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© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Pituophis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Pituophis

Bullsnakes, Pine Snakes, and Gopher Snakes

Bullennattern, Kiefernnattern

Tyresnoge

1842 Pituophis Holbrook (type species: Coluber melanoleucus Daudin 1803)
1852 Churchillia Baird & Girard (type species: Churchillia bellona Baird & Girard 1852)
1883 Anasime Garman (type species: Pituophis mexicanus Dumeril, Bibron & Dumeril 1854)
1891 Epiglottophis Cope (type species: Elaphis deppei Dumeril 1853)
Contents: 7 species, of which 5 (71.4%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Distribution: North America, N. Central America.
Reported from: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan), Guatemala, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte [incl. Isla Cedros, Islas Coronados (Isla Coronado Sur)], Baja California Sur, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas), USA (Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).

Pituophis catenifer

Gopher Snake

Westliche Bullennatter

Vestlig Tyresnog, Nordvestlig Tyresnog (P. c. sayi)

1835 Coluber catenifer Blainville
Pituophis catenifer Baird & Girard 1853
Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer Behler & King 1979
1837 Coluber sayi Schlegel
Coronella sayi Holbrook 1842
Ophibolus sayi Baird & Girard 1953
Pituophis sayi Cooper 1860
Pituophis catenifer sayi Klauber 1941
Pituophis melanoleucus sayi Smith & Kennedy 1951
1852 Churchillia bellona Baird & Girard (Schmidt 1953)
1852 Pityophis affinis Hallowell
Pituophis sayi affinis Stull 1940
Pituophis catenifer affinis Klauber 1941
Pituophis melanoleucus affinis Behler & King 1979
1853 Pituophis annectens Baird & Girard
Pituophis catenifer annectens Van Denburgh & Slevin 1919
Pituophis melanoleucus annectans [sic] Behler & King 1979
1853 Pituophis mcclellanii Baird & Girard (Schmidt 1953)
1853 Pituophis wilkesii Baird & Girard (Schmidt 1953)
1853 Pityophis heermanni Hallowell (Schmidt 1953)
1854 Pituophis mexicanus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Smith & Taylor 1945)
1893 Pituophis catenifer deserticola Stejneger
Pituophis melanoleucus deserticola Behler & King 1979
1920 Pituophis catenifer rutilus Van Denburgh (Schmidt 1953)
1920 Pituophis catenifer stejnegeri Van Denburgh (Schmidt 1953)
1946 Pituophis catenifer coronalis Klauber
1946 Pituophis catenifer fuliginatus Klauber
1946 Pituophis catenifer pumilus Klauber
Pituophis melanoleucus pumilis [sic] Behler & King 1979

Other common names:
affinis: Sonoran Gopher Snake
annectens: San Diego Gopher Snake
catenifer: Pacific Gopher Snake
coronalis: Coronado Island Gopher Snake
deserticola: Great Basin Gopher Snake
fulginatus: San Martin Gopher Snake
pumilis: Santa Cruz Gopher Snake
sayi: Bullsnake
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of melanoleucus (e.g., Behler & King 1979). Collins (1991) suggested recognition of catenifer and ruthveni as separate species. This was supported by subsequent studies (e.g., Rodriguez-Robles & Jesus-Escobar 2000) and has been followed by most authors since then (e.g., Crother, Boundy, Burbrink & Campbell in Crother (ed.) 2008). Some authors include vertebralis in catenifer.
Extinct in: Canada (British Columbia).
Introduced to: Mexico (Veracruz).
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan), Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte [incl. Islas Coronados (Isla Coronado Sur)], Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Hidalgo, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming).


Pituophis catenifer
© Rune Midtgaard

Pituophis deppei

Mexican Bullsnake, (Deppe's Gopher Snake)

Mexikanische Kiefernnatter

Mexicansk Tyresnog

1853 Elaphis deppei Dumeril
Pituophis deppei Stull 1932
1853 Elaphis pleurostictus Duméril (Smith & Taylor 1945)
1860 Arizona jani Cope
Pituophis deppei jani Stull 1932
1863 Pituophis Deppei pholidostictus Jan (Smith & Taylor 1945)

Other common names:
deppei: Common Mexican Bullsnake
jani: Northern Mexican Pine Snake, Queretaro Bull Snake, (Jan's Bullsnake)
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas).


