Home - Taxonomy - Geography - Biodiversity - Literature - Purchase RepFocus Recent updates

© Rune Midtgaard


Taxonomy of the family Leptotyphlopidae
Bibliography of the genus Myriopholis
Biodiversity of the family Leptotyphlopidae








Genus
Myriopholis

Many-scaled Thread Snakes

Vielschuppige Fadenschlangen

Mangeskællede Trådslanger

1860 Ramphostoma Jan in Jan & Sordelli [not Ramphostoma Wagler 1830 (Crocodilia)] (type species: Stenostoma macrorhynchum Jan 1860)
2009 Myriopholis Hedges, Adalsteinsson & Branch in Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges (type species: Stenostoma longicaudum Peters 1854)
Contents: 26 species, of which 5 (19.2%) are endemic.
Remarks: Previously included Tricheilostoma dissimilis.
Distribution: Africa, Middle East.
Reported from: Afghanistan, Algeria, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo-Brazzaville, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Eswatini, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India (Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan), Iran, Iraq, Israel, Ivory Coast, Jordan, Kenya, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga), South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen (incl. Socotra Archipelago, [Socotra]), Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Myriopholis adleri

Chadian Thread Snake, (Adler's Thread Snake)

Tschadische Fadenschlange

Tchadisk Trådslange

1998 Leptotyphlops adleri Hahn & Wallach
Myriopholis adleri Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ghana, Mali, Niger, Senegal.


Myriopholis albiventer

White-bellied Thread Snake

Weißbauch-Fadenschlange

Hvidbuget Trådslange

1995 Leptotyphlops albiventer Hallermann & Rödel
Myriopholis albiventer Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously confused with narirostris (Trape & Mané 2006; Chirio 2012).
Distribution: Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali.


Myriopholis algeriensis

Algerian Thread Snake, (Beaked Thread Snake)

Algerische Fadenschlange

Algerisk Trådslange

1895 Glauconia algeriensis Jaquet
Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus algeriensis Hahn & Wallach 1998
Leptotyphlops algeriensis Trape 2002
Myriopholis algeriensis Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of macrorhyncha (e.g. Hahn 1980; Hahn & Wallach 1998). Revalidated by Trape (2002).
Distribution: Algeria, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Tunisia, Western Sahara.


Myriopholis blanfordii

Sind Thread Snake, (Blanford's Thread Snake)

Sind-Fadenschlange

Sind-trådslange

1890 Glauconia blanfordii Boulenger
Leptotyphlops blanfordi Smith 1943
Myriopholis blanfordi Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1907 Glauconia laticeps Nikolski (Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014)
1908 Glauconia carltoni Barbour (Hahn 1980)

Remarks: Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges (2009) reported blanfordi from Yemen, but neither Egan (2007) or Gasperetti (1988) includes this species for the Arabian Peninsula. The record most likely refers to nursi, a species previously regarded as a subspecies of blanfordi. Glauconia laticeps has variously been treated as a synonym of hamulirostris (see macrorhyncha) (e.g., Hahn 1980) or blanfordi (e.g., Hahn 1978; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: Afghanistan, India (Gujarat, Punjab, Rajasthan), Iran, Pakistan.


Myriopholis boueti

Mali Thread Snake, (Bouet's Thread Snake)

Mali-Fadenschlange

Mali-trådslange

1917 Glauconia boueti Chabanaud
Leptotyphlops narirostris boueti Villiers 1950
Leptotyphlops boueti Trape & Mané 2000
Myriopholis boueti Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1918 Glauconia debilis Chabanaud (Hahn & Wallach 1998)
Leptotyphlops debilis Hahn 1980

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of narirostris. Revalidated as a separate species by Trape & Mané (2000).
Distribution: Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal.


Myriopholis braccianii

Eritrean Mountain Thread Snake, (Scortecci's Thread Snake)

Eritreische Hochland-Fadenschlange

Eritreisk Højlands-trådslange

1928 Glauconia braccianii Scortecci
Leptotyphlops braccianii Parker 1949
Myriopholis braccianii Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1928 Glauconia variabilis Scortecci (Wallach & Lanza 2004)
Leptotyphlops variabilis Parker 1949

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of macrorhyncha (e.g., Hahn 1978), and later of cairi (e.g., Trape 2002). Revalidated as a separate species by Wallach & Lanza (2004), although listed as valid species already by Hahn (1980).
Distribution: Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan.


Myriopholis burii

Arabian Thread Snake, (Buri's Thread Snake)

Arabische Fadenschlange

Arabisk Trådslange

1905 Glauconia burii Boulenger
Leptotyphlops burii Corkill & Cochrane 1966
Myriopholis burii Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Not mentioned for Saudi Arabia by Aloufi, Amr, Baker & Hamidan (2019).
Distribution: Saudi Arabia, Yemen.


Myriopholis cairi

Egyptian Thread Snake, Cairo Thread Snake

Ägyptische Fadenschlange, Ägyptische Schlankblindschlange

Ægyptisk Trådslange

1844 Stenostoma cairi Dumeril & Bibron
Glauconia cairi Boulenger 1890
Leptotyphlops cairi Parker 1932
Myriopholis cairi Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1861 Stenostoma fitzingeri Jan (Hahn & Wallach 1998)
Glauconia fitzingeri Boulenger 1893
Leptotyphlops fitzingeri Hahn 1980
1936 Leptotyphlops macrorynchus bilmaensis [sic] Angel (Hahn & Wallach 1998)

Remarks: According to Venchi & Sindaco (2007), no literature or museum records confirm the presence of this species in Libya.
Distribution: Chad, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan.


Myriopholis erythraea

Eritrean Lowland Thread Snake

Eritreische Tiefland-Fadenschlange

Eritreisk Lavlands-trådslange

1928 Glauconia erythraea Scortecci
Leptotyphlops erythraeus Parker 1932
Myriopholis erythraeus Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of macrorhyncha (e.g., Hahn 1978). Revalidated by Wallach & Lanza (2004), but listed as a valid species already by Hahn (1980).
Distribution: Eritrea (incl. Dahlak Archipelago), Ethiopia.


Myriopholis filiformis

Socotra Slender Thread Snake

Sokotra Schlank-Fadenschlange

Slank Socotra-trådslange

1899 Glauconia filiformis Boulenger
Leptotyphlops filiformis Parker 1949
Myriopholis filiformis Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Yemen (Socotra Archipelago: Socotra).


Myriopholis ionidesi

Liwale Thread Snake, (Ionides' Thread Snake)

Liwale-Fadenschlange

Liwale-trådslange

2007 Leptotyphlops ionidesi Broadley & Wallach
Myriopholis ionidesi Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania.


Myriopholis lanzai

Ghat Thread Snake

Ghat-Fadenschlange

Ghat-trådslange

2014 Myriopholis lanzai Broadley, Wade & Wallach

Distribution: Chad, Libya.


Myriopholis longicauda

Southern African Long-tailed Thread Snake, (Long-tailed Flesh-pink Thread Snake)

Südafrikanische Langschwanz-Fadenschlange

Sydafrikansk Langhalet Trådslange

1854 Stenostoma longicaudum Peters
Glauconia longicauda Boulenger 1890
Leptotyphlops longicauda Loveridge 1953
Myriopholis longicauda Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1929 Glauconia fiechteri Scortecci (Hahn 1980)
Leptotyphlops fiechteri Wallach 1996 (cited as a syn. of L. longicaudus)
1930 Glauconia brevirostralis Fitzsimons (Hahn 1980)

Distribution: Botswana, Eswatini, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Somalia, South Africa (Limpopo, Mpumalanga), Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.


