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Taxonomy of the family Scincidae
Bibliography of the genus Chalcides
Biodiversity of the family Scincidae


Cylindrical Skinks, Barrel Skinks


Nordlige Valseskinker*

1768 Chalcides Laurenti (type species: Chalcides tridactyla Laurenti 1768)
1816 Zygnis Oken [nomen rejectum] (ICZN: Opinion 417 (19??))
1830 Gongylus Wagler [not Gongylus Thunberg 1815] (type species: Lacerta ocellata Forskål 1775; syn. Smith 1935)
1830 Sphenops Wagler (type species: Sphenops capistratus Wagler 1830; syn. Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007)
1839 Heteromeles Dumeril & Bibron (type species: Heteromeles mauritanicus Dumeril & Bibron 1839; syn. Smith 1935)
1856 Anisoterma Dumeril (type species: Anisoterma sphenopsiforme Dumeril 1856; syn. Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 [by implication])
1876 Allodactylus Lataste & Rochebrune (type species: Allodactylus de l'Islei Lataste 1876; syn. Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 [by implication])
1883 Gongyloseps Boettger (type species: Seps mionecton Boettger 1873; syn. Smith 1935)
Contents: 33 species, of which 14 (42.4%) are endemic.
Remarks: Includes Sphenops, previously regarded as a synonym of Chalcides (e.g., Boulenger 1887), later revalidated (Pasteur & Bons 1960), but synonymized again with Chalcides by Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo (2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Canary Islands, S. Europe, N. Africa, Middle East, S. India, Sri Lanka.
Reported from: Algeria, Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Gambia, Ghana, Gibraltar, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India (Kerala), Iran, Israel, Italy, (incl. Elba, Pantelleria, Pelagie Islands [Lampedusa, Linosa Islands], Sicily), Jordan, Kenya, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Oman, Pakistan, Portugal, Qatar, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Spain (incl. Canary Islands [Fuerteventura, Gomera, Gran Canaria, Hierro, Lanzarote, Tenerife]), Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Togo, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Chalcides armitagei

Gambian Cylindrical Skink*, (Armitage's Skink)

Gambianischer Walzenskink*

Gambiansk Valseskink*

1922 Chalcides armitagei Boulenger

Remarks: The year of the original description has sometimes been erroneously quoted as 1896, 1920 or 1921 (e.g., Pasteur 1981; Frank & Ramus 1995).
Distribution: Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal.

Chalcides bedriagai

Spanish Cylindrical Skink, (Bedriaga's Skink)

Iberischer Walzenskink, Spanischer Walzenskink

Spansk Valseskink

1880 Gongylus ocellatus bedriagai Bosca
Chalcides bedriagae Boulenger 1887
1966 Chalcides bedriagai montanus Valverde [not Chalcides ocellatus montanus Werner 1931] (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1966 Chalcides bedriagai pistaciae Valverde (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
Chalcides pistaciae Valverde 1966
1968 Chalcides bedriagai albaredae Valverde [substitute name for Chalcides bedriagai montanus Valverde 1966] (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1997 Chalcides bedriagai cobosii Valverde

Remarks: Tentatively includes Chalcides bedriagae pistaciae Valverde 1967, a taxon which status remain uncertain (Arnold 2002; Speybroeck & Crochet 2007).
Distribution: Gibraltar, Portugal, Spain.

Chalcides bottegi

Ethiopian Cylindrical Skink*

Äthiopischer Walzenskink*

Etiopisk Valseskink*

1898 Chalcides bottegi Boulenger
Chalcides ragazzii bottegi Pasteur 1981
Chalcides ocellatus bottegi Drewes 1972

Remarks: Revalidated as a separate species by Greenbaum, Campbell & Raxworthy (2006).
Distribution: Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, Sudan.

