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Taxonomy of the family Phrynosomatidae
Bibliography of the genus Phrynosoma
Biodiversity of the family Phrynosomatidae








Genus
Phrynosoma

Horned Lizards, ("Horned Toads")

Krötenechsen

Tudseleguaner

1817 Tapaia Oken [nomen rejectum] (type species: Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus 1758; syn. Smith & Chiszar 1989)
1825 Tapayia Gray [nomen rejectum] (type species: Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus 1758; syn. Smith & Chiszar 1989)
1826 Tapaya Fitzinger [nomen rejectum] (type species: Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus 1758; syn. Smith & Chiszar 1989)
1828 Phrynosoma Wiegmann (type species: Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus 1758)
1843 Batrachosoma Fitzinger (type species: Agama coronatum Blainville 1835; syn. Smith & Taylor 1950)
1843 Tropidogaster Fitzinger (type species: Agama cornuta Harlan 1825; syn. Smith & Taylor 1950)
1852 Anota Hallowell (type species: Anota m'callii Hallowell 1852; syn. Smith & Taylor 1950)
1858 Doliosaurus Girard (type species: Phrynosoma platyrhinos Girard 1852; syn. Smith & Taylor 1950)
1858 Tapaya Girard [not Tapaya Fitzinger 1826 (Reptilia: Iguanidae)] (type species: Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus 1758; syn. Smith & Taylor 1950)
Contents: 21 species, of which 9 (42.9%) are endemic.
Distribution: SW. Canada, W. USA, Mexico, Guatemala.
Reported from: Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan), Guatemala, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros], Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming).

Phrynosoma asio

Giant Horned Lizard, Long-spined Horned Lizard, (Mexican Horned Lizard)

Riesen-Krötenechse

Kæmpe-tudseleguan*

1864 Phrynosoma asio Cope
Batrachosoma asio Bocourt 1874
1873 Phrynosoma spinimentum Peters (Smith & Taylor 1950)

Remarks: The common name "Mexican Horned Lizard" has also been used for taurus.
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla).


Phrynosoma bauri

Eastern Short-horned Lizard*, (Baur's Short-horned Lizard)

Östliche Kurzhorn-Krötenechse*

Østlig Korthornet Tudseleguan*

2015 Phrynosoma bauri Montanucci
Phrynosoma hernandesi bauri Crother (ed.) 2017

Distribution: USA (Colorado, Nebraska, New Mexico, Wyoming).


Phrynosoma blainvillii

Western Horned Lizard*, (Blainville's Horned Lizard)

Westliche Krötenechse*

Vestlig Tudseleguan*

1839 Phrynosoma blainvillii Gray
Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillei [sic] Smith 1946
1894 Phrynosoma frontale Van Denburgh (Montanucci 2004)
Phrynosoma coronatum frontale Linsdale 1932
Phrynosoma blainvillii frontale Van Denburgh 1897
1921 Phrynosoma schmidti Barbour (Montanucci 2004)
Phrynosoma coronatum schmidti Liner 1994
1922 Phrynosoma nelsoni Schmidt (Jennings 1988, as synonym of schmidti)
1932 Phrynosoma ochoterenai Cuesta Terrón (Smith & Taylor 1950; Jennings 1988)

Other common names:
blainvillii: San Diego Horned Lizard
frontale: California Horned Lizard
schmidti: Northern Peninsular Horned Lizard
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of coronatum (e.g., Brattstrom 1997). Revalidated by Montanucci (2004).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros]), USA (California).


Phrynosoma braconnieri

Short-tailed Horned Lizard, Long-spined Horned Lizard

Kurzschwanz-Krötenechse

Korthalet Tudseleguan*

1870 Phrynosoma braconnieri Dumeril & Bocourt

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla).


Phrynosoma brevirostris

Great Plains Short-horned Lizard

Nördliche Kurzhorn-Krötenechse*

Nordlig Korthornet Tudseleguan*

1858 Phrynosoma brevirostris Girard
Phrynosoma douglassii brevirostre Smith 1946
Phrynosoma hernandesi brevirostris Crother (ed.) 2017

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of douglasii (e.g., Smith 1946), or, more recently, as a synonym of hernandesi (e.g., Zamudio, Jones & Ward 1997). Revalidated as a separate species by Montanucci (2015). Presence of brevirostris in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming needs confirmation, since an old record from (USNM 9458) refer to douglasii (Montanucci 2015).
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, Saskatchewan), USA (Colorado, Montana, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Wyoming).


Phrynosoma cerroense

Vizcaino Horned Lizard, (Cedros Island Horned Lizard)

Vizcaino-Krötenechse*

Vizcaino-tudseleguan*

1893 Phrynosoma cerroense Stejneger
1922 Phrynosoma jamesi Schmidt (Montanucci 2004)
Phrynosoma coronatum jamesi Klauber 1936
2004 Phrynosoma wigginsi Montanucci (Leaché & Linkem 2015)

Other common names:
jamesi: Central Peninsular Horned Lizard
wigginsi: Conceptión Horned Lizard, Gulf Coast Horned Lizard
Remarks: This species has variously been regarded as a subspecies or synonym of coronatum (e.g., Linsdale 1932; Grismer & Mellink 1994; Brattstrom 1997) or as a separate species (e.g., Jennings 1988). Revalidated by Montanucci (2004).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros], Baja California Sur).


