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Taxonomy of the family Geoemydidae
Bibliography of the genus Cuora
Biodiversity of the family Geoemydidae








Genus
Cuora

Asian Box Turtles

Scharnierschildkröten

Asiatiske Æskeskildpadder

1856 Cuora Gray (type species: Testudo amboinensis Daudin 1801)
1863 Cistoclemmys Gray (type species: Cistoclemmys flavomarginata Gray 1863; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1863 Pyxiclemmys Gray (type species: Sternothaerus trifasciatus Bell 1825; syn. Fritz & Havas 2006)
1863 Pyxidea Gray (type species: Cyclemys mouhotii Gray 1862)

Contents: 14 species, of which 6 (42.9%) are endemic.
Remarks: Some authors place flavomarginata, galbinifrons, mccordi and picturata in a separate genus, Cistoclemmys, and pani, trifasciata, yunnanensis, and zhoui in another separate genus, Pyxiclemmys, making Cuora a monotypic genus comprising only amboinensis (e.g., Vetter & Van Dijk 2006). Pyxidea has recently been synonymized with Cuora (e.g., Honda, Yasukawa, Hirayama & Ota 2002).
Introduced to: Japan (Ryukyu Islands: Okinawa Islands).
Distribution: E. and SE. Asia, Malay Archipelago.
Reported from: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Henan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Macau, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), East Timor, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Nicobar Islands], Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland), Indonesia (Ambon, Bacan, Bangka, Buru, Buton, Enggano, Halmahera, Haruku, Java, Kabaena, Kalimantan, Kelang, Natuna Islands, Nias, Saparua, Seram, Simeulue, Sula Islands [Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Togian Islands, Weh, West Timor), Japan (incl. Ryukyu Islands [incl. Sakishima Islands (incl. Yaeyama Islands)]), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Barit, Camiguin Norte, Fuga, Pamoctan], Balabac, Batas Island, Bohol, Cagraray, Calamian Islands [Busuanga], Catanduanes, Cebu, Dinagat, Dumaran, Guimaras, Leyte, Luzon, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Pan de Azucar, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Semirara, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Sulu Islands [Basilan, Jolo, Sangasanga, Tawi-Tawi], Tablas, Verde), Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).

Cuora amboinensis

Southeast Asian Box Turtle, Malayan Box Turtle, Siamese Box Turtle

Südostasiatische Scharnierschildkröte, Amboina-Scharnierschildkröte

Malayisk Æskeskildpadde

1801 Testudo amboinensis Daudin
Emys amboinensis Schweigger 1812
Terrapene amboinensis Merrem 1820
Kinosternon amboinense Bell 1825
Cistudo amboinensis Gray 1831
Cuora amboinensis Gray 1856
Cyclemys amboinensis Boulenger 1889
1801 Testudo melanocephala Daudin (Fritz & Havas 2006)
Emys melanocephala Schweigger 1812
Clemmys melanocephala Fitzinger 1835
1812 Emys couro Schweigger (Rummler & Fritz 1991)
Terrapene couro Fitzinger 1826
Cuora amboinensis couro Rummler & Fritz 1991
1991 Cuora amboinensis kamaroma Rummler & Fritz
1998 Cuora amboinensis lineata McCord & Philippen

Other common names:
amboinensis: East Indian Box Turtle, Wallacean Box Turtle
couro: West Indonesian Box Turtle
kamaroma: Southeast Asian Box Turtle
lineata: Burmese Box Turtle
Remarks: Although reported from markets in China (Guangdong, Guangxi), it has never been found in the country in the wild (Farkas & Sasvári 1992; Lau & Shi 2000).
Introduced to: Indonesia (Bali).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, East Timor, India (Andaman & Nicobar Islands [Nicobar Islands], Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland), Indonesia (Ambon, Bacan, Bangka, Buru, Buton, Enggano, Halmahera, Haruku, Java, Kabaena, Kalimantan, Kelang, Natuna Islands, Nias, Saparua, Seram, Simeulue, Sula Islands [Sanana], Sulawesi, Sumatra, Sumbawa, Togian Islands, Weh, West Timor), Laos, Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak, West Malaysia [incl. Langkawi Archipelago]), Myanmar, Philippines (Babuyan Islands [Barit, Camiguin Norte, Fuga, Pamoctan], Balabac, Batas Island, Bohol, Cagraray, Calamian Islands [Busuanga], Catanduanes, Cebu, Dinagat, Dumaran, Guimaras, Leyte, Luzon, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindanao, Mindoro, Negros, Palawan, Pan de Azucar, Panay, Polillo, Samar, Semirara, Sibuyan, Siquijor, Sulu Islands [Basilan, Jolo, Sangasanga, Tawi-Tawi], Tablas, Verde), Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam.