Chalcides boulengeri

Tunisian Cylindrical Skink*, (Boulenger's Sand Skink, Boulenger's Skink)

Tunesischer Keilschleiche*

Tunesisk Valseskink*

1896 Chalcides boulengeri Anderson
Chalcides sepsoides var. boulengeri Lépiney & Németh 1949
Sphenops boulengeri Pasteur & Bons 1960

Remarks: Brandley, Schmitz & Reeder (2005) reported boulengeri from the Senegal/Mauritania border, but this record probably refers to delislei or sphenopsiformis (Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia.

Chalcides chalcides

Italian Three-toed Cylindrical Skink, Italian Three-toed Skink

Italienische Erzschleiche, Östliche Erzschleiche


1758 Lacerta chalcides Linnaeus
Chalcides chalcides Stejneger 1936
1768 Chalcides tridactyla Laurenti (Busack 1986)
1801 Chamaesaura chalkis Schneider (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1820 Seps chalcidica Merrem [substitute name for Lacerta chalcides Linnaeus 1758] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1828 Seps vittata Leuckart (Caputo, Lanza & Palmieri 1995)
Chalcides chalcides vittatus Klausewitz 1954
1833 Seps concolor Metaxa (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
Chalcides chalcides concolor Klausewiz 1954
1833 Seps quadrilineata Metaxa (Böhme (ed.) 1981)

Remarks: Previously included mertensi and striatus (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960). Records from Portugal, Spain and France refer to striatus. Busack (1986) referred all North African records to mertensi, but Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2008) referred the Tunisian and Libyan populations as well as the introduced, Sardinian population to C. c. vittatus.
Introduced to: Italy (Sardinia).
Distribution: Algeria, Italy (incl. Elba, Sicily), Libya, San Marino, Tunisia.

Chalcides coeruleopunctatus

Blue-spotted Canarian Skink*

Südlicher Kanarenskink

Blåplettet Valseskink*

1975 Chalcides viridanus coeruleopunctatus Salvador
Chalcides coeruleopunctatus Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]

Distribution: Canary Islands (Gomera, Hierro).

Chalcides colosii

Riffian Skink



1957 Chalcides ocellatus colosii Lanza [substitute name for Chalcides ocellatus var. vittatus Boulenger 1890]
Chalcides colosii Pasteur 1981
1890 Chalcides ocellatus var. vittatus Boulenger [not Seps vittata Leuckart 1828] (Lanza 1957)

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides delislei

Central Saharan Three-fingered Skink*, (De l'Isle Sand Skink, De l'Isle Skink, Lataste's Three-fingered Skink)

Zentralsaharischer Keilschleiche*

Centralsaharisk Valseskink*

1876 Allodactylus de l'Islei Lataste
Chalcides delislei Boulenger 1887
Sphenops delislei Pasteur & Bons 1960

Remarks: Papenfuss (1969) included Senegal in the distribution, but to my knowledge, only sphenopsiformis occurs in the country. Records from Western Sahara needs confirmation (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996).
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan, Western Sahara.

Chalcides ebneri

North Moroccan Cylindrical Skink*, (Ebner's Skink)

Nordmarokkanischer Walzenskink*

Nordmarokkansk Valseskink*

1931 Chalcides ocellatus vittatus ebneri forma n. Werner
Chalcides ebneri Pasteur 1981

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides guentheri

Levant Cylindrical Skink*, (Günther's Cylindrical Skink)

Levantischer Walzenskink*

Levantisk Valseskink*

1887 Chalcides guentheri Boulenger

Remarks: A single record (Werner 1983) from Cairo (Egypt) is obviously a locality error (Baha el Din 2006).
Distribution: Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria.

Chalcides humilis

Saharan Ocellated Skink

Gefleckter Sahara-Walzenskink*

Plettet Sahara-valseskink*

1896 Chalcides ocellatus var. humilis Boulenger
Chalcides cf. humilis Baha el Din 2006
1936 Chalcides ocellatus tassiliensis Angel

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym or subspecies of ocellatus. Tentatively revalidated as a separate species by Baha el Din (2006).
Distribution: Egypt, Sudan.

