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Taxonomy of the family Elapidae [marine species]
Bibliography of the genus Laticauda
Biodiversity of the family Elapidae [marine species]








Genus
Laticauda

Sea Kraits

Plattschwänze, Plattschwanz-Seeschlangen

Havkraiter*, Fladhaler

1768 Laticauda Laurenti (type species: Laticauda scutata Laurenti 1768)
1801 Platurus Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille (type species: Platurus fasciatus Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille 1801)
1984 Pseudolaticauda Kharin (type species: Platurus semifasciatus Reinhardt 1837; syn. Williams & Wallach 1989)
Contents: 8 species, of which 2 (25.0%) are endemic.
Other common names:
Pseudolaticaudata: False Sea Kraits
Remarks: Pseudolaticauda has been regarded as a valid genus by some authors (Kharin & Czeblukov 2006; Pyron, Burbrink & Wiens 2013; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014), but as a synonym of Laticauda by others (e.g., Williams & Wallach 1989; Gherghel, Papes, Brischoux, Sahlean & Strugariu 2016).
Introduced to: Greece.
Distribution: S. and E. Asia, Malay Archipelago, Pacific Ocean.
Reported from: American Samoa, Australia (New South Wales, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands], Tasmania), Bangladesh, Brunei, China (Fujian, Liaoning), East Timor, Fiji, French Polynesia, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands], West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Babi, Bali, Banda Islands, Bangka, Batu Islands, Belitung, Biak, Buru, Enggano, Flores, Halmahera, Java, Kai Islands, Kalimantan, Nias, Obi, Riau Islands, Rote, Salawati, Seram, Simeulue, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Supiori, Tanimbar Islands, Ternate, Waigeo, Weh, West Timor, Western New Guinea, Wetar, Yapen), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands (incl. Yaeyama Islands), Satsunan Islands]), Kiribati, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Micronesia (incl. Pohnpei), Myanmar, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands), New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus), Duke of York, Mussau, New Britain, New Ireland], Eastern New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago [Misima], Woodlark, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville, Buka]), Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Babuyan Claro, Barit, Calayan, Dalupiri, Mabag], Balbagon, Bantayan, Bohol, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Coron], Cebu, Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Jaguliao, Luzon, Mactan, Maestre de Campo, Marinduque, Miangas, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Samar, Siquijor, Sulu Islands [Bubuan, Dipolod, Jolo, Siasi, Sitanki, Tawi-Tawi, Tulian], Tilmubo), Russia, Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Bellona, Guadalcanal, Rennell, Santa Cruz Islands), South Korea (Jejudo Island), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis & Futuna.

Laticauda colubrina

Yellow-lipped Sea Krait, White-lipped Sea Krait, Amphibious Sea Snake, Colubrine Amphibious Sea Snake, Banded Yellow-lipped Sea Snake, White-faced Sea Krait, (Common Banded Sea Snake)

Nattern-Plattschwanz

Hvidlæbet Havkrait*

1799 Hydrus colubrinus Schneider
Platurus colubrinus Wagler 1830
Hydrophis colubrinus Schlegel 1837
Platurus fasciatus colubrinus Fischer 1856
Platurus laticaudatus colubrinus Peters & Doria 1878
Laticauda colubrina Stejneger 1907
1836 Coluber platycaudatus Oken (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included frontalis. There is a single record from Greece (probably introduced), the only record of the family from the Mediterranean. Records from New Caledonia refer to saintgironsi (Cogger & Heatwole 2006; Ineich 2007). Records from continental India are questionable (Whitaker & Captain 2004; Heatwole, Busack & Cogger 2005). Reported from Nicaragua (Villa 1962) and from Chiapas, Mexico (Alvarez del Toro 1983; Johnson, Mata-Silva, García-Padilla & Wilson 2015), but presence along the American west coast needs confirmation (Campbell & Lamar 2004; Heatwole, Busack & Cogger 2005). A record from Buru, Indonesia (de Rooij 1917), refer to laticaudata (Brongersma 1934). Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey (2014) questioned the presence of a breeding population of any species of the genus Laticauda in Australia, however, there are several records of waif specimens of both colubrina and laticaudata. Leviton, Siler, Weinell & Brown (2018) did not include Busuanga and Coron (Calamian Islands), Marinduque, Palawan, Samar, or Bubuan, Siasi, Tawi-Tawi (Sulu Islands) in the distribution of the species.
Introduced to: Greece.
Distribution: American Samoa, Australia (New South Wales, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands]), Bangladesh, Brunei, China, East Timor, Fiji, French Polynesia, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands, Nicobar Islands]), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Babi, Bali, Banda Islands, Bangka, Batu Islands, Belitung, Biak, Enggano, Flores, Halmahera, Java, Kai Islands, Kalimantan, Riau Islands, Rote, Salawati, Seram, Simeulue, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Supiori, Tanimbar Islands, Ternate, Weh, West Timor, Western New Guinea, Wetar, Yapen), Japan (Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands (incl. Yaeyama Islands), Satsunan Islands]), Kiribati, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Mexico (Chiapas), Micronesia (incl. Pohnpei), Myanmar, New Zealand, Palau, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Admiralty Islands (Manus), Duke of York, Mussau, New Britain, New Ireland], Eastern New Guinea, Louisiade Archipelago [Misima], Woodlark, North Solomon Islands [Bougainville, Buka]), Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Babuyan Claro, Barit, Calayan, Dalupiri, Mabag], Balbagon, Bantayan, Bohol, Calamian Islands [Busuanga, Coron], Cebu, Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Jaguliao, Luzon, Mactan, Maestre de Campo, Marinduque, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Panay, Samar, Siquijor, Sulu Islands [Bubuan, Dipolod, Jolo, Siasi, Sitanki, Tawi-Tawi, Tulian], Tilmubo), Singapore, Solomon Islands (incl. Bellona, Guadalcanal, Rennell, Santa Cruz Islands), Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam, Wallis & Futuna.


