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Taxonomy of the family Kinosternidae
Bibliography of the genus Kinosternon
Biodiversity of the family Kinosternidae








Genus
Kinosternon

American Mud Turtles

Klappschildkröten, Klappbrustschildkröten

Klapskildpadder

1824 Kinosternon Spix (type species: Kinosternon longicaudatum Spix 1824)
Cinosternon Wagler 1830 [substitute name] (syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
Kinosternum Bonaparte 1830 [substitute name] (syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1832 Monoclida Rafinesque (type species: Monoclida retziana Rafinesque 1832; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1832 Uronyx Rafinesque (type species: Testudo scorpioides Linnaeus 1766; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1844 Swanka Gray (type species: Testudo scorpioides Linnaeus 1766; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1857 Platythyra Agassiz (type species: Platythyra flavescens Agassiz 1857; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1857 Thyrosternum Agassiz (type species: Testudo pennsylvanica Gmelin in Linnaeus 1789; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
2013 Cryptochelys Iverson, Le & Ingram (type species: Cinosternon leucostomum Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril; syn. Spinks, Thomson, Gidis & Shaffer 2014)

Contents: 23 species, of which 12 (52.2%) are endemic.
Remarks: Iverson, Le & Ingram (2013) placed some species of this genus in a separate genus, Cryptochelys, however, this arrangement was rejected by Spinks, Thomson, Gidis & Shaffer (2014), who synonymized Cryptochelys with Kinosternon. Some authors include the Musk Turtles (Sternotherus), in this genus (see notes under that genus).
Distribution: North America, Central America, South America.
Reported from: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia (incl. San Andres), Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeńo), Guanaja]), Mexico (Aguascalientes, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Madre)], Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua (incl. Islas del Maiz [Isla Grande del Maiz, Isla Pequeńa del Maiz]), Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C.), Venezuela.

Kinosternon abaxillare

Central Chiapas Mud Turtle

Chiapas-Klappschildkröte

Chiapas-klapskildpadde*

1925 Kinosternon abaxillare Baur
Kinosternon scorpioides abaxillare Berry 1979
Kinosternon cruentatum abaxillare Artner 2003

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of scorpioides (e.g., Berry 1979), or of cruentatum (e.g., Alvarez del Toro 1973; Artner 2003; Vetter 2005). Revalidated as a separate species by Iverson, Le & Ingram (2013). Apparently not recognized as a separate species by Johnson, Mata-Silva, García-Padilla & Wilson (2015), who did not include abaxillare (but did include scorpioides) in their Chiapas checklist.
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas).


Kinosternon acutum

Tabasco Mud Turtle

Spitzschnauzen-Klappschildkröte

Tabasco-klapskildpadde*

1831 Kinosternon scorpioides var. acuta Gray
Kinosternon acutum Steineger 1941
Cryptochelys acuta Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013
1831 Cinosternum berendtianum Cope (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1873 Cinosternum effeldtii Peters (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz).


Kinosternon alamosae

Alamos Mud Turtle

Alamos-Klappschildkröte

Alamos-klapskildpadde*

1980 Kinosternon alamosae Berry & Legler

Distribution: Mexico (Sinaloa, Sonora).


Kinosternon albogulare

White-throated Mud Turtle

Weißkehl-Klappschildkröte

Hvidstrubet Klapskildpadde

1870 Cinosternon albogulare Dumeril & Bocourt
Kinosternon cruentatum albogulare Wettstein 1934
Kinosternon scorpioides albogulare Dunn & Saxe 1950
Kinosternon albogulare McCranie 2015

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of scorpioides (e.g., Dunn & Saxe 1950) or of cruentatum (e.g., Wettstein 1934). Revalidated as a separate species by McCranie (2015, 2018).
Introduced to: Colombia (San Andres),
Distribution: Colombia (mainland), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama.





Kinosternon angustipons

Narrow-bridged Mud Turtle

Costaricanische Klappschildkröte

Costaricansk Klapskildpadde*

1965 Kinosternon angustipons Legler
Cryptochelys angustipons Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013

Distribution: Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama.


Kinosternon baurii

Striped Mud Turtle

Dreistreifen-Klappschildkröte

Stribet Klapskildpadde*

1891 Cinosternum baurii Garman
1925 Kinosternon bauri palmarum Stejneger (Iverson 1978; Fritz & Havas 2006)

Distribution: USA (Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia).


