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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Masticophis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Masticophis

North American Whip Snakes & Coachwhips

Kutscherpeitschen-Nattern

Amerikanske Pilsnoge

1853 Masticophis Baird (type species: Masticophis ornatus Baird & Girard 1853)
Contents: 13 species, of which 5 (38.5%) are endemic.
Remarks: Some authors (e.g., Schätti 1987; Lopez & Maxson 1995, 1996; Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005) have treated Masticophis as a synonym of Coluber, and although this has been followed by some others (e.g., McCranie 2011; Rivas, Molina, Ugueto, Barros, Barrio-Amorós & Kok 2012; Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens 2013), most have retained Masticophis as a valid genus (e.g., Nagy, Lawson, Joger & Wink 2004; Collins & Taggart 2008; Wilson & Johnson 2010; Pyron & Burbrink in Crother 2012; Lemos-Espinal & Dixon 2013; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: North America, Central America, South America.
Reported from: Belize, Brazil (Rondonia), Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur [incl. Isla Cerralvo], Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima [incl. Revillagigedo Islands (Clarion)], Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena, San Juanito)], Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora [incl. Isla San Esteban, Isla San Pedro Martir, Isla Tiburon], Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua, Panama, USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming), Venezuela (incl. Margarita).

Masticophis anthonyi

Clarion Island Whip Snake, Clarion Racer

Clarion-Zornnatter*

Clarion-pilsnog*

1901 Bascanion anthonyi Stejneger
Masticophis anthonyi Ortenburger 1923
Coluber anthonyi Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*

Distribution: Mexico (Colima: Revillagigedo Islands: Clarion).


Masticophis aurigulus

Baja California Striped Whip Snake, Cape Striped Whip Snake

Niederkalifornische Gestreifte Peitschennatter*

Baja California-pilsnog*

1861 Drymobius aurigulus Cope
Masticophis aurigulus Grismer 1999
Coluber aurigulus Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*

Remarks: Previously included barbouri.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur).


Masticophis barbouri

Espiritu Santo Striped Whip Snake

Espiritu Santo-Peitschennatter*

Espiritu Santo-pilsnog*

1921 Coluber barbouri Van Denburgh & Slevin
Masticophis aurigulus barbouri Grismer 1990
Masticophis barbouri Ortenburger 1923

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Grismer (1999).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur [Isla Espiritu Santo, Isla Partida Sur]).


Masticophis bilineatus

Sonoran Whip Snake

Sonora-Peitschennatter*

Sonora-pilsnog*

1863 Masticophis bilineatus Jan
Coluber bilineatus Bogert & Oliver 1945
1892 Bascanium semilineatum Cope (Schmidt 1953)
Zamenis semilineatus Günther 1894
Masticophis semilineatus Ortenburger 1923
1950 Masticophis bilineatus lineolatus Hensley (Camper & Dixon 1994)
Masticophis lineolatus Collins 1991

Other common names:
bilineatus: Common Sonoran Whip Snake
lineolatus: Ajo Mountain Whip Snake
Remarks: Collins (1991) suggested recognition of lineolatus as a separate species.
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Jalisco, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, New Mexico).


Masticophis flagellum

Common Coachwhip

Gewöhnliche Kutscherpeitschennatter

Almindelig Karetpiskesnog*

1802 Coluber flagellum Shaw
Masticophis flagellum Schmidt 1953
1823 Coluber testaceus Say
Coluber flagellum testaceus Klauber 1942
Masticophis flagellum testaceus Schmidt & Owens 1944
1837 Herpetodryas psammophis Schlegel (Schmidt 1953)
1842 Coluber flagelliformis Holbrook (Schmidt 1953)
1852 Psammophis flavigularis Hallowell (Schmidt 1953)
Masticophis flagellum flavigularis Ortenburger 1923
1941 Masticophis flagellum lineatulus Smith
Coluber flagellum lineatulus Liner 2007
Masticophis lineatulus O'Connell & Smith 2018

Other common names:
flagellum: Eastern Coachwhip
lineatulus: Lined Coachwhip
testaceus: Central Coachwhip, (Western Coachwhip) - see remarks under piceus
Remarks: Previously included fuliginosus, lineatus, and piceus, now considered separate species, as well as variolosus, now regarded as subspecies of mentovarius (but possibly conspecific with lineatus).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas).