Chalcides lanzai

Central Atlas Cylindrical Skink*



1967 Chalcides ocellatus lanzai Pasteur
Chalcides lanzai Caputo & Mellado 1992
Chalcides montanus lanzai Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995

Remarks: Variously regarded as a subspecies of montanus (e.g., Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995) or as a distinct species (e.g., Caputo & Mellado 1992; Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides levitoni

Southwest Arabian Cylindrical Skink*

Südwestarabischer Walzenskink*

Sydvestarabisk Valseskink*

1978 Chalcides levitoni Pasteur

Distribution: Saudi Arabia.

Chalcides manueli

Moroccan Ocellated Skink*

Marokkanischer Gefleckter Walzenskink*

Marokkansk Plettet Valseskink*

1935 Chalcides ocellatus manueli Hediger
Chalcides manueli Caputo & Mellado 1992

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides mauritanicus

Algerian Two-toed Cylindrical Skink*, Two-fingered Skink

Algerischer Zweizehiger Walzenskink*

Algiersk Totået Valseskink*

1839 Heteromeles mauritanicus Dumeril & Bibron
Chalcides mauritanicus Boulenger 1887

Distribution: Algeria, Morocco.

Chalcides mertensi

Algerian Three-toed Cylindrical Skink*

Algerischer Dreizehiger Walzenskink*

Algiersk Tretået Valseskink*

1954 Chalcides chalcides mertensi Klausewitz
Chalcides mertensi Busack 1986

Distribution: Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia.

Chalcides minutus

Lesser Three-toed Cylindrical Skink, Small Three-toed Skink

Kleiner Dreizehiger Walzenskink*

Lille Tretået Valseskink*

1993 Chalcides minutus Caputo

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides mionecton

Mionecton Skink


Marokkansk Lavlands-valseskink*

1873 Seps mionecton Boettger
Chalcides mionecton Boettger 1887
1917 Chalcides trifasciatus Chabanaud (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
Chalcides mionecton trifasciatus Hediger 1935
1962 ? Chalcides atlantis Pasteur (Pasteur 1981; Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides montanus

Moroccan Mountain Cylindrical Skink, Moroccan Mountain Skink

Marokkanischer Gebirgs-Walzenskink*

Marokkansk Bjergvalseskink*

1931 Chalcides ocellatus montanus Werner
Chalcides montanus Caputo & Mellado 1992

Remarks: Previously included lanzai.
Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides ocellatus

Mediterranean Ocellated Skink, Ocellated Skink, Ocellated Barrel Skink, Ocellated Bronze Skink, Eyed Cylindrical Skink, Eyed Skink

Gefleckter Walzenskink

Europæisk Plettet Valseskink

1775 Lacerta ocellata Forskål
Scincus ocellatus Olivier 1801
Tiliqua ocellata Cuvier 1829
Gongylus ocellatus Wagler 1830
Seps ocellatus Günther 1871
Chalcides ocellatus Boulenger 1887
1789 Lacerta tiligugu Gmelin (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
Chalcides ocellatus tiligugu Boulenger 1890
1801 Scincus tirus Rafinesque (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1801 Scincus variegatus Schneider (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1833 Scincus thyro Metaxa (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)
1839 Tiliqua microcephala Gray (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1882 Gongylus ocellatus var. vulgaris Bedriaga (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1897 Lygosoma akeleyi Meek (Parker 1942)
1915 Chalcides ocellatus var. nigerrima Krausse (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1920 Chalcides ocellatus var. linosae Boulenger (Böhme (ed.) 1981; Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995)
1921 Chalcides ocellatus linosanus Mertens (Böhme (ed.) 1981)
1931 Chalcides ocellatus subtypicus Werner (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1954 Chalcides ocellatus sacchii Lanza
1954 Chalcides ocellatus zavattarii Lanza

Remarks: Previously included humilis. Taxonomic status of a record from Sri Lanka (Karunarathna, Wickramasinghe, Samarawickrama & Munindradasa 2008, as "cf. ocellatus") is uncertain.
Introduced to: Italy (mainland, Sardinia), USA (Arizona, Florida).
Distribution: Algeria, Chad, Cyprus, Egypt (incl. Sinai), Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece (incl. Aegean Islands [incl. Cyclades Islands, Dodecanese Islands (incl. Rhodes)], Crete), Iran, Israel, Italy (incl. Pantelleria, Pelagie Islands [Lampedusa, Linosa Islands], Sicily), Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mali, Malta, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, Western Sahara, Yemen.