Kinosternon chimalhuaca

Jalisco Mud Turtle

Jalisco-Klappschildkröte

Jalisco-klapskildpadde*

1997 Kinosternon chimalhuaca Berry, Seidel & Iverson

Remarks: A single individual, tentatively referred to chimalhuaca, was reported by Webb (2001). The record was omitted by both Legler & Vogt (2013) and Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk (2017), but included in the Nayarit checklist by Woolrich-Pińa, Ponce-Campos, Loc-Barragán, Ramírez-Silva, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2016).
Distribution: Mexico (Colima, Jalisco, Nayarit).


Kinosternon creaseri

Yucatan Mud Turtle*, (Creaser's Mud Turtle)

Creasers Klappschildkröte

Yucatan-klapskildpadde*

1934 Kinosternon creaseri Hartweg
Cryptochelys creaseri Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013

Distribution: Mexico (Campeche, Quintana Roo, Yucatan).


Kinosternon cruentatum

Red-cheeked Mud Turtle

Rotwangen-Klappschildkröte

Rřdkindet Klapskildpadde

1851 Cinosternon cruentatum Dumeril & Bibron in Dumeril & Dumeril
Swanka cruentata Gray 1870
Thyrosternum cruentatum Garman 1884
Kinosternon crenulatum [lapsus] Pearse 1945
Kinosternon scorpioides cruentatum Berry 1979
1854 Kinosternum mexicanum LeConte (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Swanka mexicana Gray 1870
1860 Kinosternum triliratum LeConte (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Swanka trilirata Gray 1870
1941 Kinosternon cruentatum concors Stejneger (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of scorpioides. Formerly included abaxillare and albogulare. Revalidated as a separate species by McCranie (2018), although some authors (e.g., Alvarez del Toro 1973; Vetter 2005) had already regarded it as such. Although included for Jalisco by Cruz-Sáenz, Guerrero, Lazcano & Télles-López (2009), presence in the state is considered undocumented herein, following Cruz-Sáenz, Muńoz-Nolasco, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2017), who did not list the species for Jalisco.
Distribution: Belize, Guatemala, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Morelos, Oaxaca, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan).





Kinosternon dunni

Colombian Mud Turtle*, (Dunn's Mud Turtle)

Dunns Klappschildkröte

Colombiansk Klapskildpadde*

1947 Kinosternon dunni Schmidt
Cryptochelys dunni Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013

Distribution: Colombia.


Kinosternon durangoense

Durango Mud Turtle

Durango-Klappschildkröte

Durango-klapskildpadde*

1979 Kinosternon flavescens durangoense Iverson
Kinosternon durangoense Serb, Phillips & Iverson 2001

Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango).


Kinosternon flavescens

Yellow Mud Turtle

Gelbliche Klappschildkröte

Gul Klapskildpadde*

1857 Platythyra flavescens Agassiz
Cinosternum flavescens Agassiz 1857
1951 Kinosternon flavescens spooneri Smith (Berry & Berry 1984; Fritz & Havas 2006)
Kinosternon spooneri Collins 1991

Remarks: Collins (1991) suggested recognition of spooneri as a separate species, however, most authors have retained it as a synonym of flavescens (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).


Kinosternon herrerai

Veracruz Mud Turtle*, (Herrera's Mud Turtle)

Herreras Klappschildkröte

Veracruz-klapskildpadde*

1925 Kinosternon herrerai Stejneger
Cryptochelys herrerai Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013

Remarks: Although included for Jalisco by Cruz-Sáenz, Guerrero, Lazcano & Télles-López (2009), presence in the state is considered undocumented herein, following Cruz-Sáenz, Muńoz-Nolasco, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2017), who did not list the species for Jalisco.
Distribution: Mexico (Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, Mexico, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Tamaulipas, Veracruz).


Kinosternon hirtipes

Mexican Rough-footed Mud Turtle

Raufuß-Klappschildkröte

Rufodet Klapskildpadde*

1830 Cinosternon hirtipes Wagler
Clemmys hirtipes Fitzinger 1835
Thyrosternum hirtipes Agassiz 1857
Ozotheca hirtipes LeConte 1859
1951 Kinosternon murrayi Glass & Hartweg
Kinosternon hirtipes murrayi Schmidt 1953
1981 Kinosternon hirtipes chapalaense Iverson
1981 Kinosternon hirtipes magdalense Iverson
1981 Kinosternon hirtipes megacephalum Iverson
Kinosternon megacephalum Joseph-Ouni, cited in Vetter 2004
1981 Kinosternon hirtipes tarascense Iverson

Other common names:
chapalaense: Lake Chapala Mud Turtle
hirtipes: Valley of Mexico Mud Turtle
magdalense: San Huanico Mud Turtle
megacephalum (extinct): Viesca Mud Turtle
murrayi: Mexican Plateau Mud Turtle
tarascense: Pátzcuaro Mud Turtle
Remarks: Records from Queretaro refer to integrum (Iverson & Berry 1979). The subspecies megacephalum from Coahuila became extinct around 1970 (Dijk, Iverson, Shaffer, Bour & Rhodin 2012).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Zacatecas), USA (Texas).