Masticophis fuliginosus

Baja California Coachwhip

Niederkalifornischer Kutscherpeitschennatter*

Baja California-karetpiskesnog*

1895 Zamenis lateralis fuliginosus Cope
Masticophis flagellum fulginosus [sic] Stebbins 1985
Masticophis fuliginosus Grismer 1994
Coluber fuliginosus Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005* [not Coluber fuliginosus Hallowell 1845]

Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur), USA (California).


Masticophis lateralis

Pacific Striped Whip Snake*, (Striped Racer)

Pazifische Peitschennatter*

Pacifisk Stribet Pilsnog*

1853 Leptophis lateralis Hallowell
Masticophis lateralis Ortenburger 1923
Coluber lateralis Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*
1954 Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus Riemer
Coluber lateralis euryxanthus Crother, Boundy, Burbrink & Campbell in Crother (ed.) 2008

Other common names:
euryxanthus: Alameda Striped Racer
lateralis: California Striped Racer, Chaparral Striped Racer
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur), USA (California).


Masticophis lineatus

Mexican Whip Snake

Mexicanische Peitschennatter*

Mexicansk Pilsnog*

1890 Bascanion lineatus Bocourt [not Coluber lineatus Linnaeus 1758]
Zamenis lineatus Boulenger 1893
Masticophis lineatus Ortenburger 1923
Masticophis flagellum lineatus Smith & Taylor 1945
Masticophis lineatus Smith & Van Gelder 1955
1934 Coluber striolatus Mertens [substitute name for Bascanion lineatus Bocourt 1890]
Masticophis flagellum striolatus Smith 1941
Masticophis striolatus Zweifel & Norris 1955
Masticophis mentovarius striolatus Johnson 1977
Coluber mentovarius striolatus Liner 2007
1943 Masticophis flagellum variolosus Smith (Zweifel 1960)
Masticophis mentovarius variolosus Johnson 1977
Coluber mentovarius variolosus Liner 2007

Other common names:
variolosus: Tres Marias Islands Whip Snake
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of flagellum (e.g., Smith & Taylor 1945) or, more recently, of mentovarius (e.g., Johnson 1977). Revalidated by O'Connella & Smith (2018). The species has been referred to as striolatus in many publications (e.g., Johnson 1982), but the name lineatus was revalidated by O'Connella & Smith (2018). Status of variolosus is uncertain; it may be conspecific with lineatus (O'Connella & Smith 2018) and is tentatively treated as such herein, following Zweifel (1960).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Madre, Maria Magdalena, San Juanito)], Oaxaca, Puebla, Sinaloa, Sonora, Zacatecas).





Masticophis mentovarius

Neotropical Whip Snake, Tropical Whip Snake, Central American Coachwhip

Neotropische Peitschennatter*

Centralamerikansk Pilsnog*

1854 Coryphodon Mento-varius Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril
Bascanium mentovarium Cope 1879
Coluber constrictor mentovarius Garman 1883
Zamenis mentovarius Boulenger 1893
Masticophis mentovarius Ortenburger 1923
Coluber mentovarius Dunn 1940
1863 Liophis varia Jan (Smith & Taylor 1945)
1867 Bascanion suboculare Cope (Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970)
1868 Spilotes corais suborbitalis Peters
Masticophis mentovarius suborbitalis Smith 1942
Coluber mentovarius suborbitalis Dunn 1944
1953 Coluber mentovarius centralis Roze
Masticophis mentovarius centralis Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970

Other common names:
centralis: Colombian Whip Snake
mentovarius: Savanera
suborbitalis: Cazadora
Remarks: See flagellum. Previously included lineatus (referred to as striolatus in many publications). Reports from Brazil (e.g., Bernarde & Abe 2006, 2010; Bernarde, Albuquerque, Barros & Turci 2012), were based on misidentified Liophis miliaris amazonicus (Costa & Bérnils 2015).
Distribution: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela (incl. Isla Margarita).