Chalcides parallelus

Algerian Five-toed Cylindrical Skink, (Chafarina's Skink)

Algerischer Fünfzehiger Walzenskink*

Algiersk Femtået Valseskink*

1901 Gongylus ocellatus var. parallelus Doumergue
Chalcides parallelus Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995
1992 Chalcides ghiarai Caputo & Mellado (Mateo, Geniez & Bons 1995)

Distribution: Algeria, Morocco.

Chalcides pentadactylus

Indian Cylindrical Skink*, Indian Earless Skink

Indischer Walzenskink*

Indisk Valseskink*

1870 Sphenocephalus ? pentadactylus Beddome
Chalcides pentadactylus Boulenger 1890

Remarks: Not mentioned by Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo (2007 ["2008"]). Status of pentadactylus is uncertain, and presence in India needs confirmation (Venugopal 2010; Palot 2015).
Distribution: India (Kerala).

Chalcides polylepis

Many-scaled Cylindrical Skink*, Multiscaled Skink, Many-scaled Skink, Moroccan Skink

Vielschuppiger Walzenskink, (Marokkanischer Walzenskink)

Mangeskællet Valseskink*

1890 Chalcides ocellatus var. polylepis Boulenger
Chalcides polylepis Lanza 1957

Remarks: Previously included simonyi (formerly known as C. polylepis occidentalis), now regarded as a separate species. Records from the Canary Islands refer to simonyi (Bischoff (ed.) 1998).
Distribution: Morocco, Western Sahara.

Chalcides pseudostriatus

Moroccan Three-toed Cylindrical Skink

Marokkanischer Dreizehiger Walzenskink*

Marokkansk Tretået Valseskink*

1993 Chalcides pseudostriatus Caputo

Distribution: Morocco.

Chalcides pulchellus

West African Cylindrical Skink

Westafrikanischer Walzenskink*

Vestafrikansk Valseskink*

1906 Chalcides pulchellus Mocquard
Chalcides thierryi pulchellus Schätti 1986

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of thierryi (e.g., Schätti 1986). Now considered a distinct species (e.g., Greenbaum 1985; Greenbaum, Campbell & Raxworthy 2006; Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]).
Distribution: Burkina Faso, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Senegal.

Chalcides ragazzii

Eritrean Cylindrical Skink*, (Ragazzi's Bronze Skink)

Eritreischer Walzenskink*

Eritreisk Valseskink*

1890 Chalcides ocellatus ragazzii Boulenger
Chalcides ragazzii Pasteur 1981

Remarks: Previously included bottegi. Now restricted to the African Horn and adjacent areas. Records from West Africa and south-central Sahara refer to ocellatus. Records from Kenya refer to bottegi. Records from Sudan may refer to either bottegi or ocellatus (Greenbaum, Campbell & Raxworthy 2006).
Distribution: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia.

Chalcides sepsoides

Wedge-snouted Cylindrical Skink*, Wedge-snouted Skink, (Audouin's Sand Skink, Saharan Sphenops)

Östlicher Keilschleiche

Kilesnudet Valseskink*

1829 Scincus sepsoides Audouin
Chalcides sepoides [sic] Boulenger 1887
Sphenops sepoides [sic] Panousse 1954
Chalcides sepsoides Johann 1981
1830 Sphenops capistratus Wagler (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)

Remarks: Records from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia (e.g., Berre 1989), refer to boulengeri, sometimes regarded as conspecific with sepsoides.
Distribution: Egypt (incl. Sinai), Israel, Jordan, Libya.

