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Taxonomy of the family Colubridae
Bibliography of the genus Thamnophis
Biodiversity of the family Colubridae








Genus
Thamnophis

North American Garter Snakes & Ribbon Snakes

Strumpfbandnattern

Strømpebåndssnoge

1843 Thamnophis Fitzinger (type species: Coluber saurita Linnaeus 1766)
1861 Prymnomiodon Cope (type species: Prymnomiodon chalceus Cope 1861)
1875 Chilopoma Cope in Yarrow (type species: Chilopoma rufipunctatum Cope 1875)
1883 Atomarchus Cope (type species: Atomarchus multimaculatus Cope 1883)
1885 Stypocemus Cope [substitute name for Chilopoma Cope in Yarrow 1875 erroneously believed preoccupied by Cheilopoma Murray 1867 (Coleoptera)]
Contents: 35 species, of which 23 (65.7%) are endemic.
Remarks: Three species of this genus (melanogaster, rufipunctatus, validus) has been regarded as members of Nerodia (e.g., Rossman & Eberle 1977; Chiasson & Lowe 1989, Lawson 1987).
Distribution: North America, Central America.
Reported from: Belize, Canada (Alberta, British Columbia [incl. Vancouver Island], Manitoba, New Brunswick, North West Territories, Nova Scotia [incl. Cape Breton Island], Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua, USA (Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California [incl. Channel Islands], Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).

Thamnophis atratus

Aquatic Garter Snake, Pacific Coast Aquatic Garter Snake

Westküsten-Strumpfbandnatter*

Akvatisk Strømpebåndssnog*

1860 Eutainia atrata Kennicott
Thamnophis elegans atratus Fitch 1948
Thamnophis couchi atratus Stebbins 1985
Thamnophis atratus Rossman & Stewart 1987
1892 Eutaenia infernalis vidua Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1936 Thamnophis ordinoides hydrophila Fitch (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis elegans hydrophila Fitch 1948
Thamnophis couchi hydrophilus Stebbins 1985
Thamnophis atratus hydrophilus Rossman & Stewart 1987
1951 Thamnophis elegans aquaticus Fox (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis couchi aquaticus Stebbins 1985
Thamnophis atratus aquaticus Rossman & Stewart 1987
1999 Thamnophis atratus zaxanthus Boundy

Other common names:
aquaticus: Aquatic Garter Snake
atratus: Santa Cruz Garter Snake
hydrophilus: Oregon Garter Snake
zaxanthus: Diablo Range Garter Snake
Distribution: USA (California, Oregon).


Thamnophis bogerti

Mesa del Sur Garter Snake*, (Bogert's Garter Snake)

Mesa del Sur-Strumpfbandnatter*

Mesa del Sur-strømpebåndssnog*

2005 Thamnophis bogerti Rossman & Burbrink

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).


Thamnophis brachystoma

Short-headed Garter Snake

Kurzkopf-Strumpfbandnatter

Korthovedet Strømpebåndssnog*

1892 Eutaenia brachystoma Cope
Thamnophis brachystoma Smith 1945

Introduced to: USA (Ohio).
Distribution: USA (New York, Pennsylvania).


Thamnophis butleri

Northeastern Garter Snake*, (Butler's Garter Snake)

Nordöstliche Strumpfbandnatter*

Nordøstlig Strømpebåndssnog, (Butlers Strømpebåndssnog)

1889 Eutaenia butleri Cope
Thamnophis butleri Stejneger 1895

Distribution: Canada (Ontario), USA (Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin).


Thamnophis chrysocephalus

Golden-headed Garter Snake

Goldkopf-Strumpfbandnatter*

Gyldenhovedet Strømpebåndssnog*

1884 Eutaenia chrysocephalus Cope
Thamnophis chrysocephalus Smith 1942
1940 Thamnophis eburatus Taylor (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)

Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero, Oaxaca, Puebla, Veracruz).


Thamnophis conanti

Pueblan Garter Snake*, (Conant's Garter Snake)

Puebla-Strumpfbandnatter*

Puebla-strømpebåndssnog*

2005 Thamnophis conanti Rossman & Burbrink

Distribution: Mexico (Puebla, Veracruz).


Thamnophis couchii

Sierra Garter Snake, (Western Aquatic Garter Snake)

Sierra-Strumpfbandnatter*

Sierra-strømpebåndssnog*

1859 Eutaenia couchii Kennicott
Thamnophis elegans couchii Fitch 1948
Thamnophis ordinoides couchii Denburgh & Slevin 1921
Thamnophis couchii Fitch 1984

Remarks: Previously included atratus, gigas, and hammondii.
Distribution: USA (California, Nevada).


Thamnophis cyrtopsis

Black-necked Garter Snake

Schwarzhals-Strumpfbandnatter

Sorthalset Strømpebåndssnog

1860 Eutaenia cyrtopsis Kennicott
Thamnophis cyrtopsis Cope 1861
Thamnophis eques cyrtopsis Gloyd & Smith 1942
1861 Thamnophis cyrtopsis cyclides Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1863 Tropidonotus collaris Jan (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis cyrtopsis collaris Webb 1966
1880 Eutaenia cyrtopsis ocellata Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1892 Eutaenia aurata Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1942 Thamnophis vicinus Smith (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1950 Thamnophis sumichrasti salvini Smith, Nixon & Smith (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)

Other common names:
collaris: Tropical Black-necked Garter Snake
cyrtopsis: Western Black-necked Garter Snake
ocellatus: Eastern Black-necked Garter Snake
vicinus: Smith's Garter Snake
Remarks: Previously included fulvus, postremus, and pulchrilatus.
Distribution: Guatemala, Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tamaulipas, Veracruz), USA (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas, Utah).


Thamnophis elegans

Terrestrial Garter Snake, Western Terrestrial Garter Snake, Elegant Garter Snake

Berg-Strumpfbandnatter

Vestlig Strømpebåndssnog*

1853 Eutainia elegans Baird & Girard
Thamnophis elegans Johnson 1947
1853 Eutaenia vagrans Baird & Girard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis ordinoides vagrans Johnson 1942
Thamnophis elegans vagrans Fitch 1948
1853 Tropidonotus trivittatus Hallowell (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1883 Eutaenia biscutata Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis elegans biscutatus Fitch 1948
1883 Eutaenia henshawi Yarrow (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1883 Eutaenia vagrans plutonia Yarrow (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1892 Eutaenia elegans brunnea Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1892 Eutaenia elegans lineolata Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1923 Thamnophis ordinoides hueyi Van Denburgh & Slevin (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis elegans hueyi Liner 1994
1947 Thamnophis elegans nigrescens Johnson (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1951 Thamnophis elegans terrestris Fox
1989 Thamnophis elegans arizonae Tanner & Lowe
1989 Thamnophis elegans vascotanneri Tanner & Lowe

Other common names:
biscutatus: Klamath Garter Snake
elegans: Mountain Garter Snake
hueyi: San Pedro Martir Island Garter Snake
nigrescens: Dusky Garter Snake
terrestris: Coast Garter Snake
vagrans: Wandering Garter Snake
Remarks: See couchi. Previously includes errans. Although included for Jalisco by Cruz-Sáenz, Guerrero, Lazcano & Télles-López (2009), presence in the state is considered undocumented herein, following Cruz-Sáenz, Muñoz-Nolasco, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2017), who did not list the species for Jalisco.
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia [incl. Vancouver Island], Saskatchewan), Mexico (Baja California Norte, Chihuahua), USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, Wyoming).


Thamnophis eques

Mexican Garter Snake

Mexikanische Strumpfbandnatter*

Mexicansk Strømpebåndssnog

1834 Coluber eques Reuss
Thamnophis eques Ruthven 1908
1839 Coluber subcarinata Gray in Richardson (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1860 Eutaenia macrostemma Kennicott (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis macrostemma Smith 1939
1860 Eutaenia megalops Kennicott (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis megalops Van Denburgh 1922
Thamnophis macrostemma megalops Smith 1939
Thamnophis eques megalops Smith 1951
1867 Eutaenia flavilabris Cope "1866" (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1885 Eutaenia insigniarum Cope "1884" (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1899 Thamnophis stejnegeri McLain (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1963 Thamnophis eques virgatenuis Conant (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
2003 Thamnophis eques carmenensis Conant
2003 Thamnophis eques cuitzeoensis Conant
2003 Thamnophis eques diluvialis Conant
2003 Thamnophis eques insperatus Conant
2003 Thamnophis eques obscurus Conant
2003 Thamnophis eques patzcuaroensis Conant
2003 Thamnophis eques scotti Conant

Other common names:
carmenensis: Tlaxcala Garter Snake
cuitzeoensis: Lake Cuitzeo Garter Snake
diluvialis: Jalisco Garter Snake
eques: Southern Mexican Garter Snake
insperatus: Lake Zacapu Garter Snake
megalops: Brown Garter Snake
megalops: Northern Mexican Garter Snake, Brown Garter Snake
obscurus: Obscure Mexican Garter Snake
patzcuaroensis: Lake Patzcuaro Garter Snake
scotti: Scott's Garter Snake
virgatenuis: Blue-striped Mexican Garter Snake, Western Montane Mexican Garter Snake
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas), USA (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico).


Thamnophis errans

Mexican Terrestrial Garter Snake, Mexican Wandering Garter Snake

Mexikanische Wandernde Strumpfbandnatter*

Mexicansk Vandrende Strømpebåndssnog*

1942 Thamnophis ordinoides errans Smith
Thamnophis elegans errans Tanner 1985
Thamnophis errans Fitch 1980

Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Jalisco, Nayarit, Zacatecas).


Thamnophis exsul

Exiled Garter Snake, (Montane Garter Snake)

Zwerg-Strumpfbandnatter

Coahuila-strømpebåndssnog*

1969 Thamnophis exsul Rossman

Distribution: Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas).


Thamnophis fulvus

Central American Highland Garter Snake*, Mesoamerican Highlands Garter Snake

Guatemalische Strumpfbandnatter

Centralamerikansk Bjerg-strømpebåndssnog

1893 Eutaenia cyrtopsis fulvus Bocourt
Thamnophis sumichrasti fulvus Smith 1942
Thamnophis cyrtopsis fulvus Rossman 1965
Thamnophis fulvus Webb 1982

Distribution: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Chiapas).


Thamnophis gigas

Giant Garter Snake

Riesen-Strumpfbandnatter

Stor Strømpebåndssnog*

1940 Thamnophis ordinoides gigas Fitch
Thamnophis elegans gigas Fitch 1948
Thamnophis couchi gigas Stebbins 1985
Thamnophis gigas Rossman & Stewart 1987

Distribution: USA (California).


Thamnophis godmani

Guerreran Garter Snake*, (Godman's Garter Snake)

Guerrero-Strumpfbandnatter*

Guerrero-strømpebåndssnog*

1894 Tropidonotus godmani Günther
Eutaenia godmanii Cope 1900
Thamnophis scalaris godmani Smith 1942
Thamnophis godmani Rossman in Varkey 1979

Remarks: Now restricted to Guerrero, but previously included populations now assigned to three separate species: bogerti, conanti, and lineri. Records from Oaxaca, Puebla, and Veracruz (e.g., Gehlbach & Collette 1957; Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996; Casas-Andreu, Mendez-de la Cruz & Aguilar-Miguel 2004) refer to these species (Rossman & Burbrink 2005). Although included for Jalisco by Cruz-Sáenz, Guerrero, Lazcano & Télles-López (2009), presence in the state is considered undocumented herein, following Cruz-Sáenz, Muñoz-Nolasco, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2017), who did not list the species for Jalisco.
Distribution: Mexico (Guerrero).


Thamnophis hammondii

Two-striped Garter Snake

Zweistreifen-Strumpfbandnatter

Tostribet Strømpebåndssnog*

1860 Eutainia hammondii Kennicott
Thamnophis hammondi Van Denburgh 1897
Thamnophis elegans hammondi Fitch 1948
Thamnophis couchi hammondi Behler & King 1979
1899 Tropidonotus digueti Mocquard (McGuire & Grismer 1993; Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis digueti Fitch 1940
Thamnophis hammondi digueti Stebbins 1985

Other common names:
digueti: Diguet's Two-striped Garter Snake
hammondi: Hammond's Two-striped Garter Snake
Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Rossman & Stewart (1987). Flores-Villela (1993) listed digueti as a separate species.
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Norte, Baja California Sur), USA (California [incl. Channel Islands]).