Masticophis piceus

Western Coachwhip* (see remarks)

Westliche Kutscherpeitschennatter*

Vestlig Karetpiskesnog*

1892 Bascanion piceum Cope
Masticophis flagellum piceus Tanner 1927
Masticophis piceus Ortenburger 1928
Coluber flagellum piceus Klauber 1942
1893 Bascanion flagellum frenatum Stejneger [not Herpetodryas frenatus Gray 1853] (Schmidt 1953)
Masticophis flagellum frenatus Ortenburger 1928
1953 Masticophis flagellum ruddocki Brattstrom & Warren (O'Connell & Smith 2018)
Coluber flagellum ruddocki Crother, Boundy, Burbrink & Campbell in Crother (ed.) 2008
1954 Masticophis flagellum cingulum Lowe & Woodin (O'Connell & Smith 2018)
Coluber flagellum cingulum Liner 2007

Other common names:
cingulum: Sonoran Coachwhip
piceus: Red Coachwhip, Red Racer
ruddocki: San Joaquin Coachwhip
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of flagellum. Revalidated as a separate species by O'Connell & Smith (2018). For obvious reasons, "Western Coachwhip" is hereby suggested as common name for this species, although it has also been used for M. flagellum testaceus, for which taxon this common name should be suppressed in favour of "Central Coachwhip", an already existing, alternative common name, which is considered more fitting.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chihuahua, Michoacan, Sinaloa, Sonora [incl. Isla San Pedro Martir, Isla Tiburon]), USA (Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah).


Masticophis schotti

Eastern Striped Whip Snake*, (Schott's Whip Snake)

Östliche Peitschennatter*

Østlig Stribet Pilsnog*

1853 Masticophis schotti Baird & Girard
Masticophis taeniatus schotti Gloyd & Conant 1934
Coluber schotti Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*
1923 Masticophis ruthveni Ortenburger
Masticophis taeniatus ruthveni Gloyd & Conant 1934
Masticophis schotti ruthveni Camper & Dixon 1994
Coluber schotti ruthveni Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*
1941 Masticophis taeniatus australis Smith (Camper 1996)

Other common names:
australis: Mexican Striped Whip Snake, Southern Striped Whip Snake
ruthveni: Ruthven's Whip Snake
Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Camper & Dixon (1994).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Coahuila, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Nuevo Leon, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Texas).


Masticophis slevini

San Esteban Island Whip Snake

San Esteban-Peitschennatter*

San Esteban-pilsnog*

1955 Masticophis bilineatus slevini Lowe & Norris
Masticophis slevini Grismer 1999
Coluber slevini Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*

Distribution: Mexico (Sonora: Isla San Esteban).


Masticophis taeniatus

Western Striped Whip Snake*, (Striped Whip Snake)

Westliche Gestreifte Peitschennatter

Vestlig Stribet Pilsnog*

1852 Leptophis taeniata Hallowell
Masticophis taeniatus Ortenburger 1923
Coluber taeniatus Utiger, Schätti & Helfenberger 2005*
1853 Masticophis ornatus Baird & Girard [not Coluber ornatus Shaw 1802]
Masticophis taeniatus ornatus Schmidt & Smith 1944
1917 Coluber taeniatus girardi Stejneger & Barbour [substitute name for Masticophis ornatus Baird & Girard 1853]
Masticophis taeniatus girardi Ortenburger 1928

Other common names:
girardi: Central Texas Whip Snake, Ornate Whip Snake
taeniatus: Desert Striped Whip Snake
Remarks: Previously included schotti and its subspecies ruthveni. Although ornatus antedates girardi, the latter remains the valid name for the subspecies, as pointed out by Lemos-Espinal & Smith (2007). Presence in Nuevo Leon needs confirmation (Lemos-Espinal, Smith & Cruz 2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Jalisco, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming).