Pseudocalotes andamanensis Harikrishnan & Vasudevan 2013

Remarks: Ishwar & Das (1998) suggested that the type locality (Andaman Islands) was in error and restricted it to the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India (repeated by Aengals (2009) and Daniels (2001a)). Subsequently, Krishnan (2008) showed that the Western Ghats population and andamanensis (at that time still included in Calotes) are not the same species, and he described the Western Ghats population as a new species, Calotes aurantolabium, and restricted the type locality of andamanensis to the Nicobar Islands, erroneously assuming that the collector of the type specimen, F.A. de Roepstorff, never visited the Andaman Islands. This was proved wrong by Harikrishnan & Vasudevan (2013), who concluded that the Andaman Islands is indeed the correct type locality, as originally stated.
Distribution: India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands]),

Pseudocalotes austeniana

Arunachal Long-headed Agama*, Arunachal Agama, Arunachal Lizard, Olive-green Compressed Lizard



1908 Salea austeniana Annandale
Mictopholis austeniana Smith 1935
Pseudocalotes austeniana Mahony 2010

Remarks: Also listed for Bhutan by Tikader & Sharma (1992), but not Das (1996). According to Das & Das (2007) and Mahony (2010), the species is only found in Arunachal Pradesh, India.
Distribution: India (Arunachal Pradesh).

Pseudocalotes baliomus

Barisan Range Long-headed Agama*, Spot-shouldered False Garden Lizard



2017 Pseudocalotes baliomus Harvey, Shaney, Hamidy, Kurniawan & Smith

Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra).

Pseudocalotes brevipes

Short-footed Long-headed Agama, Vietnamese Tree Lizard, Vietnamese False Bloodsucker

Kurzbeinige Spitzkopfagame

Kortfodet Spidshovedagam*

1904 Calotes brevipes Werner
Pseudocalotes brevipes Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990
1926 ? Acanthosaura schneideri Ahl (Wermuth 1967)
1931 Acanthosaura quinquecarinata Fan (Wermuth 1967)

Distribution: China (Guangxi, Yunnan), Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Pseudocalotes cybelidermus

Purple-throated Long-headed Agama*, Purple-throated False Garden Lizard


Purpurstrubet Spidshovedagam*

2014 Pseudocalotes cybelidermus Harvey, Hamidy, Wan, Shaney & Smith

Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra).

Pseudocalotes dringi

Mount Tahan Long-headed Agama*, (Dring's Long-headed Agama)

Drings Spitzkopfagame


2000 Pseudocalotes dringi Hallermann & Böhme

Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia).

Pseudocalotes drogon

Fraser's Hill Long-headed Agama*, (Drogon's False Garden Lizard)


Fraser's Hill-spidshovedagam*

2016 Pseudocalotes drogon Grismer, Quah, Wood, Anuar, Muin, Davis, Murdoch, Grismer, Cota & Cobos

Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia).

Pseudocalotes flavigula

Yellow-throated Long-headed Agama, Yellow-throated Forest Agamid


Gulstrubet Spidshovedagam*

1924 Calotes flavigula Smith
Pseudocalotes flavigula Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990

Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia).

Pseudocalotes floweri

Chanthaburi Long-headed Agama*, (Flower’s Long-headed Agama, Flower's Forest Agamid, Thai False Bloodsucker)

Flowers Spitzkopfagame


1912 Calotes floweri Boulenger
Pseudocalotes floweri Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990

Remarks: This species is not known from West Malaysia (Hallermann & Böhme 2000). Boulenger's (1912) syntypes of floweri from West Malaysia refer to dringi (a record repeated by Smith (1935), Wermuth (1967), Denzer & Manthey (1991, as "P. cf. floweri"), and probably others as well). A population in Vietnam (e.g., Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009) has now been described as a separate species, ziegleri (Hallermann, Nguyen, Orlov & Ananjeva 2010).
Distribution: Cambodia, Thailand.

Pseudocalotes guttalineatus

Dash-lined Long-headed Agama*, Dash-lined False Garden Lizard

Strichlierter Spitzkopfagame*

Stiplet Spidshovedagam*

2014 Pseudocalotes guttalineatus Harvey, Hamidy, Wan, Shaney & Smith

Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra).

Pseudocalotes kakhienensis

Kakhien Hills Long-headed Agama, (Burmese Mountain Agamid)



1870 Oriocalotes discolor Anderson (primary objective synonym) (Mahony 2010)
1878 Oriocalotes kakhienensis Anderson
Acanthosaura kakhienensis Boulenger 1885
Calotes kakhienensis Pope 1935
Salea kakhiensis [lapsus] Moody 1981
Pseudocalotes kakhienensis Mahony 2010
1887 Calotes feae Boulenger (Mahony 2010)
1937 Salea brachydactyla Rendahl (Manthey & Denzer 2000; Mahony 2010)

Remarks: Placed in the genus Salea (and misspelled kakhiensis!) by Moody (1981), Welch, Cooke & Wright (1990), and Hallermann, Ananjeva, Orlov & Tillack (2002), but with no discussion or references. Although reported from India by Das (1996), there are no verified records from the country (Venugopal 2010). Although the name discolor has priority over kakhienensis, Mahony (2010) argued that the latter name should be retained for nomenclatural stability.
Distribution: China (Yunnan), Myanmar.

Pseudocalotes khaonanensis

Khao Nan Long-headed Agama


Khao Nan-spidshovedagam*

2008 Pseudocalotes khaonanensis Chan-Ard, Cota, Makchai & Laoteow

Distribution: Thailand.

Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi

Adung Valley Long-headed Agama*, (Kingdon-Ward's Forest Lizard)

Kingdonwards Spitzkopfagame*, Kingdonwards Schönechse


1935 Calotes kingdon-wardi Smith
Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi Mahony 2010
1937 Japalura kaulbacki Smith (Mahony 2010)
Pseudocalotes kaulbacki Mahony 2010 (see remarks)
1979 Calotes kingdonwardi bapoensis Yang & Su
Japalura bapoensis Yang & Rao 2008
Pseudocalotes kingdonwardi bapoensis Mahony 2010

Other common names:
bapoensis: Bapo Long-headed Agama*
kaulbacki: Kaulback's Mountain Lizard
Remarks: Although Mahony (2010) synonymized kaulbacki with kingdonwardi, he also (for reasons unknown) used the new combination Pseudocalotes kaulbacki in the same paper. The subspecies bapoensis may represent a separate species, as suggested by Yang & Rao (2008).
Distribution: China (Tibet, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh), Myanmar.

Pseudocalotes kontumensis

Kon Tum Long-headed Agama, Kon Tum Prehensile-tailed Agama, Kon Tum Tree Lizard


Kon Tum-spidshovedagam*

2007 Pseudocophotis kontumensis Ananjeva, Orlov, Nguyen & Nazarov
Pseudocalotes kontumensis (new combination)

Distribution: Vietnam.

Pseudocalotes larutensis

Larut Long-headed Agama



2001 Pseudocalotes larutensis Hallermann & McGuire

Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia).

Pseudocalotes microlepis

Small-scaled Long-headed Agama, Burmese Long-headed Agama, Small-scaled Forest Lizard, Small-scaled Montane Forest Lizard, Boulenger’s Long-headed Agama, Burmese False Bloodsucker

Burmesische Spitzkopfagame

Finskællet Spidshovedagam*

1888 Calotes microlepis Boulenger
Pseudocalotes microlepis Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990

Remarks: A record from India (Manipur or "Assam") (e.g., Smith 1935; Das 2003; Ahmed, Das & Dutta 2009) turned out to be wrong (Venugopal 2010; Raju, Das, Bag & Raha 2020). The record refers to a specimen which probably represents an undescribed species of Calotes (Raju, Das, Bag & Raha 2020).
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Yunnan), Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam.

Pseudocalotes poilani

Laotian Long-headed Agama*, (Poilane's Long-headed Agama)

Laotische Spitzkopfagame, (Poilanes Spitzkopfagame)

Laotisk Spidshovedagam*

1939 Paracalotes poilani Bourret
Pseudocalotes poilani Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990

Distribution: Laos.

Pseudocalotes rhaegal

Cameron Highlands Long-headed Agama*, (Rhaegal's False Garden Lizard)


Cameron Highlands-spidshovedagam*

2016 Pseudocalotes rhaegal Grismer, Quah, Wood, Anuar, Muin, Davis, Murdoch, Grismer, Cota & Cobos

Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia).

Pseudocalotes rhammanotus

Stitch-backed Long-headed Agama*, Stitched-back False Garden Lizard



2014 Pseudocalotes rhammanotus Harvey, Hamidy, Wan, Shaney & Smith

Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra).

Pseudocalotes saravacensis

Sarawak Long-headed Agama*, Bornean Long-headed Agama



1994 Pseudocalotes saravacensis Inger & Stuebing

Distribution: Malaysia (Sarawak).

Pseudocalotes sumatrana

Sumatran Long-headed Agama, Prehensile-tailed Agama



1879 Cophotis sumatrana Hubrecht
Pseudocophotis sumatrana Manthey & Grossmann 1997
Pseudocalotes sumatrana Hallerman & Böhme 2000
1905 Calotes aberrans Rosén (Wermuth 1967)

Remarks: Status uncertain. Some authors have placed it in a separate, monotypic genus, Pseudocophotis (e.g., Manthey & Grossmann 1997; Manthey & Denzer 2000; Ananjeva, Orlov, Nguyen & Nazarov 2007).
Distribution: Indonesia (Java, Sumatra).

Pseudocalotes tympanistriga

Javanese Long-headed Agama, (Kuhl's Long-headed Agama)

Kuhls Spitzkopfagame

Javansk Spidshovedagam*

1831 Calotes tympanistra [error typographicus] Gray
Bronchocela tympanistriga [emendation] Duméril & Bibron 1837
Calotes tympanistriga Boulenger 1885
Pseudocalotes tympanistriga Welch, Cooke & Wright 1990
1889 Salea rosaceum Thominot (Harvey, Shaney, Sidik, Kurniawan & Smith 2017)
1893 Dendragama fruhstorferi Boettger (Wermuth 1967)

Remarks: Salea rosaceum was previously regarded as a synonym of Dendragama boulengeri (e.g., Wermuth 1967).
Distribution: Indonesia (Java, Sumatra).

Pseudocalotes viserion

Pahang Long-headed Agama*, (Viserion’s False Garden Lizard)



2016 Pseudocalotes viserion Grismer, Quah, Wood, Anuar, Muin, Davis, Murdoch, Grismer, Cota & Cobos

Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia).

Pseudocalotes ziegleri

Vietnamese Long-headed Agama*, (Ziegler's Tree Lizard)

Vietnamesische Spitzkopfagame*

Vietnamesisk Spidshovedagam*

2010 Pseudocalotes ziegleri Hallermann, Nguyen, Orlov & Ananjeva
Pseudocophotis ziegleri Bain & Hurley 2011

Remarks: Previously confused with floweri.
Distribution: Vietnam.