Kinosternon integrum

Mexican Mud Turtle

Mexikanische Klappschildkröte

Mexicansk Klapskildpadde*

1854 Kinosternum integrum Le Conte
Thyrosternum integrum Agassiz 1857
Swanka integra Gray 1870
Cinosternum scorpioides integrum Siebenrock 1904
1876 Cinosternon rostellum Bocourt (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1888 Cinosternon guanajuatense Dugčs (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1907 Cinosternum scorpioides integrum forma mexicana Siebenrock [nomen illegitimum] (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Remarks: Previously confused with alamosae and hirtipes (see Iverson & Berry 1979; Iverson 1991).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit [incl. Islas Marias (Maria Madre)], Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas).


Kinosternon leucostomum

White-lipped Mud Turtle

Weißmaul-Klappschildkröte

Hvidlćbet Klapskildpadde*

1851 Cinosternon leucostomum Dumeril & Bibron in Dumeril & Dumeril
Thyrosternum leucostomum Agassiz 1857
Swanka leucostoma Gray 1870
Cryptochelys leucostoma Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013
1869 Swanka maculata Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1885 Cinosternum brevigulare Günter in Godman & Salvin [not Cinosternum brevigulare Cope 1885] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1885 Cinosternum brevigulare Cope [not Cinosternum brevigulare Günter in Godman & Salvin 1885] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1885 Cinosternum cobanum Günter in Godman & Salvin (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1885 Cinosternum postinguinale Cope
Kinosternon leucostomum postinguinale Berry 1979
Cryptochelys leucostoma postinguinale Iverson, Le & Ingram 2013*
1913 Cinosternum spurrelli Boulenger (Iverson 1992; Fritz & Havas 2006)
Kinosternon leucostomum spurrelli Pritchard 1979
1965 Kinosternon mopanum Neill (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Other common names:
leucostomum: Northern White-lipped Mud Turtle
postinguinale: Southern White-lipped Mud Turtle
Distribution: Belize, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras (incl. Islas de la Bahia [Cayos Cochinos (Cayo Cochino Major, Cayo Cochino Pequeńo), Guanaja]), Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan, Nicaragua (incl. Islas del Maiz [Isla Grande del Maiz, Isla Pequeńa del Maiz]), Panama, Peru.


Kinosternon oaxacae

Oaxaca Mud Turtle

Oaxaca-Klappschildkröte

Oaxaca-klapskildpadde*

1979 Kinosternon oaxacae Pritchard [rejected] (Smith & Chiszar 1989)
1980 Kinosternon oaxacae Berry & Iverson

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca).


Kinosternon scorpioides

Scorpion Mud Turtle

Skorpions-Klappschildkröte

Sydamerikansk Klapskildpadde

1766 Testudo scorpioides Linnaeus
Emys scorpioidea [lapsus] Schweigger 1812
Chersine scorpioides Merrem 1820
Terrapene scorpioidea Fitzinger 1826
Cinosternon scorpioides Wagler 1830
Uronyx scorpioides Rafinesque 1832
Clemmys scorpioidea Fitzinger 1835
Thyrosternum scorpioides LeConte 1859
Swanka scorpoides Gray 1869
1792 Testudo tricarinata Retzius in Schoepff (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Terrapene tricarinata Merrem 1820
Clemmys tricarinata Wagler 1830
1801 Testudo retzii Daudin (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emys retzii Schweigger 1812
Terrapene retzii Fitzinger 1826
1824 Kinosternon brevicaudatum Spix (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1824 Kinosternon longicaudatum Spix [nomen conservandum (ICZN 1989: Opinion 1534)] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Thyrosternum longe caudatum [lapsus] LeConte 1859
Swanka longicaudata Gray 1870
1825 Kinosternon shavianum Bell (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Cinosternon shawianum [emendation] Bocourt 1876
Thyrosternum shavianum Garman 1884
1832 Monoclida retziana Rafinesque [substitute name for Testudo retzii Daudin 1801] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1907 Cinosternum scorpioides integrum forma brasiliana Siebenrock [nomen illegitimum] (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1936 Kinosternon scorpioides pachyurum Müller & Hellmich (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1936 Kinosternon scorpioides seriei Freiberg (Cabrera & Colantonio 1997; Fritz & Havas 2006)
1946 Kinosternon panamense Schmidt (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Kinosternon scorpioides panamense Mertens & Wermuth 1955
1970 Kinosternon scorpioides carajasensis Cunha (Cabrera & Colantonio 1997; Fritz & Havas 2006)