Phrynosoma cornutum

Texas Horned Lizard

Texas-Krötenechse

Texas-tudseleguan*

1825 Agama cornuta Harlan
Tapaya cornuta Cuvier 1829
Phrynosoma cornutum Gray 1831
Tropidogaster cornutus Ruthven 1907
1828 Phrynosoma bufonium Wiegmann (Price 1990)
1834 Phrynosoma harlanii Wiegmann (Price 1990)
1852 Phrynosoma planiceps Hallowell (Price 1990)
Phrynosoma cornutum planiceps Boulenger 1885
1916 Phrynosoma brevicornis Boulenger (Price 1990)

Introduced to: USA (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee).
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).


Phrynosoma coronatum

Cape Horned Lizard, (Coast Horned Lizard)

Kronen-Krötenechse

Kap-tudseleguan*

1835 Agama coronatum Blainville
Phrynosoma coronatum Duméril & Bibron 1837

Remarks: Now restricted to Mexico. Previously included blainvillii and cerroense. Records from USA refer to blainvillii (Montanucci 2004).
Introduced to: Colombia, Guatemala.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur).


Phrynosoma diminutum

Colorado Short-horned Lizard*, San Luis Valley Short-horned Lizard

Colorado-Kurzhorn-Krötenechse*

Korthornet Colorado-tudseleguan*

2015 Phrynosoma diminutum Montanucci
Phrynosoma hernandesi diminutum Crother (ed.) 2017

Distribution: USA (Colorado).


Phrynosoma ditmarsi

Rock Horned Lizard

Felsen-Krötenechse

Klippe-tudseleguan*

1906 Phrynosoma ditmarsi Stejneger

Distribution: Mexico (Sonora).


Phrynosoma douglasii

Pygmy Short-horned Lizard, Pygmy Horned Lizard

Zwerg-Krötenechse

Dværg-tudseleguan

1829 Agama douglassii Bell [incorrect original spelling]
Phrynosoma douglassi Wagler 1830
Phrynosoma orbiculare douglassi Johnson 1942
Phrynosoma douglasii Hammerson & Smith 1991 [justified emendation]
1871 Phrynosoma douglassii exilis Cope (Schmidt 1953)
1882 Phrynosoma douglassii pygmaea Yarrow (Schmidt 1953)

Remarks: Previously included brevirostris, hernandesi, ornatissimum, and the populations now assigned to bauri and diminutum (Montanucci 2015). Hammerson & Smith (1991) noted that douglassii is an incorrect original spelling, the correct spelling is douglasii. Records from Montana and Wyoming are extralimital and need to be verified by additional specimens to clarify the status of the populations (Montanucci 2015). A record from southwestern Wyoming (Johnson 2007) was provisionally referred to brevirostris (Montanucci 2015).
Extinct in: Canada (British Columbia).
Distribution: USA (California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Wyoming).


Phrynosoma goodei

Sonoran Horned Lizard, Sonoran Desert Horned Lizard, (Goode's Horned Lizard)

Sonora-Krötenechse*

Sonora-tudseleguan*

1893 Phrynosoma goodei Stejneger
Anota goodei Cope 1898
Phrynosoma platyrhinos goodei Klauber 1935

Remarks: Regarded until recently as a subspecies of platyrhinos (e.g., Pianka 1991). Revalidated as a separate species by Mulcahy, Spaulding, Mendelson & Brodie (2006).
Distribution: Mexico (Sonora), USA (Arizona).


Phrynosoma hernandesi

Greater Short-horned Lizard, Mountain Short-horned Lizard (P. h. hernandesi), Salt Lake Valley Short-horned Lizard (P. h. ornatum)

Große Kurzhorn-Krötenechse

Stor Korthornet Tudseleguan

1858 Phrynosoma hernandesi Girard
Phrynosoma douglassii hernandesi Cope 1900
Phrynosoma orbiculare hernandesi Klauber 1939
1858 Phrynosoma ornatum Girard
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatum Stejneger 1919
Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatum Montanucci 2015

Other common names:
hernandesi: Mountain Short-horned Lizard, (Hernandez' Short-horned Lizard)
ornatum: Salt Lake Valley Short-horned Lizard
Remarks: Previously included brevirostris, ornatissimum, and the populations now assigned to bauri and diminutum (Montanucci 2015). Revalidated as a separate species (as "hernandezi") by Zamudio, Jones & Ward (1997). Hammerson & Smith (1991) claimed that hernandesii is an incorrect original spelling, and the correct spelling is hernandezii, however, this was subsequently rejected by Smith, Adler, Chiszar & Breukelen (1999).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Sonora), USA (Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Utah).