Myriopholis macrorhyncha

Large-snouted Thread Snake, Large-beaked Thread Snake, Sudan Beaked Thread Snake, Beaked Thread Snake, Hook-snouted Thread Snake, Hook-billed Thread Snake, Hooked Thread Snake, (Worm Snake)

Hakenschnabel-Fadenschlange, Hakenschnabel-Schlankblindschlange

Næb-trådslange

1860 Stenostoma macrorhynchum Jan
Ramphostoma macrorhynchum Jan 1861
Glauconia macrorhynchus Boulenger 1890
Leptotyphlops macrorhynchus Corkill 1932
Myriopholis macrorhyncha Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
1907 Glauconia hamulirostris Nikolski (Hahn & Wallach 1998)
Leptotyphlops hamulirostris Wettstein 1951
Myriopholis hamulirostris Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Previously included algeriensis, braccianii, erythraea, phillipsi, and the populations now assigned to adleri and lanzai. The exact distribution of this species is uncertain since many previous records have been assigned to other species (Venchi & Sindaco 2007), including both revalidated and recently described species. Records from northern and western Africa are based on misidentifications of other species (Trape 2002, 2005). Those from Mauritania, Algeria, Morocco, Western Sahara, and Tunisia (e.g., Papenfuss 1969; Hahn 1980; Berre 1989; Bons & Geniez 1996; Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996; Nouira & Lescure 1998) refer to algeriensis (Padial 2006; Venchi & Sindaco 2007; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013). Records from Libya refer to lanzai (Bauer, DeBoer & Taylor 2017). Records from Burkina Faso refer to adleri (Trape 2005). Records from Niger refer to bilmaensis, now considered a synonym of cairi. Populations in the Middle East and Pakistan need further studies to confirm their status (Broadley & Wallach 2007), but are here tentatively regarded as macrorhyncha. Although the species has often been included in lists of Indian snakes (e.g., Sharma 1974; Hahn 1980), it appears not to occur in the country (Whitaker & Captain 2004). Although reported from Syria (e.g., Gruber 1989; Disi & Böhme 1996), presence in the country is unconfirmed and needs confirmation (Martens 1997). Some authors have regarded hamulirostris as a separate species (e.g., Hahn 1978; Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei & Anderson 2008; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999; Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014).
Distribution: Chad, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, Ghana, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kenya, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen.


Myriopholis macrura

Socotra Long-tailed Thread Snake

Sokotra Langschwanz-Fadenschlange

Langhalet Socotra-trådslange

1899 Glauconia longicauda Boulenger [not Stenostoma longicaudum Peters 1854]
1903 Glauconia macrura Boulenger
Leptotyphlops macrura Parker 1949
Myriopholis macrura Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Yemen (Socotra Archipelago: Socotra).


Myriopholis narirostris

Sahel Thread Snake, (Peters' Thread Snake)

Sahel-Fadenschlange

Sahel-trådslange

1867 Stenostoma nasirostre Peters
Glauconia narirostris Boulenger 1890
Leptotyphlops narirostris Villiers 1950
Myriopholis narirostris Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously included boueti and populations now referred to albiventer and rouxestevae. At least some earlier records from West Africa appear to refer to those species (see Hallermann & Rödel 1995; Trape & Mané 2006; Chirio 2012). Records from Mauritania (e.g., Papenfuss 1969; Hahn 1980) refer to boueti (Padial 2006). Chirio (2012) recorded the first specimen west of Togo (in Guinea), although he already listed the species himself from the country earlier (Chirio & LeBreton 2007), possibly due to confusion with the above mentioned species.
Distribution: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Togo.


Myriopholis natatrix

Gambian Thread Snake

Gambianische Fadenschlange

Gambiansk Trådslange

1937 Glauconia natatrix Andersson
Leptotyphlops natatrix Hahn 1980
Myriopholis natatrix Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Status uncertain, closely related to macrorhyncha (Wallach 2003; Trape & Mane 2006). Treated as a synonym of algeriensis by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014). Not included by Emms, Jambang, Bahl, Mankali, Paziaud & Barnett (2007). Considered a valid species herein, pending further studies and following Wagner & Wilms (2013).
Distribution: Gambia.