Chalcides sexlineatus

Gran Canaria Six-lined Skink*, Six-lined Skink, Gran Canaria Skink

Gestreifter Kanarenskink, Gran Canaria-Skink

Seksstribet Valseskink*

1891 Chalcides viridanus var. sexlineata Steindachner
Chalcides sexlineatus Boettger & Müller 1914
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. bistriata Steindachner (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
Chalcides sexlineatus bistriatus Carranza, Arnold, Geniez, Roca & Mateo 2007 ["2008"]
Chalcides bistriatus Sindaco & Jeremchenko 2008
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. bistriata Farbvar. nigrescens Steindachner (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. bistriata Farbvar. pallens Steindachner (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
1891 Chalcides viridanus var. simonyi Steindachner [not Chalcides simonyi Steindachner 1891] (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)

Remarks: Pasteur (1981) included Madeira in the distribution, but this was not confirmed by Bischoff (ed.) (1998). Sindaco & Jeremchenko (2008) regarded bistriatus (including pallens) as a separate species.
Introduced to: Canary Islands (Palma).
Distribution: Canary Islands (Gran Canaria).

Chalcides simonyi

East Canarian Skink, Purpurarian Skink, Fuerteventura Skink

Ostkanarenskink, Purpurarienskink

Østkanarisk Valseskink*

1891 Chalcides simonyi Steindachner [not Chalcides viridanus var. simonyi Steindachner 1891]
1900 Chalcides ocellatus var. occidentalis Steindachner [substitute name for Chalcides simonyi Steindachner 1891] (Bischoff (ed.) 1998)
Chalcides polylepis occidentalis Lanza 1957
Chalcides occidentalis Pasteur, Keymar & Perret 1988

Remarks: This species was formerly known as C. occidentalis (or C. polylepis occidentalis), but the name simonyi has priority (Bischoff (ed.) 1998).
Distribution: Canary Islands (Fuerteventura, Lanzarote).

Chalcides sphenopsiformis

Senegal Sand Skink, Senegal Skink


Senegalesisk Valseskink*

1856 Anisoterma sphenopsiforme Dumeril
Chalcides sphenopsiformis Boulenger 1887
Sphenops sphenopsiformis Pasteur & Bons 1960
1871 Sphenops meridionalis Günther (Schleich, Kästle & Kabisch 1996)
1937 Chalcides moseri Ahl (Caputo & Lanza 1992)

Other common names:
moseri: (Santorini Skink)
Distribution: Mauritania, Morocco, Senegal, Western Sahara.

Chalcides striatus

Western Three-toed Cylindrical Skink, Western Three-toed Skink, Iberian Three-toed Skink

Westlicher Erzschleiche

Stribet Valseskink

1829 Zygnis striata Cuvier
Chalcides striatus Mertens & Müller 1940
Chalcides chalcides striatus Klausewitz 1954
1828 Seps lineatus Leuckart [not Seps lineatus Laurenti 1768] (Mertens & Wermuth 1960)

Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of chalcides (e.g., Mertens & Wermuth 1960). Caputo & Odierna (1992) suggested specific recognition of striatus.
Distribution: France, Gibraltar, Italy, Portugal, Spain.

Chalcides thierryi

Togo Cylindrical Skink*, (Thierry's Cylindrical Skink)


Togolesisk Valseskink*

1901 Chalcides bottegi var. thierryi Tornier
Chalcides thierryi Neumann 1905
Chalcides ocellatus thierryi Loveridge 1952

Remarks: Previously included pulchellus.
Distribution: Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Nigeria, Togo.

Chalcides viridanus

West Canarian Skink, Green Skink, (Canarian Skink)

Nördlicher Kanarenskink

Vestkanarisk Valseskink*

1851 Gongylus viridanus Gravenhorst
Chalcides viridanus Boulenger 1887

Remarks: Previously included coeruleopunctatus. Records from Madeira (Boulenger 1887; Pasteur 1981) and Morocco (Bons 1972) are regarded as erroneous (Bischoff (ed.) 1998).
Distribution: Canary Islands (Tenerife).