Laticauda crockeri

Rennell Island Sea Krait, Lake Te-Nggano Sea Krait, (Crocker's Krait, Crocker's Sea Snake)

Rennell-Plattschwanz*

Salomon-havkrait*

1934 Laticauda crockeri Slevin
Laticauda laticaudata crockeri Wolff 1969
1956 Laticauda laticaudata wolffi Volsøe (Cogger, Heatwole, Ishikawa, McCoy, Tamiya & Teruuchi 1987; Kharin & Czeblukov 2006)
Laticauda wolffi Kharin 1984

Remarks: Cogger, Heatwole, Ishikawa, McCoy, Tamiya & Teruuchi (1987) confirmed the validity of crockeri, although some have questioned it, suggesting it may represent a hybrid (Iskandar & Colijn 2001).
Distribution: Solomon Islands (Rennell).


Laticauda frontalis

Vanuatu Sea Krait*, Vanuatu Yellow-lipped Sea Krait

Vanuatu-Plattschwanz*

Vanuatu-havkrait*

1905 Platurus frontalis De Vis
Laticauda frontalis Cogger & Heatwole 2006

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of colubrina (e.g., Longman 1918; Smith 1926; Golay & al. 1993; Kharin & Czeblukov 2006). Revalidated by Shine, Reed, Shetty, Lemaster & Mason (2002) and Cogger & Heatwole (2006). Currently considered restricted to Vanuatu and the Loyalty Islands (Cogger & Heatwole 2006). Although New Guinea is the type locality of frontalis, the species was only recently confirmed from this region, i.e., New Britain (Kharin, Rödel & Hallermann 2010). Records from the main island of New Caledonia (Grande Terre) are regarded as erroneous (Cogger & Heatwole 2006). The Tonga population may represent an undescribed species (Kharin, Rödel & Hallermann 2010).
Distribution: New Caledonia (Loyalty Islands), Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [New Britain]), Tonga, Vanuatu.


Laticauda guineai

Papuan Sea Krait*

Papuanische Plattschwanz*

Papuansk Havkrait*

2005 Laticauda guineai Heatwole, Busack & Cogger

Distribution: Papua New Guinea (Eastern New Guinea).


Laticauda laticaudata

Blue-lipped Sea Krait, Black-lipped Sea Krait, Dark-lipped Sea Krait, Brown-lipped Sea Krait, Banded Sea Krait, Black-banded Sea Krait, Common Amphibious Sea Snake, Large-scaled Sea Krait, Common Sea Krait

Zeilen-Seeschlange

Blålæbet Havkrait*

1758 Coluber laticaudatus Linnaeus
Platurus laticaudatus Girard 1858
Laticauda laticaudata Stejneger 1907
1768 Laticauda scutata Laurenti (Golay & al. 1993)
1801 Platurus fasciatus Latreille in Sonnini & Latreille (Golay & al. 1993)
1817 Platurus laurenti Rafinesque (Golay & al. 1993)
1859 Platurus fischeri Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
Platurus laticaudatus fischeri Noguchi 1909
1871 Platurus affinis Anderson (Golay & al. 1993)
Laticauda laticaudata affinis Stejneger 1907
1896 Platurus muelleri Boulenger (Golay & al. 1993)
Laticauda laticaudata muelleri Stejneger 1907