Thamnophis lineri

Sierra de Juárez Garter Snake*, (Liner's Garter Snake)

Sierra de Juárez-Strumpfbandnatter*

Sierra de Juárez-strømpebåndssnog*

2005 Thamnophis lineri Rossman & Burbrink

Distribution: Mexico (Oaxaca).


Thamnophis marcianus

Checkered Garter Snake

Schachbrett-Strumpfbandnatter*, Texas-Strumpfbandnatter

Skakbrætstrømpebåndssnog

1853 Eutaenia marciana Baird & Girard
Thamnophis marcianus Ruthven 1908
1889 Eutaenia nigrolateris Brown (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis marcianus nigrolateris Mittleman 1949
1892 Eutaenia praeocularis Bocourt (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis praeocularis Dunn 1940
Thamnophis sumichrasti praeocularis Smith 1942
Thamnophis eques praeocularis Bogert & Oliver 1970
Thamnophis marcianus praeocularis Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
1937 Thamnophis arabdotus Andrews (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1938 Thamnophis ruthveni Hartweg & Oliver (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis marcianus ruthveni McCoy & Horn 1962
1940 Thamnophis bovallii Dunn (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis marcianus bovalli Peters & Orejas-Miranda 1970
1940 Thamnophis rozellae Smith (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)

Other common names:
marcianus: Marcy's Checkered Garter Snake
praeocularis: Yucatan Checkered Garter Snake
Distribution: Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Baja California Norte, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Hidalgo, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas), Nicaragua, USA (Arizona, California, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Texas).


Thamnophis melanogaster

Mexican Black-bellied Garter Snake

Schwarzbauch-Strumpfbandnatter

Sortbuget Strømpebåndssnog*

1863 Tropidonotus mesomelanus Jan [nomen oblitum] (Smith & Chiszar 2001)
1864 Tropidonotus melanogaster Peters
Eutaenia melanogaster Cope 1885
Thamnophis melanogaster McLain 1899
Nerodia melanogaster Chiasson & Lowe 1989
1865 Tropidonotus Baronis Mülleri Troschel in Müller [invalid name] (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1942 Thamnophis melanogaster canescens Smith
Nerodia melanogaster canescens Liner 1994
1950 Thamnophis melanogaster linearis Smith, Nixon & Smith
Nerodia melanogaster linearis Liner 1994
1959 Thamnophis melanogaster chihuahuaensis Tanner
Nerodia melanogaster chihuahuaensis Liner 1994

Other common names:
canescens: Grey Black-bellied Garter Snake
chihuahuaensis: Chihuahuan Black-bellied Garter Snake
linearis: Lined Black-bellied Garter Snake
melanogaster: Common Mexican Black-bellied Garter Snake
Remarks: Transferred back to the genus Thamnophis by Rossman, Ford & Seigel (1996). Erroneously recorded from Sinaloa.
Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Chihuahua, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sonora, Veracruz, Zacatecas).


Thamnophis mendax

Tamaulipan Montane Garter Snake

Mexikanische Berg-Strumpfbandnatter

Tamaulipas-strømpebåndssnog*

1955 Thamnophis mendax Walker

Distribution: Mexico (Tamaulipas).


Thamnophis nigronuchalis

Durango Narrow-headed Garter Snake, Southern Durango Spotted Garter Snake

Schwarznacken-Strumpfbandnatter

Sydlig Smalhovedet Strømpebåndssnog*

1957 Thamnophis nigronuchalis Thompson
Nerodia rufipunctatus nigronuchalis Liner 1994
Thamnophis rufipunctatus nigronuchalis Tanner 1985
Thamnophis nigronuchalis Rossman 1996

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Queiroz & Lawson (1994) and Rossman (1996).
Distribution: Mexico (Durango, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Zacatecas).


Thamnophis ordinoides

Northwestern Garter Snake

Nordwestliche Strumpfbandnatter

Nordvestlig Strømpebåndssnog*

1852 Tropidonotus ordinoides Baird & Girard
Thamnophis ordinoides Ruthven 1908
1853 Eutaenia leptocephala Baird & Girard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1860 Eutainia cooperi Kennicott (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1899 Thamnophis leptocephala olympia Meek (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1899 Thamnophis rubristriata Meek (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)

Remarks: A record from Alaska presumably represents an introduction (Neuman-Lee, McGaugh, Pfrender & Janzen 2011).
Introduced to: USA (Alaska).
Distribution: Canada (British Columbia [incl. Vancouver Island]), USA (California, Oregon, Washington).


Thamnophis postremus

Tepalcatepec Valley Garter Snake, Tepalcatepec Valley Black-necked Garter Snake

Tepalcatepec-Strumpfbandnatter*

Tepalcatepec-strømpebåndssnog*

1942 Thamnophis eques postremus Smith
Thamnophis cyrtopsis postremus Smith 1951
Thamnophis postremus Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996

Distribution: Mexico (Michoacan).


Thamnophis proximus

Western Ribbon Snake, (Central American Ribbon Snake)

Westliche Bändernatter

Vestlig Båndssnog*

1823 Coluber proximus Say
Thamnophis proxima Garman 1892
Thamnophis sauritus proximus Ruthven 1908
1853 Eutaenia faireyi Baird & Girard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1861 Prymnomiodon chalceus Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sauritus chalceus Dunn 1940
1885 Eutaenia rutiloris Cope
Thamnophis sauritus rutiloris Smith 1938
Thamnophis proximus rutiloris Rossman 1963
1963 Thamnophis proximus alpinus Rossman
1963 Thamnophis proximus diabolicus Rossman
1963 Thamnophis proximus orarius Rossman
1963 Thamnophis proximus rubrilineatus Rossman

Other common names:
alpinus: Chiapas Highland Ribbon Snake
diabolicus: Arid Land Ribbon Snake
orarius: Gulf Coast Ribbon Snake
proximus: Orange-striped Ribbon Snake
rubrilineatus: Red-striped Ribbon Snake
rutiloris: Lowland Tropical Ribbon Snake
Remarks: Previously considered a subspecies of sauritus. Revalidated by Rossman (1962).
Distribution: Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico (Campeche, Chiapas, Coahuila, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Michoacan, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quintana Roo [incl. Cozumel], San Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatan), Nicaragua, USA (Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Wisconsin).


Thamnophis pulchrilatus

Yellow-throated Garter Snake, Mexican Highland Black-necked Garter Snake

Gelbkehl-Strumpfbandnatter*

Gulstrubet Strømpebåndssnog*

1885 Eutaenia pulchrilatus Cope "1884"
Thamnophis cyrtopsis pulchrilatus Webb 1966
Thamnophis pulchrilatus Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996

Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Distrito Federal, Durango, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Zacatecas).


Thamnophis radix

Plains Garter Snake

Prärie-Strumpfbandnatter

Præriestrømpebåndssnog

1853 Eutainia radix Baird & Girard
Thamnophis radix Jordan 1899
1860 Eutaenia haydenii Kennicott (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis radix haydeni Schmidt 1953
1863 Tropidonotus kennicotti Jan (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1878 Eutaenia radix twiningi Coues & Yarrow (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1888 Eutaenia radix melotaenia Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)

Other common names:
haydeni: Western Plains Garter Snake
radix: Eastern Plains Garter Snake
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Saskatchewan), USA (Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Texas, Wisconsin, Wyoming).


Thamnophis rossmani

Nayarit Garter Snake*, (Rossman's Garter Snake)

Nayarit-Strumpfbandnatter*

Nayarit-strømpebåndssnog*

2000 Thamnophis rossmani Conant

Distribution: Mexico (Nayarit).


Thamnophis rufipunctatus

Arizona Narrow-headed Garter Snake, Mogollon Narrow-headed Garter Snake

Nördliche Braunfleckiger Strumpfbandnatter*

Nordlig Smalhovedet Strømpebåndssnog*

1875 Chilopoma rufipunctatum Cope
Thamnophis rufipunctatus Smith 1942
Nerodia rufipunctatus Chiasson & Lowe 1989
1883 Atomarchus multimaculatus Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis multimaculatus Taylor 1941

Remarks: Previously included nigronuchalis and unilabialis. Transferred back to Thamnophis from Nerodia by Rossman, Ford & Seigel (1996). The taxon Eutaenia angustirostris (a nomen dubium, according to Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996) has previously been confused with rufipunctatus. It has been considered a valid species of the genus Thamnophis by some authors (e.g., Schmidt 1953; Smith & Smith 1976; Chávez-Avila, Casas-Andreu, García-Aguayo, Cifuentes-Lemus & Cupul-Magaña 2015; Lemos-Espinal 2015).
Distribution: USA (Arizona, New Mexico).


Thamnophis saurita

Eastern Ribbon Snake

Östliche Bändernatter

Østlig Båndsnog*

1766 Coluber saurita Linnaeus
Thamnophis saurita Stejneger 1893
1859 Eutaenia sackenii Kennicott (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sauritus sackenii Ruthven 1908
1963 Thamnophis sauritus nitae Rossman
1963 Thamnophis sauritus septentrionalis Rossman

Other common names:
nitae: Blue-striped Ribbon Snake
sackeni: Peninsula Ribbon Snake
saurita: Common Ribbon Snake
septentrionalis: Northern Ribbon Snake
Remarks: Previously included proximus. As shown by Kraus & Cameron (2016), the specific epithet saurita is a noun in apposition, not an adjective. Thus, the correct spelling is saurita, not sauritus, as seen almost consistently in older publications.
Introduced to: Bahamas.
Distribution: Canada (Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec), USA (Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin).


Thamnophis scalaris

Mexican Alpine Blotched Garter Snake, Long-tailed Alpine Garter Snake

Treppen-Strumpfbandnatter

Langhalet Bjerg-strømpebåndssnog*

1860 Thamnophis scalaris Cope

Distribution: Mexico (Distrito Federal, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Tlaxcala, Veracruz).


Thamnophis scaliger

Mesa Central Blotched Garter Snake, Short-tailed Alpine Garter Snake

Hochland-Strumpfbandnatter

Korthalet Bjerg-strømpebåndssnog*

1863 Tropidonotus scaliger Jan
Thamnophis scalaris scaliger Smith 1942
Thamnophis scaliger Flores-Villela 1993

Distribution: Mexico (Aguascalientes, Distrito Federal, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Puebla, San Luis Potosi, Tlaxcala, Zacatecas).


Thamnophis sirtalis

Common Garter Snake

Gewöhnliche Strumpfbandnatter

Østlig Strømpebåndssnog, Californisk Rødsidet Strømpebåndssnog (infernalis), Rødsidet Strømpebåndssnog (parietalis)

1758 Coluber sirtalis Linnaeus
Thamnophis sirtalis Garman 1892
1766 Coluber ordinatus Linnaeus (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1788 Tropidonotus taenia Schoepff (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1803 Coluber ibibe Daudin (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1823 Coluber parietalis Say in James (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis Jordan 1899
Thamnophis parietalis Garstka, Camazine & Crews 1982
1835 Coluber infernalis Blainville (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sirtalis infernalis Van Denburgh & Slevin 1918
1837 Tropidonotus bipunctatus Schlegel (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1852 Tropidonotus concinnus Hallowell (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sirtalis concinnus Ruthven 1908
1853 Eutaenia dorsalis Baird & Girard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis dorsalis McDiarmid 1963
1853 Eutainia pickeringii Baird & Girard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sirtalis pickeringii Johnson 1942
1854 Tropidonotus jauresii Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1859 Eutaenia ornata Baird & Girard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1875 Eutaenia sirtalis obscura Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1875 Eutaenia sirtalis tetrataenia Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia Johnson 1942
1889 Eutaenia sirtalis graminea Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1889 Eutaenia sirtalis melanota Highley (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1892 Eutaenia sirtalis semifasciata Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1892 Eutainia sirtalis trilineata Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1899 Thamnophis sirtalis pallidula Allen
1903 Tropidonotus obalskii Mocquard (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1950 Thamnophis sirtalis annectens Brown
1951 Thamnophis sirtalis fitchi Fox
1964 Thamnophis sirtalis similis Rossman
1988 Thamnophis sirtalis lowei Tanner (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)

Other common names:
annectens: Texas Garter Snake
concinnus: Red-spotted Garter Snake
dorsalis: New Mexico Garter Snake
fitchi: Valley Garter Snake
infernalis: California Red-sided Garter Snake
lowei: Lowe's Garter Snake
pallidulus: Maritime Garter Snake
parietalis: Red-sided Garter Snake
pickeringi: Puget Sound Garter Snake
semifasciatus: Chicago Garter Snake
similis: Blue-striped Garter Snake
sirtalis: Eastern Garter Snake
tetrataenia: San Francisco Garter Snake
Remarks: Most northerly distributed snake species in North America, reaching the North West Territories in Canada. There is also an old report from Yukon (Mills 1948), which appears to be unverified. Although reported from Newfoundland (Behler & King 1979), the species does not occur there (Fisher, Joynt & Brooks 2007). Collins (1991) suggested recognition of dorsalis as a separate species.
Introduced to: Bahamas, New Zealand, Saint Barthelemy.
Distribution: Canada (Alberta, British Columbia [incl. Vancouver Island], Manitoba, New Brunswick, North West Territories, Nova Scotia [incl. Cape Breton Island], Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan), Mexico (Chihuahua), USA (Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York [incl. Long Island], North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Washington, D.C., West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming).


Thamnophis sumichrasti

Orizaba Garter Snake*, (Sumichrast's Garter Snake)

Sattelflecken-Strumpfbandnatter

Orizaba-strømpebåndssnog*

1866 Eutaenia sumichrasti Cope
Thamnophis sumichrasti Smith 1942
1868 Eutaenia phenax Cope (Rossman 1966; Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis phenax Smith 1942
1940 Thamnophis halophilus Taylor (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
Thamnophis phenax halophilus Smith 1942

Remarks: Although included for Jalisco by Cruz-Sáenz, Guerrero, Lazcano & Télles-López (2009), presence in the state is considered undocumented herein, following Cruz-Sáenz, Muñoz-Nolasco, Mata-Silva, Johnson, García-Padilla & Wilson (2017), who did not list the species for Jalisco.
Distribution: Mexico (Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Veracruz).


Thamnophis unilabialis

Chihuahua Narrow-headed Garter Snake, Madrean Narrow-headed Garter Snake

Mexicanische Braunfleckiger Strumpfbandnatter*

Mexicansk Smalhovedet Strømpebåndssnog*

1985 Thamnophis rufipunctatus unilabialis Tanner
Nerodia rufipunctatus unilabialis Liner 1994
Thamnophis unilabialis Wood, Vandergast, Lemos-Espinal, Fisher & Holycross 2011

Remarks: Transferred back to Thamnophis from Nerodia by Rossman, Ford & Seigel (1996).
Distribution: Mexico (Chihuahua, Durango, Sonora).


Thamnophis validus

Mexican West Coast Garter Snake, Mexican Pacific Lowlands Garter Snake, Pacific Water Snake, Natricine Garter Snake

Mexikanische Westküsten-Wassernatter

Vestmexicansk Strømpebåndssnog*

1860 Regina valida Kennicott
Natrix valida Cope 1892
Tropidonotus validus Boulenger 1893
Nerodia valida Rossman & Eberle 1977
Thamnophis validus Lawson 1987
1860 Tropidonotus celaeno Cope
Thamnophis valida celaeno Liner 1994
1860 Tropidonotus tephropleura Cope (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1879 Tropidonotus quadriserialis Fischer (Rossman, Ford & Seigel 1996)
1953 Natrix valida isabelleae Conant
Thamnophis valida isabelleae Liner 1994
1961 Natrix valida thamnophisoides Conant
Nerodia valida thamnophisoides Lawson 1987
Thamnophis valida thamnophisoides Liner 1994

Other common names:
celaeno: Cape Garter Snake, Cape Water Snake
isabelleae: Colima Garter Snake, Colima Water Snake
thamnophisoides: Tepic Garter Snake, Tepic Water Snake
valida: Pacific Garter Snake
Distribution: Mexico (Baja California Sur, Chihuahua, Colima, Durango, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit, Sinaloa, Sonora).