Other common names:
carajasensis: Carajas Mud Turtle
scorpioides: Amazon Mud Turtle
seriei: Argentine Mud Turtle
Remarks: Previously included abaxillare, albogulare, and cruentatum. Cabrera & Colantonio (1997) regarded seriei as a synonym of K. s. scorpioides, however, it is still considered a valid subspecies by some authors (e.g., Vetter 2005).
Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil (Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Para [incl. Marajo Island], Paraiba, Pernambuco, Piaui, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondonia, Roraima, Sergipe, Tocantins), Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Surinam, Trinidad & Tobago (Trinidad), Venezuela.


Kinosternon sonoriense

Sonora Mud Turtle

Sonora-Klappschildkröte

Sonora-klapskildpadde*

1854 Kinosternon sonoriense Le Conte
Thyrosternum sonoriense Agassiz 1857
Thylosternum sonoriense Müller 1865
1860 Kinosternum henrici LeConte (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Thyrosternum henrici Troschel 1860
Swanka henricii Gray 1870
1981 Kinosternon sonoriense longifemorale Iverson

Other common names:
longifemorale: Sonoyta Mud Turtle
sonoriense: Common Sonora Mud Turtle
Extinct in: USA (California).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chihuahua, Sonora), USA (Arizona, New Mexico).


Kinosternon steindachneri

Florida Mud Turtle

Florida-Klappschildkröte

Florida-klapskildpadde*

1906 Cinosternum steindachneri Siebenrock
Kinosternon subrubrum steindachneri Carr 1940
Kinosternon steindachneri Bourque 2012

Distribution: USA (Florida).


Kinosternon stejnegeri

Arizona Mud Turtle

Arizona-Klappschildkröte

Arizona-klapskildpadde*

1938 Kinosternon flavescens stejnegeri Hartweg
Kinosternon stejnegeri McCord 2016

Remarks: Previously referred to as Kinosternon arizonense Gilmore 1922, for some time regarded as a subspecies of flavescens. Revalidated as a separate species by Serb, Phillips & Iverson (2001) (as arizonense), at that time including stejnegeri, which was considered a synonym. Subsequently, the two forms were found to be separate species, of which arizonense is known only from fossils. The valid name for the extant species is now stejnegeri.
Distribution: Mexico (Sonora), USA (Arizona).


Kinosternon subrubrum

Common Mud Turtle

Gewöhnliche Klappschildkröte, Pennsylvania-Klappschildkröte (subsp. subrubrum)

Almindelig Klapskildpadde*

1789 Testudo subrubra Bonnaterre
Kinosternon subrubrum Stejneger & Barbour 1917
1789 Testudo pensylvanica Gmelin in Linnaeus (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emydes pensilvancia [lapsus] Brongniart 1805
Emys pensylvanica Schweigger 1812
Terrapene pensylvanica Merrem 1820
Cistuda pensylvanica Say 1825
Sternotherus pensylvanica Gray 1825
Kinosternon pennsylvanicum [emendation] Bell 1825
Clemmys pensylvanica Fitzinger 1835
Thyrosternum pennsylvanicum Agassiz 1857
1820 Terrapene boscii Merrem (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Sternothaerus boscii Bell 1825
1844 Kinosternon doubledayii Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1844 Kinosternon oblongum Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1856 Kinosternon hippocrepis Gray
Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis Stejneger & Barbour 1917
1856 Kinosternon punctatum Gray (Fritz & Havas 2006)
1893 Kinosternon louisianae Baur (Fritz & Havas 2006)

Other common names:
hippocrepis: Mississippi Mud Turtle
subrubrum: Eastern Mud Turtle
Remarks: Previously included steindachneri.
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, D.C.).


Kinosternon vogti

Vallarta Mud Turtle

Vallarta-Klappschildkröte

Vallarta-klapskildpadde*

2018 Kinosternon vogti López-Luna, Cupul-Magańa, Escobedo-Galván, González-Hernández, Centenero-Alcalá, Rangel-Mendoza, Ramírez-Ramírez & Cazares-Hernández

Remarks: Natural populations unknown (López-Luna, Cupul-Magańa, Escobedo-Galván, González-Hernández, Centenero-Alcalá, Rangel-Mendoza, Ramírez-Ramírez & Cazares-Hernández 2018).
Distribution: Mexico (Jalisco).