Myriopholis nursii

Aden Thread Snake, (Nurse's Thread Snake, Anderson's Thread Snake)

Aden-Fadenschlange

Aden-trådslange

1896 Glauconia nursii Boulenger
Leptotyphlops nursii Parker 1938
Leptotyphlops blanfordi nursii Hahn 1978
Myriopholis nursii Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously included yemenica. Formerly regarded as a subspecies of blanfordi (e.g., Hahn 1978). Revalidated as a separate species by Hahn (1980) and Broadley & Wallach (2007). Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco (2013) suggested that reports from Oman (e.g., Kooij 2001c; Gardner 2009) might represent blanfordi. Reassigned to Leptotyphlops by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014), but without discussion.
Distribution: Egypt, Ethiopia, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Yemen.


Myriopholis occipitalis

Kouki Thread Snake

Kouki-Fadenschlange

Kouki-trådslange

2019 Myriopholis occipitalis Trape & Chirio

Distribution: Central African Republic, Chad.





Myriopholis parkeri

Ethiopian Many-scaled Thread Snake, (Parker's Thread Snake)

Äthiopische Vielschuppige Fadenschlange

Etiopisk Mangeskællet Trådslange

1999 Leptotyphlops parkeri Broadley
Rhinoleptus parkeri Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009
Myriopholis parkeri Boundy 2013

Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya.


Myriopholis perreti

Cameroon Thread Snake, (Perret's Thread Snake)

Kamerunische Fadenschlange

Camerounsk Trådslange

1979 Leptotyphlops perreti Roux-Estève
Myriopholis perreti Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni), Gabon.


Myriopholis phillipsi

Israelian Thread Snake

Israelische Fadenschlange

Israelsk Trådslange

1914 Leptotyphlops phillipsi Barbour
Myriopholis phillipsi Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of macrorhyncha (e.g., Hahn 1978; Gasperetti 1988). Revalidated by Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges (2009), although not all authors appear to recognise it as a valid species (e.g., Bar & Haimovitch 2011; Sindaco, Venchi & Grieco 2013; Disi, Amr & Nashat 2014; Werner 2016).
Distribution: Israel, Jordan.


Myriopholis rouxestevae

Senegal Thread Snake, (Roux-Estève's Thread Snake)

Senegal-Fadenschlange

Senegal-trådslange

2004 Leptotyphlops rouxestevae Trape & Mane
Myriopholis rouxestevae Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously confused with narirostris (Trape & Mané 2006; Chirio 2012).
Distribution: Guinea, Mali, Senegal.


Myriopholis tanae

Tana Thread Snake

Tana-Fadenschlange

Tana-trådslange

2007 Leptotyphlops tanae Broadley & Wallach
Myriopholis tanae Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Listed as a member of the genus Leptotyphlops by Wallach, Williams & Boundy (2014), however, in the remarks under the same genus, the authors assigned tanae to Myriopholis.
Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia.


Myriopholis wilsoni

Round-snouted Socotra Thread Snake

Sokotra Rundschnauzen-Fadenschlange

Butsnudet Socotra-trådslange

1978 Leptotyphlops wilsoni Hahn
Myriopholis wilsoni Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Distribution: Yemen (Socotra Archipelago: Socotra).


Myriopholis yemenica

Yemen Thread Snake

Jemenitische Fadenschlange

Yemen-trådslange

1933 Leptotyphlops yemenicus Scortecci
Myriopholis yemenica Adalsteinsson, Branch, Trape, Vitt & Hedges 2009

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of nursii (e.g., Hahn 1978). Revalidated by Wallach & Lanza (2004).
Distribution: Yemen.