Remarks: Records from the main island group of Japan probably represent individuals drifted outside their northernmost breeding grounds in the Ryukyu Islands by sea currents (Tandavanitj, Mitani & Toda 2013). Rasmussen, Sanders, Guinea & Amey (2014) questioned the presence of a breeding population of any species of the genus Laticauda in Australia, however, there are several records of waif specimens of both colubrina and laticaudata.
Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland [incl. Torres Strait Islands], Tasmania), Bangladesh, China (Fujian), Fiji, French Polynesia, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Andaman Islands], West Bengal), Indonesia (Ambon, Aru Islands, Babi, Bali, Biak, Buru, Flores, Halmahera, Java, Nias, Obi, Sulawesi, Sumatra, Supiori, Ternate, Waigeo, Weh, West Timor, Western New Guinea, Yapen), Japan (Honshu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands]), Malaysia (West Malaysia), Myanmar, New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands), New Zealand, Niue, Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago [Duke of York, New Britain, New Ireland], Eastern New Guinea), Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Calayan], Bantayan, Cebu, Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Luzon, Miangas, Mindanao, Mindoro, Samar, Sulu Islands [Jolo]), Singapore, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Tonga, Vanuatu.


Laticauda saintgironsi

New Caledonian Sea Krait, (New Caledonian Yellow-lipped Sea Krait)

Neukaledonische Plattschwanz*

Nycaledonisk Havkrait*

2006 Laticauda saintgironsi Cogger & Heatwole

Distribution: New Caledonia (Grande Terre, Loyalty Islands), New Zealand, Vanuatu.


Laticauda schistorhynchus

Flat-tailed Sea Krait, Central Pacific Sea Krait

Niue-Plattschwanz

Niue-havkrait*

1874 Platurus schistorhynchus Günther
Laticauda semifasciatus schistorhynchus Stejneger 1907
Laticauda schistorhynchus Werner 1924
Pseudolaticauda schistorhynchus Kharin 1984

Remarks: Sometimes regarded as a synonym of semifasciata (e.g., Slowinski 1989). Guinea, Tamiya & Cogger (1983) concluded, on the basis of analysed neurotoxins, that there is no justification for treating the two forms as separate species. McCarthy (1986) commented that "There do indeed seem reasonable grounds for considering the two forms conspecific. However, there is no proof that they interbreed; semifasciata and schistorhynchus are completely allopatric being separated by an enormous gap. L. semifasciata has been recorded from Japan to Indonesia, whereas schistorhynchus is found in the Pacific at Niue, Tonga and Samoa. There is however a single, dubious record of schistorhynchus from "Bertrand" Island (= Tendanye Island), New Guinea".
P. schistorhynchus is regarded herein as a distinctive dwarf species, following several authors (e.g., McCarthy 1986; Cogger & Heatwole 2006; Kharin & Czeblukov 2006; Gherghel, Papes, Brischoux, Sahlean & Strugariu 2016; Heatwole, Grech & Marsh 2017). Reproducing populations are known only from Niue. Records from other areas are considered waif individuals, carried by storms and/or currents (Cogger & Heatwole 2006). Provisionally included for both American Samoa and Samoa (formerly Western Samoa), based on records from "Samoa".
Distribution: American Samoa, Niue, Tonga, Western Samoa.


Laticauda semifasciata

Erabu Sea Krait, Half-banded Sea Krait, Broad-banded Blue Sea Snake, Large Sea Krait

Breitband-Plattschwanz*

Bredbåndet Havkrait*

1837 Platurus semifasciatus Reinhardt
Platurus fasciatus semifasciatus Fischer 1856
Laticauda semifasciata Stejneger 1907
Pseudolaticauda semifasciata Kharin 1984

Remarks: Previously included schistorhynchus. Records from the main island group of Japan probably represent individuals drifted outside their northernmost breeding grounds in the Ryukyu Islands by sea currents (Tandavanitj, Mitani & Toda 2013).
Distribution: China (Fujian, Liaoning), Indonesia (Ambon, Flores, Java, Seram, Sulawesi), Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Ryukyu Islands [Okinawa Islands, Sakishima Islands, Satsunan Islands]), Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Babuyan Claro], Gigante Islands [Gigante Sur], Luzon, Negros, Sulu Islands), Russia, South Korea (Jejudo Island), Taiwan.