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Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Echis
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae








Genus
Echis

Carpet Vipers, Saw-scaled Vipers

Sandrasselottern

Tæppehugorme*, Efaner

1820 Echis Merrem (type species: Pseudoboa carinata Schneider 1801)
1849 Toxicoa Gray (type species: Echis arenicola Boie in Boie 1827)
1990 Turanechis Cherlin (type species: Echis carinatus sochureki Stemmler 1969)
Contents: 12 species, of which 2 (16.7%) are endemic.
Remarks: Several species (leucogaster, ocellatus, pyramidum) were previously regarded as races of carinatus.
Distribution: N. and Equatorial Africa, Middle East, SW. and S. Asia.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Kuwait, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman (incl. Masirah), Pakistan, Saudi Arabia (incl. Farasan Islands), Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Togo, Tunisia, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Echis borkini

Yemen Carpet Viper

Jemenitische Sandrasselotter

Yemen-tæppehugorm*

1990 Echis varia borkini Cherlin
Echis borkini Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of pyramidum (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Revalidated by Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster (2009), although Schätti (2001) had also considered it a valid species.
Distribution: Saudi Arabia (incl. Farasan Islands), Yemen.


Echis carinatus

Common Carpet Viper, Phoorsa

Gemeine Sandrasselotter

Almindelig Tæppehugorm*

1801 Pseudoboa carinata Schneider
Vipera carinata Merrem 1820
Echis carinata Wagler 1830
1802 Echis horatta Shaw (Golay & al. 1993)
1803 Scytale bizonatus Daudin (Golay & al. 1993)
1825 Echis ziczac Gray (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Vipera superciliosa Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
Echis superciliosa Jan 1863
1868 Echis arenicola Strauch [not Echis arenicola Boie 1827] (Golay & al. 1993)
1951 Echis carinatus sinhaleyus Deraniyagala
1969 Echis carinatus sochureki Stemmler
Echis sochureki Cherlin 1983
1970 Echis carinatus astolae Mertens
Echis sochureki astolae Cherlin 1983
1981 Echis multisquamatus Cherlin
Echis carinatus multisquamatus Auffenberg & Rehman 1991

Other common names:
astolae: Astola Island Carpet Viper*, Dark-blotched Carpet Viper
carinatus: Indian Carpet Viper, South Indian Carpet Viper
multisquamatus: Central Asian Carpet Viper, Waziristan Carpet Viper, (Cherlin's Carpet Viper)
sinhaleyus: Sri Lanka Carpet Viper
sochureki: Sind Carpet Viper, Sind Valley Carpet Viper, Sochurek's Carpet Viper
Remarks: Includes five subspecies (astolae, carinatus, multisquamatus, sinhaleyus, sochureki), previously regarded as three separate species: carinatus (incl. subsp. sinhaleyus), multisquamatus (e.g., Ananjeva, Orlov, Khalikov, Darevsky, Ryabov & Barabanov 2006), and sochureki (incl. subsp. astolae). African records of carinatus refer to other species. Previously reported from Iraq (Khalaf 1959), but presence there needs confirmation (Leviton, Anderson, Adler & Minton 1992).
Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal), Iran, Iraq, Oman (incl. Masirah), Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Uzbekistan.


Echis coloratus

Painted Carpet Viper, Arabian Carpet Viper, (Burton's Carpet Viper)

Arabische Sandrasselotter

Arabisk Tæppehugorm*

1854 Echis froenata Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril [suppressed name] (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1981: Opinion 1176)
1878 Echis colorata Günther [conserved name] (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1981: Opinion 1176)
2003 Echis coloratus terraesanctae Babocsay

Other common names:
terraesanctae: Israeli Carpet Viper, Palestine Carpet Viper, Holy Land Saw-scaled Viper
Remarks: Previously included populations now known as omanensis. Older records from United Arab Emirates and eastern Oman refer to omanensis (Babocsay 2004).
Distribution: Egypt (incl. Sinai), Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Yemen.


Echis hughesi

Somali Carpet Viper*, (Hughes' Carpet Viper)

Somali-Sandrasselotter

Somalisk Tæppehugorm*

1990 Echis hughesi Cherlin

Remarks: Status uncertain, possibly conspecific with pyramidum (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster 2009).
Distribution: Somalia.


Echis jogeri

Mali Carpet Viper, (Joger's Carpet Viper)

Mali-Sandrasselotter

Malisk Tæppehugorm*

1990 Echis jogeri Cherlin

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of ocellatus (e.g., Trape & Mane 2006). Revalidated by Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster (2009). Records from the Gambia of ocellatus are tentatively referred to jogeri.
Distribution: Gambia, Guinea, Mali, Senegal.