Pituophis insulanus

Cedros Island Gopher Snake

Cedros-Bullennatter

Cedros-tyresnog

1946 Pituophis catenifer insulanus Klauber
Pituophis insulanus Grismer 2002
Pituophis insularis [lapsus] Flores-Villela & Marquez 2004

Remarks: Although validity as a separate species was questioned by Rodriguez-Robles & Jesus-Escobar (2000), it has subsequently been retained as such (e.g., Grismer 2001, 2002).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte: Isla Cedros).


Pituophis lineaticollis

Middle American Gopher Snake

Zentralamerikanische Bullennatter

Centralamerikansk Tyresnog

1861 Arizona lineaticollis Cope
Pituophis lineaticollis Günther 1894
Pituophis deppei lineaticollis Smith 1943
1947 Pituophis deppei brevilineata Schmidt & Shannon (Duellman 1960)
1954 Pituophis deppei gibsoni Stuart
Pituophis lineaticollis gibsoni Duellman 1960

Other common names:
gibsoni: Gibson's Gopher Snake
lineaticollis: Cope's Gopher Snake
Remarks: Both forms (lineaticollis, gibsoni) were treated as a subspecies of deppei by Smith & Smith (1976). Reported from Jalisco by Ponce-Campos & Ustach (2004), followed(?) by Chávez-Avila, Casas-Andreu, García-Aguayo, Cifuentes-Lemus & Cupul-Magaña (2015), however, this record was rejected by Reyes-Velasco, Grünwald, Jones, Price & Fisher (2012). Subsequently, Cavazos-Camacho & Ahumada-Carillo (2020) confirmed the presence of the species in the state.
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas, Distrito Federal, Guerrero, Jalisco, Mexico State, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz).


Pituophis melanoleucus

Common Pine Snake

Gewöhnliche Kiefernnatter

Østlig Tyresnog, Nordøstlig Tyresnog (P. m. melanoleucus), Floridatyresnog (P. m. mugitus), Sort Tyresnog (P. m. lodingi)

1803 Coluber melanoleucus Daudin
Pituophis melanoleucus Holbrook 1842
1921 Pituophis melanoleucus mugitus Barbour
1924 Pituophis lodingi Blanchard
Pituophis melanoleucus lodingi Stull 1940

Other common names:
lodingi: Black Pine Snake
melanoleucus: Northern Pine Snake
mugitus: Florida Pine Snake
Remarks: Previously included catenifer and ruthveni. A record from Michoacan (Alvarez & Diaz-Pardo 1983) was based on a misidentified Symphimus leucostomus (Sweet & Parker 1990). Previously reported from Maryland, but presence in the state needs confirmation (Harris 1975).
Introduced to: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal).
Distribution: USA (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia).


Pituophis melanoleucus
© Henrik Bringsøe

Pituophis ruthveni

Louisiana Pine Snake

Louisiana-Kiefernnatter

Louisiana-tyresnog

1929 Pituophis melanoleucus ruthveni Stull
Pituophis ruthveni Conant 1956

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of melanoleucus (e.g., Behler & King 1979). Collins (1991) suggested recognition of ruthveni, along with catenifer, as separate species, but already Conant (1956) treated ruthveni as such. This arrangement was supported by Reichling (1995) and followed by most subsequent authors (e.g., Crother, Boundy, Burbrink & Campbell in Crother (ed.) 2008).
Introduced to: USA (Florida).
Distribution: USA (Louisiana, Texas).


Pituophis ruthveni
© Rune Midtgaard

Pituophis vertebralis

Cape Gopher Snake, San Lucan Gopher Snake

Kap-Bullennatter

Kap-tyresnog

1835 Coluber vertebralis Blainville
Rhinechis vertebralis Duméril 1853
Pituophis vertebralis Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
Pituophis catenifer vertebralis Garman 1884
Pituophis melanoleucus vertebralis Stebbins 1985
1946 Pituophis catenifer bimaris Klauber
Pituophis melanoleucus bimaris Stebbins 1985
Pituophis vertebralis bimaris Liner 2007

Other common names:
bimaris: Central Baja California Gopher Snake
Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Grismer (1994). Although the validity was questioned by Rodriguez-Robles & Jesus-Escobar (2000), it has subsequently been retained as a valid species (e.g., Grismer 2001, 2002). Validity confirmed by Pyron & Burbrink (2009a).
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur).