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© Rune Midtgaard

Taxonomy of the family Viperidae
Bibliography of the genus Craspedocephalus
Biodiversity of the family Viperidae


Ridge-nosed Tree Pitvipers


Spidssnudede Træhugorme, Palmehugorme

1822 Craspedocephalus Kuhl & van Hasselt (type species: Craspedocephalus puniceus Kuhl 1824)
1830 Atropos Wagler [not Atropos Oken 1815 (Insecta); not Atropos Leach 1830 (Insecta)] (type species: Craspedocephalus puniceus Kuhl 1824; syn. David, Vogel & Dubois 2011)
1830 Megaera Wagler [not Megaera Robineau-Desvoidy 1830 (Insecta)] (type species: Coluber trigonocephalus Donndorff 1798; syn. David, Vogel & Dubois 2011)
1871 Atropophis Peters [substitute name for Atropos Wagler 1830]
Contents: 9 species, of which 8 (88.9%) are endemic.
Endemism: 0% 100%
Remarks: The species assigned to this genus were placed in Trimeresurus by Malhotra & Thorpe (2004). Subsequently, David, Vogel & Dubois (2011) showed that Cryptelytrops is a synonym of Trimeresurus. Consequently, all species formerly placed in Cryptelytrops are now placed in Trimeresurus, whereas the species placed in Trimeresurus by Malhotra & Thorpe (2004) are now assigned to Craspedocephalus, the next available name for this group of snakes.
Distribution: SE. Asia, Indonesia, Philippines.
Reported from: Brunei, India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, West Bengal), Indonesia (Anambas Islands, Java, Kalimantan, Natuna Islands, Siberut, Simeulue, Sipura, Sumatra, Tinjil), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia), Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Craspedocephalus andalasensis

Sumatran Palm Pitviper



2006 Trimeresurus andalasensis David, Vogel, Vijayakumar & Vidal
Craspedocephalus andalasensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Indonesia (Sumatra).

Craspedocephalus borneensis

Bornean Flat-nosed Pitviper, Bornean Leaf-nosed Pitviper, Bornean Palm Pitviper, Bornean Pitviper, Palm Pitviper



1872 Atropophis borneensis Peters
Lachesis borneensis Boulenger 1896
Trimeresurus borneensis Barbour 1912
Craspedocephalus borneensis Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1893 Bothrops sandakanensis Lidth de Jeude (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included wiroti (e.g., Toriba 1992; David & Ineich 1999). Now considered endemic to Borneo. Records from Sumatra, Thailand, and West Malaysia refer to other species (David, Vogel, Vijayakumar & Vidal 2006).
Distribution: Brunei, Indonesia (Kalimantan), Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak).

Craspedocephalus borneensis
© Rune Midtgaard

Craspedocephalus brongersmai

Mentawai Palm Pitviper, (Brongersma's Palm Pitviper, Brongersma's Pitviper)

Mentawai-Bambusotter, (Brongersmas Bambusotter)


1967 Trimeresurus brongersmai Hoge
Craspedocephalus brongersmai Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Distribution: Indonesia (Siberut, Simeulue).

Craspedocephalus gramineus

Indian Green Pitviper, Indian Bamboo Pitviper, Indian Tree Pitviper, Common Green Pitviper

Gewöhnliche Bambusotter

Indisk Grøn Træhugorm

1802 Coluber Gramineus Shaw
Trigonocephalus gramineus Cantor 1847
Trimeresurus gramineus Günther 1864
Lachesis gramineus Boulenger 1896
Craspedocephalus gramineus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1802 Coluber viridis Bechstein [invalid name] (syn. David, Vogel & Dubois 2011)
Cophias viridis Merrem 1820
Trigonocephalus viridis Schinz 1822
Bothrops viridis Wagler 1830
Trimeresurus viridis Gray 1842
Bothrophis viridis Fitzinger 1843
1803 Vipera viridis Daudin [not Coluber viridis Bechstein 1802] (McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
1863 Bothrops viridis fario Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1863 Bothrops viridis genei Jan (Golay & al. 1993)
1933 Trimeresurus occidentalis Pope & Pope (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Now restricted to peninsular India (Whitaker & Captain 2004; Gumprecht, Tillack, Orlov, Captain & Ryabov 2004), although previously reported from most other southeast Asian countries, based on species previously confused with gramineus. Erroneously reported also from the Andaman Islands (e.g., Blyth 1863) (Das 1999).
Distribution: India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, West Bengal).

Craspedocephalus malabaricus

Malabar Rock Pitviper, Malabarian Pitviper, (Rock Viper)

Malabarische Bambusotter


1854 Trigonocephalus malabaricus Jerdon "1853"
Trimeresurus malabaricus Beddome 1862
Lachesis malabaricus Rao 1917
Craspedocephalus malabaricus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1854 Trigonocephalus wardii Jerdon (Golay & al. 1993)
Trimeresurus wardii Beddome 1862
1864 Trimeresurus anamallensis Günther (Golay & al. 1993)
Bothrops anamallensis Müller 1878
Lachesis anamallensis Boulenger 1896
1917 Lachesis coorgensis Rao (Golay & al. 1993)

Distribution: India (Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu).

Craspedocephalus puniceus

Ashy Pitviper, Javanese Palm Pitviper, Flat-nosed Pitviper, Leaf-nosed Pitviper


Askegrå Palmehugorm

1824 Craspedocephalus puniceus Kuhl
Trigonocephalus puniceus Kuhl 1824 [cited in footnote 3 and attributed to Reinhardt]
Cophias punicea Boie 1827
Atropos puniceus Wagler 1830
Trimeresurus puniceus Boettger 1892
Lachesis puniceus Boulenger 1896
1842 Atropos acontia Gray (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Previously included wiroti. Status of populations in western Sumatra and Mentawai Islands (referred to as T. cf. puniceus by David, Vogel, Vijayakumar & Vidal 2006) is unresolved and may represent an undescribed species (Iskandar & Colijn 2002; David, Vogel, Vijayakumar & Vidal 2006). Records from Borneo (e.g., Stuebing 1991) refer to borneensis. Records from West Malaysia (e.g., Grandison 1972; Heang, Liat & Lambert 1996; Tweedie 1961) and Thailand (e.g., Cox 1991, Nutphand, Cox, Trutnau & Smith 1991) refer to wiroti (David, Vogel, Vijayakumar & Vidal 2006).
Distribution: Indonesia (Anambas Islands, Java, Natuna Islands, Sipura, Sumatra, Tinjil).

Craspedocephalus strigatus

Horseshoe Pitviper



1842 Trimeresurus strigatus Gray
Lachesis strigatus Boulenger 1896
Protobothrops strigatus Kraus, Mink & Brown 1996
Craspedocephalus strigatus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1854 Atropos darwini Duméril, Bibron & Duméril (Golay & al. 1993)
1854 Trigonocephalus neelgherriensis Jerdon (Golay & al. 1993)

Remarks: Kraus, Mink & Brown (1996) placed this species in the genus Protobothrops, which was followed by some authors (e.g., David & Ineich 1999; Orlov, Ananjeva, Barabanov, Ryabov & Kha-Likov 2002; Das 2003). According to Malhotra & Thorpe (2004), however, the relationships of this species lies with Indian Craspedocephalus species (at that time still referred to as Trimeresurus by these authors) rather than with Protobothrops, which has been followed by several authors (Gumprecht, Tillack, Orlov, Captain & Ryabov 2004; Whitaker & Captain 2004; Vogel 2006), who retained the species in the genus Trimeresurus (later Craspedocephalus, see remarks under genus).
Distribution: India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu).

Craspedocephalus trigonocephalus

Sri Lankan Green Pitviper

Srilankanische Bambusotter

Srilankansk Grøn Træhugorm, (Sri Lanka-palmehugorm)

1789 Trimeresurus capitetriangulatus Lacepede [suppressed] (ICZN 1987: Opinion 1463; McDiarmid, Campbell & Touré 1999)
1798 Coluber Trigonocephalus Donndorff
Vipera trigonocephala Sonnini & Latreille 1801
Cophias trigonocephalus Merrem 1820
Megaera trigonocephala Wagler 1830
Trimeresurus trigonocephalus Günther 1964
Lachesis trigonocephalus Boulenger 1896
Craspedocephalus trigonocephalus Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014
1820 Trigonocephalus nigromarginatus Kuhl (Golay & al. 1993)
Bothrops nigromarginatus Duméril, Bibron & Duméril 1854
1842 Megaera olivacea Gray (Golay & al. 1993)

Distribution: Sri Lanka.

Craspedocephalus trigonocephalus
© Rune Midtgaard

Craspedocephalus wiroti

Peninsular Palm Pitviper, (Wirot’s Palm Pitviper, Wirot’s Pitviper)

Südthailändische Bambusotter, (Wirots Bambusotter)

Sydthailandsk Palmehugorm

1981 Trimeresurus wiroti Trutnau
Trimeresurus puniceus wiroti Cox 1991
Craspedocephalus wiroti Wallach, Williams & Boundy 2014

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of puniceus (e.g., Nutphand, Cox, Trutnau & Smith 1991) and, more recently, of borneensis (Toriba 1992; David & Ineich 1999). Revalidated by David, Vogel, Vijayakumar & Vidal (2006).
Distribution: Malaysia (West Malaysia), Thailand.