Echis khosatzkii

Dhofar Carpet Viper, (Khosatzki's Carpet Viper)

Dhofar-Sandrasselotter

Dhofar-tæppehugorm*

1990 Echis khosatzkii Cherlin

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of pyramidum (e.g., Golay & al. 1993). Revalidated by Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster (2009).
Distribution: Oman, Yemen.


Echis leucogaster

White-bellied Carpet Viper

Weißbauch-Sandrasselotter

Hvidbuget Tæppehugorm*

1972 Echis carinatus leucogaster Roman
Echis leucogaster Roman 1975
Echis arenicola leucogaster Cherlin 1990

Remarks: Status uncertain, possibly conspecific with pyramidum (Joger 1990; Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster 2009). Regarded as a valid species in most recent works (e.g., Golay & al. 1993; David & Ineich 1999; Padial 2006). Although reported from Egypt (Berre 1989), the species does not occur in the country (Baha el Din 2006). Also records from Guinea and Gambia are regarded as doubtful (U. Joger in David & Ineich 1999, p. 388).
Distribution: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Tunisia, Western Sahara.


Echis megalocephalus

Big-headed Carpet Viper, Large-headed Carpet Viper

Großkopf-Sandrasselotter

Storhovedet Tæppehugorm*

1990 Echis megalocephalus Cherlin

Remarks: Status uncertain, possibly conspecific with pyramidum (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster 2009). The type locality ("islands in southern Red Sea") and the distribution of megalocephalus is unclear (Largen 1997), but according to Borkin & Cherlin (1995), the species seems to be restricted to Nokra Island in the Dahlak Archipelago (Eritrea).
Distribution: Eritrea (Dahlak Archipelago).


Echis ocellatus

West African Carpet Viper, Ocellated Carpet Viper

Augenfleck-Sandrasselotter, Westafrikanische Sandrasselotter

Vestafrikansk Tæppehugorm*

1970 Echis carinatus ocellatus Stemmler
Echis ocellatus Hughes 1976

Remarks: Previously included the populations now assigned to jogeri and romani (Trape 2018). Records from the Gambia are tentatively referred to jogeri. Presence in the Sudan (Spawls & Branch 1995) needs confirmation. Reports from Sierra Leone (e.g., Aylmer 1922 [as carinatus]) are considered erroneous (Trape & Baldé 2014).
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Togo.


Echis omanensis

Oman Carpet Viper

Oman-Sandrasselotter

Oman-tæppehugorm*

2004 Echis omanensis Babocsay

Remarks: This species represents populations previously assigned to coloratus.
Distribution: Oman, United Arab Emirates.


Echis pyramidum

North East African Carpet Viper, Egyptian Carpet Viper

Nordostafrikanische Sandrasselotter, Ägyptische Sandrasselotter, Ostafrikanische Sandrasselotter

Ægyptisk Tæppehugorm*

1827 Scythale pyramidium St. Hilaire
Echis carinatus pyramidum Constable 1949
Echis pyramidum Cherlin 1990
1827 Echis arenicola Boie in Boie
Toxicoa arenicola Günther 1858
1834 Echis pavo Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1834 Echis varia Reuss (Golay & al. 1993)
1837 Vipera echis Schlegel [part] (Golay & al. 1993)
1969 Echis carinatus leakeyi Stemmler & Sochurek
Echis pyramidum leakeyi Cherlin 1983
1974 Echis carinatus aliaborri Drews & Sacharer
Echis pyramidum aliaborri Cherlin 1983
Echis varia aliaborri Cherlin 1990
1990 Echis pyramidum lucidus Cherlin (Golay & al. 1993)
1990 Echis varia darevskii Cherlin (Golay & al. 1993)

Other common names:
aliaborri: Red Carpet Viper
leakeyi: Kenya Carpet Viper, Leakey's Carpet Viper
Remarks: Now restricted to Africa. Previously included borkini and khosatzkii. Arabian records refer to these two species (Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster 2009). Status of varius uncertain, possibly a valid species (Pook, Joger, Stümpel & Wüster 2009; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014). Records from Niger (e.g., Papenfuss 1969; Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996) are regarded as erroneous, since the species was not included for the country by Trape & Mané (2015).
Distribution: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, Morocco, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia.


Echis romani

Chadian Carpet Viper*

Tchadische Sandrasselotter

Tchadisk Tæppehugorm*

2018 Echis romani Trape

Remarks: Previously regarded as a population of ocellatus (Trape 2018).
Distribution: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Niger, Nigeria.