Cuora aurocapitata

Yellow-headed Box Turtle, Golden-headed Box Turtle

Goldkopf-Scharnierschildkröte

Gyldenhovedet Æskeskildpadde*

1988 Cuora aurocapitata Luo & Zong
Cuora pani aurocapitata Artner 2003
Pyxiclemmys pani aurocapitata Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006
2017 Cuora aurocapitata dabieshani Blanck, Protiva, Zhou, Li, Crow, and Tiedemann

Other common names:
aurocapitata: Eastern Yellow-headed Box Turtle
dabieshani: Western Yellow-headed Box Turtle
Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies of pani (e.g., Blanck & Tang 2005), but revalidated as a separate species by Spinks, Thomson, Zhang, Che, Wu & Shaffer (2012).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Henan, Hubei, Zhejiang).


Cuora bourreti

Central Indochinese Box Turtle*, (Bourret's Flower-back Box Turtle, Bourret's Box Turtle)

Bourrets Scharnierschildkröte

Centralvietnamesisk Æskeskildpadde*

1994 Cuora galbinifrons bourreti Obst & Reimann
Cistoclemmys galbinifrons bourreti Bour 2002
Cuora bourreti Stuart & Parham 2004
Cistoclemmys bourreti Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006

Remarks: This species has variously been regarded as a separate species (e.g., Stuart & Parham 2004; Vetter & Van Dijk 2006; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009; Teynié & David 2010) or as a subspecies of galbinifrons (e.g., Lehr, Fritz & Obst 1998; Fritz & Havas 2006; Fritz, Petzold & Auer 2006). Spinks, Thomson, Zhang, Che, Wu & Shaffer (2012) presented evidence in strong support of its validity as a separate species.
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam.


Cuora cyclornata

Vietnamese Three-striped Box Turtle, Cyclornated Box Turtle, (Vietnamese Box Turtle)

Vietnamesische Dreistreifen-Scharnierschildkröte*

Vietnamesisk Trestribet Æskeskildpadde*

2006 Cuora cyclornata Blanck, McCord & Le
2006 Cuora cyclornata meieri Blanck, McCord & Le
2017 Cuora cyclornata annamitica Blanck, Protiva, Zhou, Li, Crow, and Tiedemann

Other common names:
annamitica: Central Vietnamese Box Turtle
cyclornata: Southern Vietnamese Box Turtle
meieri: Northern Vietnamese Box Turtle
Remarks: Previously regarded as a synonym of trifasciata (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006; Spinks, Thomson & Shaffer 2009). Treated as a valid species by Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen (2009). Validity supported by Tiedemann, Schneider, Havenstein, Blanck, Meier, Raffel, Zwartepoorte & Plath (2014).
Distribution: China (Guangxi), Vietnam.


Cuora evelynae

Riu Kiu Yellow-margined Box Turtle

Riukiu-Gelbrand-Scharnierschildkröte

Ryukyu-æskeskildpadde*

1990 Cuora evelynae Ernst & Lovitch
Cuora flavomarginata evelynae McCord & Iverson 1991
Cistoclemmys flavomarginata evelynae Yasukawa & Ota in Ota 1999

Remarks: Previously regarded as a subspecies og flavomarginata (e.g., Fritz & Havas 2006). Status as a separate species recommended by Ernst, Laemmerzahl & Lovich (2008), but still listed as a subspecies of flavomarginata by Rhodin, Iverson, Bour, Fritz, Georges, Shaffer & Dijk (2017).
Introduced to: Japan (Ryukyu Islands: Okinawa Islands).
Distribution: Japan (Ryukyu Islands: Sakishima Islands: Yaeyama Islands).


Cuora flavomarginata

Chinese Yellow-margined Box Turtle

Chinesische Gelbrand-Scharnierschildkröte

Gulrandet Æskeskildpadde*

1863 Cistoclemmys flavomarginata Gray
Cuora flavomarginata Günther 1864
Terrapene flavomarginata Strauch 1865
Cyclemys flavomarginata Boulenger 1889
Geoemyda flavomarginata McDowell 1964
1930 Cyclemys flavomarginata sinensis Hsü
Cuora flavomarginata sinensis Bourret 1941
Cistoclemmys flavomarginata sinensis Bour 2002

Other common names:
flavomarginata: Taiwan Yellow-margined Box Turtle
sinensis: Chinese Yellow-margined Box Turtle
Remarks: Previously included evelynae. Records from Guangdong (e.g., Xu 2007) and Guangxi are based on animals brought in from the north for the food trade (Lau & Shi 2000). Records from Hong Kong are almost certainly based on escapees from captivity (Karsen, Lau & Bogadek 1998).
Distribution: China (Anhui, Chongqing, Fujian, Guangxi, Henan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Macau, Sichuan, Zhejiang), Taiwan.


Cuora galbinifrons

Northern Indochinese Box Turtle, Northern Flower-back Box Turtle

Chinesische Scharnierschildkröte

Nordvietnamesisk Æskeskildpadde*

1939 Cuora galbinifrons Bourret
Cistoclemmys galbinifrons Bour 1980
1958 Cyclemys flavomarginata hainanensis Li (Iverson 1992)
Cuora hainanensis Zhao in Hu 1975
Cistoclemmys hainanensis Iverson 1985
Cuora flavomarginata hainanensis Obst 1985
Cuora galbinifrons hainanensis Iverson & McCord 1992
Cistoclemmys galbinifrons hainanensis Bour 2002

Other common names:
hainanensis: Hainan Box Turtle
Remarks: Previously included bourreti and picturata. Cuora galbinifrons serrata, described by Iverson & McCord (1992) proved to be a hybrid between mouhotii and galbinifrons (Vetter & van Dijk 2006).
Distribution: China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan), Laos, Vietnam.


Cuora mccordi

Guangxi Box Turtle*, (McCord's Box Turtle)

McCords Scharnierschildkröte

Guangxi-æskeskildpadde*

1988 Cuora mccordi Ernst
Cistoclemmys mccordi Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006

Remarks: Zhou, Blanck, McCord & Li (2008) presented information indicating that mccordi is not of hybrid origin, as it had been suggested. The description of this species was based on animals from food markets or the pet trade, therefore, the type locality (and consequently, the known range), Guangxi, could be in error (Lau & Shi 2000; Fritz & Havas 2006). McCord & Iverson's (1991) correction of the type locality to Yunnan was not supported by any voucher material, so this restriction remains unconfirmed. Although Zhou, Blanck, McCord & Li (2008) found evidence suggesting that mccordi most likely occurs naturally in Guangxi, no actual mccordi have ever been collected from the wild (Fritz & Havas 2006; Spinks, Thomson, Zhang, Che, Wu & Shaffer 2012). Until further information becomes available, Guangxi is here considered the natural distribution of mccordi, following Zhou, Blanck, McCord & Li (2008).
Distribution: China (Guangxi).


Cuora mouhotii

Keeled Box Turtle, Jagged-shelled Turtle, Keel-backed Terrapin, Indian Thorn Turtle, Assam Pond Turtle

Dornschildkröte

Kølet Æskeskildpadde*

1862 Cyclemys mouhotii Gray
Pyxidea mouhotii Gray 1863
Emys mouhotii Strauch 1865
Geoemyda mouhoti McDowell 1964
Cuora mouhotii Honda, Yasukawa, Hirayama & Ota
1998 Pyxidea mouhotii obsti Fritz, Andreas & Lehr
Cuora mouhotii obsti Artner 2003

Other common names:
mouhotii: Northern Keeled Box Turtle
obsti: Southern Keeled Box Turtle
Remarks: Most recent authors regard Pyxidea as a synonym of Cuora (e.g., Honda, Yasukawa, Hirayama & Ota 2002; Fritz & Havas 2006). Although listed for Guangdong by several authors (e.g., Lau & Shi 2000; Zhao & Adler 1993), it was not included by Xu (2007).
Distribution: Bangladesh, Bhutan, China (Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan), India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland), Laos, Myanmar, Vietnam (incl. Cat Ba Island).


Cuora pani

Shaanxi Box Turtle, (Pan's Box Turtle)

Pans Scharnierschildkröte

Shaanxi-æskeskildpadde*

1984 Cuora pani Song
Pyxiclemmys pani Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006
1987 Cuora chriskarannarum Ernst & McCord (McCord & Iverson 1991, Iverson 1992)

Other common names:
chriskarannarum: Green Box Turtle
Remarks: Previously included aurocapitata. Records from Yunnan (e.g., Iverson 1992; Zhao & Adler 1993; Lau & Shi 2000) are doubtful (Parham & Li 1999; Fritz & Havas 2006).
Distribution: China (Chongqing, Henan, Hubei, Shaanxi, Sichuan).


Cuora picturata

Southern Indochinese Box Turtle*, Southern Flower-back Box Turtle, Vietnamese Box Turtle

Südvietnamesische Scharnierschildkröte

Sydvietnamesisk Æskeskildpadde*

1998 Cuora galbinifrons picturata Lehr, Fritz & Obst
Cistoclemmys galbinifrons picturata Bour 2002
Cuora picturata Stuart & Parham 2004
Cistoclemmys picturata Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006

Remarks: This species has variously been regarded as a separate species (e.g., Stuart & Parham 2004; Vetter & Van Dijk 2006; Nguyen, Ho & Nguyen 2009) or as a subspecies of galbinifrons (e.g., Lehr, Fritz & Obst 1998; Fritz & Havas 2006; Fritz, Petzold & Auer 2006). Spinks, Thomson, Zhang, Che, Wu & Shaffer (2012) presented evidence in strong support of its validity as a separate species.
Distribution: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam.


Cuora trifasciata

Northern Three-striped Box Turtle*, Chinese Three-banded Box Turtle, Chinese Wood Turtle

Nördliche Dreistreifen-Scharnierschildkröte

Nordlig Trestribet Æskeskildpadde*

1825 Sternothaerus trifasciatus Bell
Emys trifasciata Gray in Griffith 1831
Cistuda trifasciata Gray 1831
Cistudo trifasciata Gray 1844
Cuora trifasciata Gray 1856
Pyxidemys? trifasciata Fitzinger 1861
Terrapene trifasciata Strauch 1862
Cyclemys trifasciata Boulenger 1889
Pyxiclemmys trifasciata Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006
2017 Cuora trifasciata luteocephala Blanck, Protiva, Zhou, Li, Crow, and Tiedemann

Other common names:
trifasciata: Chinese Three-striped Box Turtle
luteocephala: Hainan Three-striped Box Turtle
Remarks: Previously included cyclornata.
Introduced to: Taiwan.
Distribution: China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hong Kong, Macau).


Cuora yunnanensis

Yunnan Box Turtle

Yunnan-Scharnierschildkröte

Yunnan-æskeskildpadde*

1906 Cyclemys yunnanensis Boulenger
Cuora yunnanensis Smith 1931
Pyxiclemmys yunnanensis Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006

Remarks: Until recently known from only twelve specimens discovered more than hundred years ago. He, Zhou, Rao & Zhang (2007) presented evidence that the species is still surviving, based on three newly discovered individuals. See also Zhou & Zhao (2004), Blanck (2005), and Vetter & van Dijk (2006).
Distribution: China (Yunnan).


Cuora zhoui

Southern Chinese Box Turtle*, (Zhou's Box Turtle)

Zhous Scharnierschildkröte

Sydkinesisk Æskeskildpadde*

1990 Cuora zhoui Zhao
Pyxiclemmys zhoui Vetter in Vetter & van Dijk 2006
1991 Cuora pallidicephala McCord & Iverson (Iverson 1992, Parham, Simison, Kozak, Feldman & Shi 2001)

Remarks: The distribution of this species is uncertain. Most specimens were found in markets in the provinces Guangxi and Yunnan, but because turtles sold in markets are often transported far from where they were caught, there is no evidence that they occur in the wild in these provinces. Therefore, the type locality could be in error (Lau & Shi 2000; Fritz & Havas 2006). The native distribution is herein provisionally considered to be Vietnam and China (Guangxi, Yunnan), but wild-caught specimens are needed to confirm this.
Distribution: China (Guangxi, Yunnan), Vietnam.