Phrynosoma mcallii

Flat-tailed Horned Lizard

Flachschwanz-Krötenechse

Fladhalet Tudseleguan*

1852 Anota m'callii Hallowell
Doliosaurus mc'calli Girard 1858
Phrynosoma maccallii Cope 1867
Phrynosoma m'calli Stejneger 1893
Anota maccalli Bryant 1911

Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Sonora), USA (Arizona, California).


Phrynosoma modestum

Round-tailed Horned Lizard

Rundschwanz-Krötenechse

Rundhalet Tudseleguan*

1852 Phrynosoma modestum Girard in Baird & Girard
Doliosaurus modestus Girard 1858
Anota modesta Cope 1896

Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).


Phrynosoma orbiculare

Mountain Horned Lizard, Mexican Plateau Horned Lizard, Red Horned Lizard, Linnaeus' Horned Lizard

Mexikanische Kurzhorn-Krötenechse

Bjerg-tudseleguan*

1758 Lacerta orbicularis Linnaeus
Agama orbiculaire Cuvier 1817
Phrynosoma orbiculare Wiegmann 1828
Tapaya orbicularis Dugès 1888
1839 Phrynosoma wiegmanni Gray (Smith & Taylor 1950)
1870 Tapaya boucardii Duméril & Bocourt (Montanucci 1979)
Phrynosoma boucardii Boulenger 1885
Phrynosoma orbiculare boucardii Montanucci 1979
1870 Tapaya cortezii Duméril & Bocourt (Smith & Taylor 1950)
Phrynosoma orbiculare cortezii Boulenger 1885
1870 Tapaya dugesii Duméril & Bocourt (Smith & Taylor 1950)
Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesii Boulenger 1885
1888 Tapaya orbicularis longicaudatus Dugès (Smith & Taylor 1950)
1953 Phrynosoma orbiculare alticola Davis
1955 Phrynosoma orbiculare bradti Horowitz
1955 Phrynosoma orbiculare durangoensis Horowitz (Montanucci 1979)
1955 Phrynosoma orbiculare orientale Horowitz

Other common names:
boucardii: Boucard's Horned Lizard
bradti: Sierra Madre Horned Lizard
cortezii: Cortez's Horned Lizard
dugesii: Dugès' Horned Lizard
orbiculare: Mexican Plateau Horned Lizard
orientale: Eastern Mountain Horned Lizard
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas).


Phrynosoma ornatissimum

Southern Short-horned Lizard*, Desert Short-horned Lizard (P. o. ornatissimum), Short-tailed Short-horned Lizard (P. o. brachycercum)

Südliche Kurzhorn-Krötenechse*

Sydlig Korthornet Tudseleguan*

1858 Phrynosoma ornatissima Girard
Phrynosoma douglassii ornatissimum Yarrow 1875
Phrynosoma ornatissimum Montanucci 2015
Phrynosoma hernandesi ornatissimum Crother (ed.) 2017
1942 Phrynosoma douglassii brachycercum Smith
Phrynosoma ornatissimum brachycercum Montanucci 2015

Other common names:
brachycercum: Short-tailed Short-horned Lizard, (Smith's Short-horned Lizard)
ornatissimum: Desert Short-horned Lizard
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of douglasii (e.g., Yarrow 1875) or, more recently, as a synonym of hernandesi (e.g., Zamudio, Jones & Ward 1997). Not mentioned for Chihuahua by Lemos-Espinal, Smith, Woolrich-Piña & Cruz (2017).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah).


Phrynosoma platyrhinos

Desert Horned Lizard

Wüsten-Krötenechse

Ørkentudseleguan*

1852 Phrynosoma platyrhinos Girard
Doliosaurus platyrhinos Girard 1858
Anota platyrhina Cope 1900
1896 Anota calidiarum Cope (Jones & Lovich (eds.) 2009)
Phrynosoma calidiarum Ditmars 1907
Phrynosoma platyrhinos calidiarum Reeve 1952

Other common names:
calidiarum: Southern Desert Horned Lizard
platyrhinos: Northern Desert Horned Lizard
Remarks: Previously included goodei.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte), USA (Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington).


Phrynosoma sherbrookei

Guerreran Horned Lizard*

Guerrero-Krötenechse*

Guerrero-tudseleguan*

2014 Phrynosoma sherbrookei Nieto-Montes de Oca, Arenas-Moreno, Beltrán-Sánchez & Leaché

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero).


Phrynosoma solare

Regal Horned Lizard

Vierhorn-Krötenechse

Konge-tudseleguan*

1845 Phrynosoma solaris Gray
Phrynosoma solare Van Denburgh 1895 [emendation]
1858 Phrynosoma regale Girard (Parker 1974)

Remarks: A doubtful record from Baja California.
Distribution: Mexico (Sinaloa, Sonora), USA (Arizona, New Mexico).


Phrynosoma taurus

Bull Horned Lizard, (Mexican Horned Lizard)

Büffelhorn-Krötenechse

Tyre-tudseleguan*

1868 Phrynosoma taurus Duges

Remarks: The common name "Mexican Horned Lizard" has also been used for asio by some authors.
Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla).